The Role of the Bureaucracy Laws effective only when a government agency enforces them Agency: –Basic organizational unit of federal government, also known as office or bureau Department: –Organizational unit into which many agencies of the federal government are grouped Government corporations: –Independent organization created by Congress to fulfill functions related to business
The Role of the Bureaucracy Administrative Discretion Power to interpret a legislative mandate Congress can enact general rules, but cannot anticipate every circumstance, nor can it apply these rules to every individual case.
The President and the Bureaucracy The president “shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed” The president must execute the laws –Does so by overseeing the federal bureaucracy –Cabinet –Appoints members to independent agencies –Acts through the OMB
The Cabinet Inner cabinet –The four original departments (State, Defense, Treasury, and Justice) whose secretaries typically have the closest ties to the president Major function of the outer cabinet is to provide interest- group access to the executive branch of government
Independent Regulatory Agencies Independent regulatory agencies are those that have quasi-judicial regulatory responsibilities They are generally headed by a several-member board or commission appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate Most independent regulatory agencies were established by Congress in response to public pressure to protect workers and consumers from negligent or abusive business practices
Office of Management and Budget Originally the Bureau of the Budget OMB is an agency responsible for –Development of the president’s budget, –Setting personnel policy, and –Reviewing every piece of proposed legislation that the executive branch submits. In the past, considered a professional group of technicians Today more political –Utilized effectively by presidents to control other agencies CBO checks the OMB’s power
Iron Triangles and Issue Networks Iron triangles –Close, stable connection among agencies, interest groups and congressional committees Issue networks –Loose, competitive relationships among policy experts, interest groups, congressional committees, and government agencies