India, Middle East and Africa The Road to Independence By 1945, what parts of the world were not free from foreign rule?
Fall of the Ottoman Empire - Post WWI European Imperialism (1800’s)
India: From Past to Present What do you remember about the history of India? Task: Create a list of any events, people or characteristics associated with India (even from Global I).
Answers: 1.Indus/Ganges 2.Dharma: duties; Karma: actions 3.Fixed social structure; untouchables 4.Nirvana 5.Prince Siddhartha Gautama 6.Leads to moksha 7.Mauryan Empire/Gupta Dynasty 8.Buddhists reject caste system 9.Akbar the Great 10.Mughal 11.Rebellion against British laws 12.Indian National Congress/Muslim League 13.British East India Company 14.Raj 15.Taj Mahal; tomb for Emperor’s wife
Timeline of India: Key Events A B 3,000 BC 500-500 C 1500’s1800’s D Do Now: Put this timeline in your notes.
Social Hierarchy: Caste System Sudras Vaisyas Kshatriyas Brahmins (Warriors) (Farmers, artisans, merchants) (The conquered, servants, laborers) Pariahs [Harijan] Untouchables (Priests) CASTES
A)Hinduism vs. B)Buddhism Hinduism –Time: ca. 2,000 BCE –Goal: Moksha Role of dharma and karma –Founder: ? (Aryanism) –Beliefs: Polytheistic Reincarnation Supports Caste System Buddhism –Time: ca.500 BCE –Goal: Nirvana 4 Noble Truths Eightfold Path –Founder: Prince Siddhartha Gautama –Beliefs: Polytheistic Reincarnation Equality Rejects caste system
B)Gupta Dynasty: Golden Age of India (ca. 200 BCE) Reign of Asoka & the spread of Buddhism Trade, Prosperity, Tolerance, Public Works, EDUCATION (math & science)
C) Mughal Rule in India (15 th c/Muslim Dynasty): Sha Jahan Akbar The Great Same dynasty that gets taken over by the Europeans (19th c)! Religious Toleration
D)The British in India –“Raj” “The Jewel in the Crown”
Multiple Choice Review 1.4 2.1 3.4 4.1 5.C 6.C 7.C 8.B 9.A 10.D 11.A 12.1 (horrible question) 13. C 14. A 15. B 16. 4 17. 1 18. 3 19. 1 20. 2 21. B
What METHODS work best to achieve something you want (or believe in)? Task: To be collected 1.Explain an instance when you felt strongly about an issue/or wanted something (that you believed in). 2. How did you attempt to pursue this issue/goal? 3.What were the results? Was your method effective? Why or Why not?
Methods of getting what you want … 1.Argue 2.Protest or speaking up 3.Persistence 4.Challenging authority 5.Going to an authority (someone who will listen) 6.Firm communication; voicing opinion 7.Convincing 8.Make people realize… 9.Organize people together 10.Ignore the aggressor 11.Patience 12.Voting 13.Self-Control 14.Violence 16. Screaming 17.Bad Attitude/Being Angry 18.Prove your cause 19.Make your cause PUBLIC 20.Intimidation Which methods what Gandhi support?
The Indian National Congress (1885) Muslim League To partition India and create a free Islamic state (1906) to protect HINDU interests; SWARAJ “independence”
Mohandas Gandhi NEHRU Members of the INC; Demanding independence pre-WWI
Gandhi: What events shaped his life? What were his beliefs?
Amritsar Massacre April 1919 British open fire on unarmed gathering of men, women, and children
Happy Monday - Announcements 1.Guided Reading: Thursday 2.Holocaust Night of Remembrance: Thursday a. 7 PM, JFK (100%) 3.Select an event/achievement associated with the Middle East (3,000 BC – 1920) and write: 1.A description of such event/achievement 2.Explain its significance TYPED - FRIDAY
GANDHI Take notes on the following events & be ready to discuss! 1.South Africa (begins with train scene) 2.Conditions in India 3.Gandhi’s Actions/Plan 4.Amritsar Massacre 5.Discussion w/British 6.Salt March/Saltworks 7.Funeral
Example of Satyagraha, “Soul Force” or Civil Disobedience (Non-violent Resistance) Salt March (1930) Protest against the British salt tax; making it illegal to sell or produce salt –23 days/240 miles to coast –picks up salt –breaks the law –others followed! –Leads to boycott of British goods –Public Attention –This is India’s natural resource! Arrested/Imprisoned
Salt March March 1930 Nonviolent protest against British imposed salt tax
Independence: 1.India: Independence in 1947; a Hindu state a.World’s largest democracy b.US ally 2. Creation of Pakistan; a Muslim state 3. Tensions: a. Disputed area: Kashmir b. Sikhism: Hindu & Islam 4. Both countries possess nuclear weapons a. Threats 5. Gandhi’s dream unfulfilled
India Today 1. Practice of untouchability still exists (rural areas) –Despite ban in Constitution 2. Less education for women 3. Poverty (1/3); overcrowded cities 4. Sikhs demanding self-rule in Punjab 5. Green Revolution: method to increase food production –New methods of irrigation, seeds –Dependency on monsoons PM Singh
Pakistan Today 1.Political Instability 2.As of 9/2008, elected President, Zardari 3.Aided US to find Bin Laden - Unpopular with Islamic Fundamentalists in area
The Middle East: From Past to Present What do you remember about this part of the world?
Babylon = rectangle Euphrates – diagonal Kingdoms = small circles Ocean = large circles (around world?) An early world map (600 BC) Mesopotamia: Cuneiform
Babylon (city-state) King Hammurabi ~ 1792-1750 BCE CODE OF HAMMURABI 1 st written legal system
Kemal Ataturk: Founder of Turkey “Father of the Turks” General/War hero (WWI) Post WWI – Ottomans defeated! Defeats west (Independence) Modernization/Westernization –Islamic law replaced –Western calendar (in lieu of Muslim) –Western Dress (no veils) –Alphabet (instead of Arabic) –Voting
Pan-Arabism Arab nationalists want to be free from foreign control Gamal Abdel Nasser: Egypt Arab Nationalist Ends British influence (1954) Suez Canal BELONGS to Egypt
1. Post WWI – Nationalism 2. Reza Khan Pahlavi becomes Shah of Iran –Models Ataturk’s changes –Extravagance/Elite –Lacks support of Muslim leaders “a puppet of the west” 3. Overthrow of Shah by Ayatollah Khomeini –Islamic Republic –“1 st day of God’s government” (theocracy) Islamic Fundamentalist
1.What two groups of people want independence in Jerusalem? 2. Independence from who? Why?
Arab-Israeli Conflict 1.Palestine was part of the Ottoman Empire 2.Acquired by the British (post-WWI); Balfour Declaration (1917) – Jewish “right to homeland”
Palestine Population in 1946 Arab-Israeli Conflict
3. Israel Becomes a Nation: May 14, 1948 David Ben-Gurion: 1 st Prime Minister MAY 15 th = WAR(S)
A Brief Review of this week… Where is he from? Role? 1.Shah Reza Pahlavi 2.Kemal Ataturk 3.Ayatollah Khomeini 4.Gamal Abdel Nasser 5.David Ben-Gurion 6.Saddam Hussein
Do Now: What interest(s) does the US have in the Middle East?
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Created in 1960 by Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela TO CONTROL OIL INDUSTRY (production & prices) 11 members today 40% of world’s production & OVER 75% reserves What is the significance of this data? DEPENDENCY
United Nations – Statement 1960 “The subjection of people to alien subjugation, domination and exploitation is contrary to the Charter of the United Nations and is an impediment to the promotion of world peace and cooperation.” What is the main idea?
Nelson Mandela ANC (African National Congress) –Desires an end to APARTHEID System of segregation which discriminated against the Black majority Nations put Sanctions on SA. –Desires political participation –Desires MAJORITY political party Imprisoned – 27 years