India: From Past to Present What do you remember about the history of India? Task: Identify the significance of the following events/ideas relevant to the history of the Middle East.
Answers: 1.Indus/Ganges 2.Dharma: duties; Karma: actions 3.Fixed social structure; untouchables 4.Nirvana 5.Prince Siddhartha Gautama 6.Leads to moksha 7.Mauryan Empire/Gupta Dynasty 8.Buddhists reject caste system 9.Akbar the Great 10.Mughal 11.Rebellion against British laws 12.Indian National Congress/Muslim League 13.British East India Company 14.Raj 15.Taj Mahal; tomb for Emperor’s wife
Timeline of India: Key Events A B 3,000 BC 500-500 C 1500’s1800’s D
Social Hierarchy: Caste System Sudras Vaisyas Kshatriyas Brahmins (Warriors) (Farmers, artisans, merchants) (The conquered, servants, laborers) Pariahs [Harijan] Untouchables (Priests) CASTES
A)Hinduism vs. B)Buddhism Hinduism –Time: ca. 2,000 BCE –Goal: ______________ Role of dharma and ______________ –Founder: ? (Aryanism) –Beliefs: Polytheistic Reincarnation Supports Caste System Buddhism –Time: ca.500 BCE –Goal: ______________ 4 Noble Truths ______________ Path –Founder: Prince Siddhartha Gautama –Beliefs: Polytheistic Reincarnation Equality ______________ caste system
B) ______________ Dynasty: Golden Age of India (ca. 200 BCE) Reign of Asoka & the spread of Buddhism Trade, Prosperity, Tolerance, Public Works, EDUCATION (math & science)
C) ______________ Rule in India (15 th c/Muslim Dynasty): Sha Jahan ___________ The Great Same dynasty that gets taken over by the Europeans (19th c)! Religious Toleration
D) The British in India –“ __________ ” “The Jewel in the Crown”
Multiple Choice Review 1.4 2.1 3.4 4.1 5.C 6.C 7.C 8.B 9.A 10.D 11.A 12.1 (horrible question) 13. C 14. A 15. B 16. 4 17. 1 18. 3 19. 1 20. 2 21. B
What METHODS work best to achieve something you want (or believe in)? Task: 1.Explain an instance when you felt strongly about an issue/or wanted something (that you believed in). 2. How did you attempt to pursue this issue/goal? 3.What were the results? Was your method effective? Why or Why not?
Mohandas Gandhi NEHRU Members of the INC; Demanding independence from GB pre- WWI Muslim League: To partition India and create a free Islamic state (1906)
GANDHI Take notes on the following events & be ready to discuss! 1.South Africa (begins with train scene) 2.Conditions in India 3.Gandhi’s Actions/Plan 4.Amritsar Massacre 5.Discussion w/British 6.Salt March/Saltworks 7.Funeral
Salt March March 1930 Nonviolent protest against British imposed salt tax making it illegal to sell or produce salt - What took place? - Why is this an act of civil disobedience?
Independence: 1.India: Independence in 1947; a ___________ state a.World’s largest _____________________ b.US ally 2. Creation of _______________; a Muslim state 3. Tensions: a. Disputed area: Kashmir b. Sikhism: Hindu & Islam 4. Both countries possess __________ weapons a. Threats 5. Gandhi’s dream unfulfilled
India Today 1. Practice of _____________________ still exists (rural areas) –Despite ban in Constitution 2. Less education for _____________ 3. Poverty (1/3); overcrowded cities 4. Sikhs demanding self-rule in Punjab 5. ____________ Revolution: method to increase food production –New methods of irrigation, seeds –Dependency on monsoons PM Singh
Pakistan Today 1.Political Instability 2.As of 9/2008, elected President, Zardari 3.said to have aided US to find Bin Laden -Bin Laden found in Pakistan (2011)
The Middle East: From Past to Present What do you remember about this part of the world? Task: Identify the following historical events/ideas relevant to the history of the Middle East.
1.River Valley : The City States of Mesopotamia World Map? (600 BC) - Cuneiform Babylon = rectangle Euphrates – diagonal Kingdoms = small circles Ocean = large circles (around world?)
Babylon (city-state) King Hammurabi ~ 1792-1750 BCE CODE OF HAMMURABI 1 st written legal system 1. River Valley : Mesopotamia
Ziggurat at Ur (2,100 BCE) 1. River Valley : Mesopotamia
The Hebrews (approx 2,000 BC) 1 st monotheistic religion 1. River Valley : Mesopotamia
Mughal (Muslim) Rule in India: Sha Jahan Akbar The Great
5. THE CRUSADES (1099) a series of wars fought between the Christian and Muslim world for the “holy land” “Deus lo volt!” – God wills it!
6. Mandates in the ME (post WW-I) Ottoman (Muslim) Empire (1453 - 1918)
Situation of Middle East ~ Palestine Balfour Declaration – in regard to Ottoman lands (1917) Dear Lord Rothschild, His Majesty's government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this goal. Nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. -Arthur James Balfour Question: What is Balfour saying? He supports Zionism (homeland for Jews in Palestine)
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Created in 1960 by Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela TO CONTROL OIL INDUSTRY (production & prices) 12 members today 50+% of world’s production & OVER 75% reserves What is the significance of this data? DEPENDENCY
Explain how the following words are associated with each man? (p. 911-915) 1. AtaturkSecularTurkeySovietsdemocracy 2. NasserSuez Canal IsraelPan-Arabnationalize 3. SadatEgyptAmericaIsraelassassinated 4. PahlaviWestEliteAmericaulama 5. KhomeiniShariaWestIslamicwomen
Middle East Nationalist Figures: What are the legacies of these men ? ATATURKNASSERKHOMEINI Creation of a free, secular Turkey & Democracy Arab Nationalist /ends British control of Suez Canal Creation of an Islamic Fundamentalist state in Iran; over throws the Shah
3. Ayatollah Khomeini Iranian Revolution (1979) Shah Pahlavi Khomeini
Current Iranian Leadership Supreme Leader Ali Hoseini-Khamenei President Mahmud Ahmadinejad Ayatollah
1. What two groups of people want independence in Jerusalem? Independence from who? 2. What are their claims to the land? 3. Who do you think has the strongest claims? Why? Arab-Israeli Conflict:
Arab-Israeli Conflict: Palestine 1.Birthplace of Judaism (Hebrew Civilization); Exodus, Diaspora 2.Palestine was part of Islamic & Ottoman Empire (rule by Muslims) 3.Acquired by the British (post-WWI); Balfour Declaration (1917) – Jewish “right to homeland” 4.The Holocaust
Israel Becomes a Nation: May 14, 1948 MAY 15 th = WAR(S) David Ben- Gurion: 1st Prime Minister
Egypt: Anwar Sadat (Nasser’s successor, 1970) Human Rights Abuses; dictatorship; corruption, wide class gap; overthrown in 2011 Makes peace w/__________ (1979); Camp ________ Accords Assassinated by _______ extremists Egypt: Mubarak (’81-’11 ) Yasser Arafat (’94-’04) Former Chairman of the _______________ Liberation Organization (PLO); controversial figure; terrorist? nationalist? Diplomat?
Arab Spring – Revolts against oppressive governments December, 2010 - Present
Saddam Hussein (’79-’06) & Persian Gulf War (’90-91) Iraqi invasion of ____________ –OIL ________ mission –“collective security” –Operation ___________ Storm Liberation of Kuwait –UN Success Held in custody by US forces; “crimes against ________________” Trial and ____________ (2006)
Kurds in Iraq/Iran Minority group seeking independence (Kurdistan?) Victims of Human rights abuses
United Nations – Statement 1960 “The subjection of people to alien subjugation, domination and exploitation is contrary to the Charter of the United Nations and is an impediment to the promotion of world peace and cooperation.” What is the main idea?
A Brief Review … Who Am I? 1.“I was overthrown as leader of Iran because I embraced modernization.” 2.“I secularized the nation of Turkey.” 3.“I am an Islamic Fundamentalist.” 4.“I freed Egypt from British control.” 5.“I made peace with Israel, which led to my assassination.” 6.“I invaded Kuwait for oil.” 7.“I was the 1 st Prime Minister of Israel.” 8.“I fought against apartheid in South Africa.” 9.“I am leader of the P.L.O” 10.“I am the leader of a Zionist movement”
- Nelson Mandela (1964) “During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.” Task: What is his fight against/for?