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The Importance of Mentor/Mentee Relationships

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Presentation on theme: "The Importance of Mentor/Mentee Relationships"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Importance of Mentor/Mentee Relationships
Julie Ann Freischlag, MD The William Stewart Halsted Professor Chair, Department of Surgery Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions

2 “We cannot live for ourselves alone
“We cannot live for ourselves alone. Our lives are connected by a thousand invisible threads, and along these sympathetic fibers, our actions run as causes and return to us as results” Herman Melville

3 “The mentor’s spirit is the heart’s posture pervading every healthy relationship in every family, classroom, organization and town.” Marsha Sinetar

4 MENTORING THE STUDENT “ Learners acquire problem solving approaches, technical skills, clinical judgment and professional attitudes from observing others.” Bandura 1988

5 Both being mentored and mentoring are active, growthful experiences.

6 A GOOD MENTOR Authentic dialogue promotes mature self-
A GOOD MENTOR Authentic dialogue promotes mature self governing work teams who “walk the talk” sound judgment independent thinking a tendency to think divergently good humor definite purpose moral elevation and reliability fidelity honorable interpersonal proclivities

7 How to Mentor Students 1. Affirm being a physician/scientist and its further potential 2. Be genuine and emotionally available to enter into a dialogue about being a physician/scientist 3. Set clear boundaries - list the good and bad of the specialty 4. Enlist others with whom the student can talk for specific reasons - (specialty, gender, race, location, family issues, background, etc.)

8 How To Mentor Students (cont.)
5. Share the values and virtues of your specialty (the good, the bad and the ugly) 6. Stabilize the students’ doubts and uncertainties- it’s OK not to know 7. Be available more than once- in person, , by phone. 8. Congratulate them on a good job of figuring it out.

9 A MENTOR is a person, a guide, or a teacher - the keeper of selective wisdoms.
The MENTOR’S SPIRIT is the “almost anything” that deepens our sense of the sacred or our understanding or transmits a kind of gladness about life itself. There is but one Spirit - one good, infinite, intelligent and unbounded permeating reality.


Let Go of Your Expectations 9. Put Things in Perspective 8. Set A Good Example 7. Agree to Disagree 6. Make Light of Being Overwhelmed 5. Keep Your Promises 4. Forgive Your Outbursts 3. Set A Positive Emotional Climate 2. Learn From Children - they live in the moment. 1. Live From Your Heart

12 We need to recognize that diversity – managing and leading across differences – is not an initiative or a program; it should be a competency that anyone who manages people must learn if he or she is to be an effective leader.

13 Model the behavior you are asking of others

14 Mentoring and its importance in the education and training of science professionals
Relationships between mentors and their trainees prepare the next generation of science professionals. Both the mentor and the trainee have responsibilities for the success of the process. Need to assure fair access to mentors and the impact of a lack of mentoring on women and minorities. Banquet speech, Rosalyn Yallor, 1977

15 The Complexity of the Role of Mentoring
A mentor has experience with the challenges that trainees face. A mentor has the ability to communicate that experience and the willingness to do so. A mentor takes a special interest in helping another person develop into a successful professional. NAS, 1997 Washington, DC National Academy Press

16 Socialization Acquiring the norms and standards, the values and attitudes, as well as the knowledge, skills and behavior patterns associated with particular statuses and roles The process through which people are inducted into a culture or subculture Demanding standards of work H. Zuckerman, 1977 New York, NY; Free Press

17 Truly Complete Mentor Serves as an advisor/guide, developer of talent/coach, opener of doors/advocate, role model, interpreter of organizational or professional rules, protector, rule setter/boss and carries on all of these functions on a long term basis W. Silen, MD Dean for Faculty Development and Diversity/Harvard Medical School, 1998

18 Wide Range of Needs to be Met
Should help trainees develop as capable researchers (methods, directions, creative thinking, completing academic or professional requirements and scientific communication) Prepare for job market (opportunities, contacts, range of career options and which grants to apply for)

19 Wide Range of Needs to be Met
Socialization – ethical development, interaction within the academic community and instilling a sense of collegiality (teaching, communications, working in teams, leadership, people management, administration and budgets) Should be an advocate

20 Mentoring on Ethics and Responsible Conduct of Research
Can occur through example, impromptu counsel or exchange of thoughts and ideas (small group) Must monitor the supervision and training of young scientists to be sure they “get it” (large labs) Must adhere to value system of their institutions Panel on Scientific Responsibility and Conduct of Research 1992

21 The Ethics of Mentoring
Should not spend so much time working on mentor’s research that there is little time for their own Should not be pushed to do work towards a patent or mentor’s financial gain Should not have constraints on publication Should not disengage or undermine or compete Jonathan R. Cole The Research University in a Time of Discontent

22 The Responsibility to Mentor Minorities and Women
Whites and men traditionally more likely to have a mentor Have been excluded from the socialization Collaboration is key Mary Frank Fox The Outer Circle, 1996

23 Responsibilities of Trainees
1. Identify career plans 2. Locate prospective mentors 3. Distinguish between supervisors and mentors 4. Be clear about needs and expectations 5. Keep learning about effective mentoring

24 Responsibilities of Mentors
Should be part of the definition of a scientist Be available Allow for differences in personalities Let trainees make their own decisions Teach by words and example Keep learning about effective mentoring

25 The Good Mentor James B. Rowley Supporting New Teachers
May, 1999 Volume 56 Number 8 Pages 20-22

26 The Good Mentor The good mentor is committed to the role of mentoring.
The good mentor is accepting of the beginning teacher. The good mentor is skilled at providing instructional support. The good mentor is effective in different interpersonal contexts. The good mentor is a model of continuous learning. The good mentor communicates hope and optimism.

27 The effects of the mentor on the academic career
Scientometrics Volume 7, Numbers 3-6, , 2005

28 The effects of the mentor on the academic career
The influence of the mentor begins with collaboration. Collaboration increases student’s productivity and academic placement . Collaboration increases student’s later publications and citations.

29 Mentoring and Research Misconduct: An Analysis of ORI Closed Cases
David E. Wright, Jered B. Cornelison, and Sandra L. Titus Michigan State University

30 Mentoring/Misconduct
Literature on mentoring originated in 1980’s In the 80’s, research misconduct came to national attention USA research misconduct regulations took effect

31 Motion to Mentor “ It is therefore incumbent on all scientists and scientific institutions to create and nurture a research environment that promotes high ethical standards, contributes to ongoing professional development, and preserves public confidence in the scientific enterprise.” NAS, 2002

32 Mentoring is Highly Complex
Develop technical competence Develop critical thinking skills Encourage intellectual initiative Socialize advisees into the culture of their disciplines Margaret King “On the Right Track: A Manual for Research Mentors,”

33 Mentoring is Highly Complex
Articulating and modeling ethical norms of responsible and rigorous research including appropriate use of human and animal subjects Citing appropriate source material and prior publication Allocating authorship fairly in joint publications Submission and review of publications ethically Recognizing and avoiding conflicts of interest Generation, recording and using data responsibly

34 Why Does Research Misconduct Occur?
Theories: Pressure for professional survival Sociopathology: 1-2% of every profession Ignorance of standards and ethical codes Failure of mentoring/supervision of trainees

35 Did inadequate mentoring contribute to/fail to prevent misconduct?

36 What would constitute inadequate mentoring?
Failure to review trainee raw data at regular intervals for reasons including: Absentee mentor due to other academic pressures Mentor trust of the trainee

37 What would constitute inadequate mentoring?
Failure to establish clear standards for: Keeping lab books Managing and retaining data Authorship

38 What would constitute inadequate mentoring?
Failure to adequately support trainee career development Unsupportive work environment for trainees Undue pressure to produce results quickly Unreasonable expectations as to productivity

39 Findings at Michigan State
Trainees are more likely to be found guilty of misconduct if charged. The consequence of a finding of misconduct by a trainee is severe. Trainees from abroad, especially if English is a second language ,appear to be at increased risk.

40 Findings at Michigan State
Trainees are more likely to commit misconduct when mentors are absent or unobservant. Misconduct is more likely to occur when the trainee reports feeling of “pressure” or “stress.”

41 Findings at Michigan State
Misconduct is most likely to occur at “critical moments” in a trainee’s career When a deadline looms When results of an important earlier experiment can’t be replicated When trainee is preparing to leave the lab for another position

42 Findings at Michigan State
When is misconduct discovered? Fail to reproduce results % Data missing % Fail to reproduce results and data missing % Witnessed or became suspicious % Not applicable % Can’t tell %

43 Findings at Michigan State
Did the mentor fail to review raw data, lab books, etc? YES 52.3% NO 31.8% Can’t tell 15.97%

44 Mentoring More Challenging Today
Large, Interdisciplinary Research Groups The mentor may not know all the areas of science and has to rely on others to teach and supervise trainees. The mentor may have to “farm out” to others part of the research which s/he cannot personally oversee.

45 Mentoring More Challenging
Technology – Driven Changes The move to computer - stored research data and smart laboratory instruments may have lessened the emphasis on individual trainee responsibility for keeping lab notebooks and other rigorous records. Computer – stored research data is comparatively easy to fabricate and to falsify. Computer –generated summary data and analysis often substituted for review instead of raw data in discussions between mentor and trainee.

46 Mentoring More Challenging
Technology – Driven Changes (Cont’d) Whereas once trainees had to show mentor raw data in the form of films to get authorization to take them to photography department for printing for reports, manuscripts and grant applications; now the trainees can do the same thing on desktop computers with programs like Photoshop. It is comparatively easy to fabricate and falsify images using these programs.

47 Michigan State Implications for Faculty and Institutions
Standard procedures for review of trainee raw data at regular intervals and, Standard procedures for replication of key trainee experiment before submitting data, and Attentive supervision during periods of trainee stress…… Might have prevented many instances of misconduct.

48 “ A candle loses nothing of its light by lighting another candle”
James Keller

49 “ A civilization flourishes when people plant trees under whose shade they will never sit” Greek proverbs

50 PANEL DISCUSSION Julie Freischlag, MD Justin McArthur, MBBS, MPH
Robert Montgomery, MD, PhD Sheila Garrity, JD, MPH, MBA - Moderator

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