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 Canada and the war  The War Measures Act (1914)  Recruitment  Militia Act (1916)  Conscription  War Voters Act  Reaction in Quebec  Summary.

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Presentation on theme: " Canada and the war  The War Measures Act (1914)  Recruitment  Militia Act (1916)  Conscription  War Voters Act  Reaction in Quebec  Summary."— Presentation transcript:

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3  Canada and the war  The War Measures Act (1914)  Recruitment  Militia Act (1916)  Conscription  War Voters Act  Reaction in Quebec  Summary Robert Borden VS Wilfrid Laurier Quebec Premier Henri Bourassa

4  Dominion: Meaning  Robert Borden declared that "when Great Britain is at war, Canada is at war, and there is no difference at all."  His Promise, Dec. 1914 Canadian Prime Minister Robert Borden

5  The War Measures Act of 1914 gave the government the authority to do anything necessary or advisable for the security, defence, peace, order and welfare of Canada.

6 At the beginning of the war Canadian army totaled 3110 regular soldiers. Within two months, it totaled over 32,000 men. Recruitment slogans were initially effective in drawing in recruits. -‘FIGHT FOR THE EMPIRE’ -‘WE’LL BE HOME BY CHRISTMAS!’

7 Food Will Win the War.

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9 German U-Boats Allied POWs The Somme “Blood Bath” High loss of life Gas attacks Cramped conditions and disease

10 Calgary, 1916

11  312,000 men enlisted by the end of 1916.  However, this amount was significantly less than Borden’s pledge to the British that he would provide over 500,000 for the war effort.

12  Month (1917)Recruits EnrolledKilled or Injured  January92004400  February68001250  March66506150  April (Vimy)555013500  May640013500  June63507950  July39007900  August310013200  September360011000  October49005950  November (Passchendaele)400030100  December39007500

13 Were these effective? Would you enlist?

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16 Borden introduces conscription in 1917 despite enlistment propaganda. Single men aged 20-45 were required to enlist or face imprisonment. Other nations’ volunteers -Britain: over 2.5 million in the first year. -Germany: approx. 500,000 early -France: nearly 200,000 by wars ends. -What does this tell us?

17  In order to meet conscription expectations of 100,000 men, Borden introduced Military Service Act.  Exceptions to enlistment, however, were common. (farmers)  Military Service act Revoked in April, 1917 to prevent exemptions. Farms henceforth were understaffed.  Farmers were furious! Ramifications: United Famers of Alberta and soil degradation decades later.

18  In order to get the votes he needed, Borden passed two new acts:  Military Voters Act Law that extended the right to vote to all men and women in the Canadian Expeditionary Force.  War-time Elections Act Law which extended the right to vote to the mothers, wives, and sisters of the soldiers serving, while at the same time refusing that right to citizens from enemy countries. Pro Conscription Poster

19  All 53 Quebec MPs voted against Military Service Act  The recruiting effort in Quebec had failed. There was no loyalty to Britain nor France. Ties broken long ago.  No room for advancement or to practice French culture  Quebec was rural farmland and needed its population Henri Bourassa

20  opposed conscription from the beginning of the war.  Believed conscription would lead Quebec towards a dangerous nationalism under Bourassa and lead to Quebec Separatism.  French Canadians were 30% of population, but made up 4% of enlistees. Wilfrid Laurier

21  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- cu7Jy2gDBg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- cu7Jy2gDBg

22  PM Borden called a federal election on the issue of Conscription in 1917. In order to get the votes he needed, Borden passed two new acts:  Military Voters Act Law that extended the right to vote to all men and women in the Canadian Expeditionary Force.  War-time Elections Act Law which extended the right to vote to the mothers, wives, and sisters of the soldiers serving, while at the same time refusing that right to citizens from enemy countries.

23 Riot in Quebec City, April 1918 – English soldiers from Ottawa kill 4 civilians

24  100,000? Only 25,000 made it to the front in Europe  Bitterly Divided Canada. English thought the French were cowardly.  Pressure to enlist greater in English Canada. (white feathers)  Legacy of English vs. French Canadian interpretation of WWI (Vimy Vs. Conscription) Conscripted Troops arrive in Europe in 1918 when war ends


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