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India, Middle East and Africa The Road to Independence By 1945, what parts of the world were not free from foreign rule?

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Presentation on theme: "India, Middle East and Africa The Road to Independence By 1945, what parts of the world were not free from foreign rule?"— Presentation transcript:


2 India, Middle East and Africa The Road to Independence By 1945, what parts of the world were not free from foreign rule?

3 Fall of the Ottoman Empire - Post WWI European Imperialism (1800’s)

4 India: From Past to Present What do you remember about the history of India? Task: Create a list of any events, people or characteristics associated with India (even from Global I).

5 Answers: 1.Indus/Ganges 2.Dharma: duties; Karma: actions 3.Fixed social structure; untouchables 4.Nirvana 5.Prince Siddhartha Gautama 6.Leads to moksha 7.Mauryan Empire/Gupta Dynasty 8.Buddhists reject caste system 9.Akbar the Great 10.Mughal 11.Rebellion against British laws 12.Indian National Congress/Muslim League 13.British East India Company 14.Raj 15.Taj Mahal; tomb for Emperor’s wife

6 Timeline of India: Key Events A B 3,000 BC 500-500 C 1500’s1800’s D Do Now: Put this timeline in your notes.

7 A)Indus & Ganges Rivers FERTILE SOIL!

8 A)Indus River Valley (3,000 BCE)


10 Social Hierarchy: Caste System Sudras Vaisyas Kshatriyas Brahmins (Warriors) (Farmers, artisans, merchants) (The conquered, servants, laborers) Pariahs [Harijan]  Untouchables (Priests) CASTES

11 A)Hinduism vs. B)Buddhism Hinduism –Time: ca. 2,000 BCE –Goal: Moksha Role of dharma and karma –Founder: ? (Aryanism) –Beliefs: Polytheistic Reincarnation Supports Caste System Buddhism –Time: ca.500 BCE –Goal: Nirvana 4 Noble Truths Eightfold Path –Founder: Prince Siddhartha Gautama –Beliefs: Polytheistic Reincarnation Equality Rejects caste system

12 B)Gupta Dynasty: Golden Age of India (ca. 200 BCE) Reign of Asoka & the spread of Buddhism Trade, Prosperity, Tolerance, Public Works, EDUCATION (math & science)

13 C) Mughal Rule in India (15 th c/Muslim Dynasty): Sha Jahan Akbar The Great Same dynasty that gets taken over by the Europeans (19th c)! Religious Toleration

14 D)The British in India –“Raj” “The Jewel in the Crown”

15 Multiple Choice Review 1.4 2.1 3.4 4.1 5.C 6.C 7.C 8.B 9.A 10.D 11.A 12.1 (horrible question) 13. C 14. A 15. B 16. 4 17. 1 18. 3 19. 1 20. 2 21. B

16 What METHODS work best to achieve something you want (or believe in)? Task: To be collected 1.Explain an instance when you felt strongly about an issue/or wanted something (that you believed in). 2. How did you attempt to pursue this issue/goal? 3.What were the results? Was your method effective? Why or Why not?

17 Methods of getting what you want … 1.Argue 2.Protest or speaking up 3.Persistence 4.Challenging authority 5.Going to an authority (someone who will listen) 6.Firm communication; voicing opinion 7.Convincing 8.Make people realize… 9.Organize people together 10.Ignore the aggressor 11.Patience 12.Voting 13.Self-Control 14.Violence 16. Screaming 17.Bad Attitude/Being Angry 18.Prove your cause 19.Make your cause PUBLIC 20.Intimidation Which methods what Gandhi support?

18 The Indian National Congress (1885) Muslim League To partition India and create a free Islamic state (1906)  to protect HINDU interests; SWARAJ  “independence”

19 Mohandas Gandhi NEHRU Members of the INC; Demanding independence pre-WWI

20 Gandhi: What events shaped his life? What were his beliefs?

21 Amritsar Massacre April 1919 British open fire on unarmed gathering of men, women, and children

22 Happy Monday - Announcements 1.Guided Reading: Thursday 2.Holocaust Night of Remembrance: Thursday a. 7 PM, JFK (100%) 3.Select an event/achievement associated with the Middle East (3,000 BC – 1920) and write: 1.A description of such event/achievement 2.Explain its significance TYPED - FRIDAY

23 GANDHI Take notes on the following events & be ready to discuss! 1.South Africa (begins with train scene) 2.Conditions in India 3.Gandhi’s Actions/Plan 4.Amritsar Massacre 5.Discussion w/British 6.Salt March/Saltworks 7.Funeral

24 Example of Satyagraha, “Soul Force” or Civil Disobedience (Non-violent Resistance) Salt March (1930) Protest against the British salt tax; making it illegal to sell or produce salt –23 days/240 miles to coast –picks up salt –breaks the law –others followed! –Leads to boycott of British goods –Public Attention –This is India’s natural resource! Arrested/Imprisoned

25 Salt March March 1930 Nonviolent protest against British imposed salt tax

26 Independence: 1.India: Independence in 1947; a Hindu state a.World’s largest democracy b.US ally 2. Creation of Pakistan; a Muslim state 3. Tensions: a. Disputed area: Kashmir b. Sikhism: Hindu & Islam 4. Both countries possess nuclear weapons a. Threats 5. Gandhi’s dream unfulfilled

27 1. Nehru (1947-1964) 2. Indira Gandhi (Nehru’s daughter) (1964-1984) Assassinated 3. Indira’s son, Rajiv (1984- 1989) Assassinated

28 India Today 1. Practice of untouchability still exists (rural areas) –Despite ban in Constitution 2. Less education for women 3. Poverty (1/3); overcrowded cities 4. Sikhs demanding self-rule in Punjab 5. Green Revolution: method to increase food production –New methods of irrigation, seeds –Dependency on monsoons PM Singh

29 Pakistan Today 1.Political Instability 2.As of 9/2008, elected President, Zardari 3.Aided US to find Bin Laden - Unpopular with Islamic Fundamentalists in area

30 The Middle East: From Past to Present What do you remember about this part of the world?

31 Babylon = rectangle Euphrates – diagonal Kingdoms = small circles Ocean = large circles (around world?) An early world map (600 BC) Mesopotamia: Cuneiform

32 Babylon (city-state) King Hammurabi ~ 1792-1750 BCE CODE OF HAMMURABI 1 st written legal system

33 Mesopotamia: The Hebrews

34 Emergence of Islam (7 th c) Abbasid Dynasty: Golden Age Coin of the Abbasids, Baghdad, Iraq, 1244 Holy Book

35 THE CRUSADES a series of wars fought between the Christian and Muslim world for the “holy land” “Deus lo volt!” – God wills it!

36 The Islamic Empire (approx 950)

37 Mughal (Muslim) Rule in India: Sha Jahan Akbar The Great

38 The Middle East – Post 1945 1.What was the political status of many Middle Eastern nations post-WWI (1920’s)? a.Why did this happen? 2.What happened to Turkey? How?

39 Roman Empire (44 BCE) Byzantine Empire (476) Ottoman (Muslim) Empire (1453 - 1918)

40 Kemal Ataturk: Founder of Turkey “Father of the Turks” General/War hero (WWI) Post WWI – Ottomans defeated! Defeats west (Independence) Modernization/Westernization –Islamic law replaced –Western calendar (in lieu of Muslim) –Western Dress (no veils) –Alphabet (instead of Arabic) –Voting

41 Pan-Arabism Arab nationalists want to be free from foreign control Gamal Abdel Nasser: Egypt Arab Nationalist Ends British influence (1954) Suez Canal BELONGS to Egypt

42 Iranian Revolution (1979)

43 1. Post WWI – Nationalism 2. Reza Khan Pahlavi becomes Shah of Iran –Models Ataturk’s changes –Extravagance/Elite –Lacks support of Muslim leaders “a puppet of the west” 3. Overthrow of Shah by Ayatollah Khomeini –Islamic Republic –“1 st day of God’s government” (theocracy) Islamic Fundamentalist

44 1.What two groups of people want independence in Jerusalem? 2. Independence from who? Why?

45 Arab-Israeli Conflict 1.Palestine was part of the Ottoman Empire 2.Acquired by the British (post-WWI); Balfour Declaration (1917) – Jewish “right to homeland”

46 Palestine Population in 1946 Arab-Israeli Conflict


48 3. Israel Becomes a Nation: May 14, 1948 David Ben-Gurion: 1 st Prime Minister MAY 15 th = WAR(S)

49 A Brief Review of this week… Where is he from? Role? 1.Shah Reza Pahlavi 2.Kemal Ataturk 3.Ayatollah Khomeini 4.Gamal Abdel Nasser 5.David Ben-Gurion 6.Saddam Hussein

50 Do Now: What interest(s) does the US have in the Middle East?

51 OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Created in 1960 by Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela TO CONTROL OIL INDUSTRY (production & prices) 11 members today 40% of world’s production & OVER 75% reserves What is the significance of this data? DEPENDENCY


53 What does this mean for us?

54 Persian Gulf War ’90-91 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait –OIL UN mission –Operation Desert Storm Liberation of Kuwait –UN Success

55 Kurds in Iraq/Iran Minority group seeking independence (Kurdistan?) Victims of Human rights abuses

56 Nuclear Capabilities

57 United Nations – Statement 1960 “The subjection of people to alien subjugation, domination and exploitation is contrary to the Charter of the United Nations and is an impediment to the promotion of world peace and cooperation.” What is the main idea?




61 Nelson Mandela ANC (African National Congress) –Desires an end to APARTHEID System of segregation which discriminated against the Black majority Nations put Sanctions on SA. –Desires political participation –Desires MAJORITY political party Imprisoned – 27 years


63 Apartheid Ends - 1994 Republic of South Africa –Nelson Mandela elected president Democratic –Rival groups within majority Ethnic and regional differences Nations seek to invest/trade w/S.Africa

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