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QT – Introduction C++ GUI Programming with Qt 4 Blanchette and Summerfield, Ch. 1 Miller, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "QT – Introduction C++ GUI Programming with Qt 4 Blanchette and Summerfield, Ch. 1 Miller, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 QT – Introduction C++ GUI Programming with Qt 4 Blanchette and Summerfield, Ch. 1 Miller, 2004

2 Overview About UI programming systems, or toolkits –View hierarchy, stroke drawing, pixel model, input handling, widgets –They are all alike and all different A software layer Qt, as software layer “above” Windows api, provides a different view –Makes most day to day things easier “Slots” and “signals” for event handling and inter-dialog communication Widget styles –Window system native, or common across platforms Qt ide and resources

3 About UI Programming Systems UI programming systems, or “toolkits”, consist of these elements –E.g., MS windows (below), Swing (AWT for Java), Motif (X-windows), Qt (cross- platform Components (view hierarchy) –Windows and child windows Stroke drawing package –GDI Pixel model –Bitmaps Input handling –Messages sent to a window procedure Widgets –Buttons, menus, text boxes

4 Examples MS WindowsSwingHTMLQt Components WindowsJComponentsElementsWindows Strokes GDIGraphics(none)Graphics Pixels BitmapsImageInline imagesImages Input Messages -> window proc ListenersJavascript event handlers Connections and slots Widgets Button, menu, textbox, … Jbutton, Jmenu, … Form controls, links Button, … All programming systems have these basic elements

5 Widgets Widget: again, “window gadget” (Qt), etc. –Controls, interactors, gizmos, gadgets At core of Qt programming paradigm Reusable user interface components Examples –Buttons, checkboxes, radio buttons –List boxes, combo boxes, drop-downs –Menus, toolbars –Scrollbars, splitters, zoomers –One-line text, multiline text, rich text –Trees, tables –Simple dialogs

6 Widgets Success (or unsuccess) story for user interface programming Advantages –Reuse of development effort Coding, testing, debugging, maintenance Design, iteration and evaluation –External consistency Disadvantages –Constrain designer’s thinking –Encourage menu & forms style, rather than richer direct manipulation style –May be used inappropriately E.g., instructions in title bar –Is WIMP all there is? –Long record of mediocre (but not really bad) interfaces

7 Widget Data Data used in widgets Embedded model –Application data must be copied into the widget –Changes must be copied out’ Linked model –Or, data binding –Application provides model satisfying an interface –Enables “data-bound” widgets, e.g. a table showing thousands of database rows, or a combo box with thousands of choices

8 UI Toolkits AthenaMotifGTK+Qt XLib Often built on top of other toolkits Can provide cross-platform portability May add more powerful features E.g., X Windows XLib provides view hierarchy, stroke drawing, input handling Xlib not provide widgets Toolkits do

9 UI Toolkits - Qt Qt MS WindowsXLibMac Cross-platform portability Re-implements native system look and feel Or, can have (program) internal consistency Extends widget set, e.g., spin boxes Qt provides C++, Java, and Python language bindings Also, allows direct access to other sw api’s/layers, e.g., OpenGL As well as, allows direct access to MS Windows API But, is much more efficient to program in

10 Remember this? Qt is easy … in many ways

11 Hello World 1: ~60 lines –WinMain HELLOWIN.C – Petzold --- (main just sets things up – quite a few things – very low level) #include LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc (HWND, UINT, WPARAM, LPARAM) ; int WINAPI WinMain (HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, PSTR szCmdLine, int iCmdShow) { static TCHAR szAppName[] = TEXT ("HelloWin") ; HWND hwnd ; MSG msg ; WNDCLASS wndclass ; = CS_HREDRAW | CS_VREDRAW ; wndclass.lpfnWndProc = WndProc ; wndclass.cbClsExtra = 0 ; wndclass.cbWndExtra = 0 ; wndclass.hInstance = hInstance ; wndclass.hIcon = LoadIcon (NULL, IDI_APPLICATION) ; wndclass.hCursor = LoadCursor (NULL, IDC_ARROW) ; wndclass.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH) GetStockObject (WHITE_BRUSH) ; wndclass.lpszMenuName = NULL ; wndclass.lpszClassName = szAppName ; if (!RegisterClass (&wndclass)) { MessageBox (NULL, TEXT ("This program requires Windows NT!"), szAppName, MB_ICONERROR) ; return 0 ; } (cont’d)

12 Old Familiar WinMain (cont’d) hwnd = CreateWindow (szAppName, // window class name TEXT ("The Hello Program"), // window caption WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW, // window style CW_USEDEFAULT, // initial x position CW_USEDEFAULT, // initial y position CW_USEDEFAULT, // initial x size CW_USEDEFAULT, // initial y size NULL, // parent win handle NULL, // window menu handle hInstance, // prog inst handle NULL) ; // creation parameters ShowWindow (hwnd, iCmdShow) ; UpdateWindow (hwnd) ; while (GetMessage (&msg, NULL, 0, 0)) { TranslateMessage (&msg) ; DispatchMessage (&msg) ; } return msg.wParam ; }

13 Hello World: WinProc, the Message Handler Note similarity to paradigm message handler of any event driven architecture: LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc (HWND hwnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, L … lParam) { HDC hdc ; PAINTSTRUCT ps ; RECT rect ; switch (message) { case WM_CREATE: PlaySound (TEXT("hellowin.wav"), NULL, SND_FILENAME | SND_ASYNC) ; return 0 ; case WM_PAINT: // “window redraws itself!” hdc = BeginPaint (hwnd, &ps) ; GetClientRect (hwnd, &rect) ; DrawText (hdc, TEXT ("Hello, Windows 98!"), -1, &rect, DT_SINGLELINE | DT_CENTER | DT_VCENTER) ; EndPaint (hwnd, &ps) ; return 0 ; case WM_DESTROY: PostQuitMessage (0) ; return 0 ; } return DefWindowProc (hwnd, message, wParam, lParam) ; // DefWindProc handles all message not handled in WndProc }

14 LOTS of “Windows functions” Calls Windows Function Calls HELLOWIN - 18 Windows functions: LoadIcon Loads an icon for use by a program. LoadCursor Loads a mouse cursor for use by a program. GetStockObject Obtains a graphic object, in this case a brush used for painting the window's background. RegisterClass Registers a window class for the program's window. MessageBox Displays a message box. CreateWindow Creates a window based on a window class. ShowWindow Shows the window on the screen. UpdateWindow Directs the window to paint itself. GetMessage Obtains a message from the message queue. TranslateMessage Translates some keyboard messages. DispatchMessage Sends a message to a window procedure. PlaySound Plays a sound file. BeginPaint Initiates the beginning of window painting. GetClientRect Obtains the dimensions of the window's client area. DrawText Displays a text string. EndPaint Ends window painting. PostQuitMessage Inserts a "quit" message into the message queue. DefWindowProc Performs default processing of messages.

15 Hello, Qt!

16 Hello, Qt! 9 lines! #include int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { QApplication app(argc, argv); QLabel *label = new QLabel("Hello Qt!"); label->show(); return app.exec(); } A bit for dramatic effect, but there will be advantages Just a label in a field with no real “main window” Will look at some basics tonight Slots and signals (vs. event queues), and layouts (this is a GUI builder),

17 Hello, Qt! the details #include // Definitions of QApplication and #include // QLabel classes // Qt is truly object-oriented int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { QApplication app(argc, argv);// Creates a QApplication object to // manage app-wide resources QLabel *label = new QLabel("Hello Qt!");// Creates a QApplication widget (used as // a window) that displays string label->show();// Make label (window) visible return app.exec();// Passes control to Qt }// (would also delete QLabel)

18 Handling Events: Signals and Slots Qt not handle events (or event queue) directly Qt widgets emit signals when user action or change of state occurs Signal can be connected to a function, or slot –When signal emitted the slot, or function, is executed In example, will connect button’s clicked signal to slot, the function quit() –quit() is “built-in” QApplication function (object)

19 A Signal and A Slot #include // Include class definitions #include int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { QApplication app(argc, argv);// Create QApplication object QPushButton *button = new QPushButton("Quit");// Create labeled button // Associate (connect) a particular signal of this application with a slot QObject::connect ( button, SIGNAL(clicked()), &app, SLOT(quit()) ); button->show(); return app.exec();// Pass control to QT }

20 Synchronization & Layout of 2 Widgets Book example – can be complex Example code creates three widgets: –QSpinbox, QSlider, QWidget (application’s main window, will be parent of others) Using signals and slots of the QSpinbox and QSlider, set value of one depending on value set in the other –E.g., change spinbox value to 70, slider will move to appropriate position –Change slider to some position, spinbox value will be changed based on position “Layout manager” object will set size and position of widgets

21 “Setting up”, 1/3 #include // Include class definitions for #include // layout, #include // slider, #include // and spinbox int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { QApplication app(argc, argv); QWidget *window = new QWidget;// Again, window will be widget window->setWindowTitle("Enter Your Age");// Not good interface design!

22 Create & Synchronize Widgets, 2/3 A little “tricky” … QSpinBox *spinBox = new QSpinBox;// Create spinbox and slider QSlider *slider = new QSlider(Qt::Horizontal); spinBox->setRange(0, 130);// Set/define range of each slider->setRange(0, 130); // As before, a particular widget signal causes a function (slot) to be called // here, when the value in the spinbox is changed, the function to set the value in the // slider is called, and passed the new value of the spinbox to be the new value of the slider QObject::connect(spinBox, SIGNAL(valueChanged(int)), slider, SLOT(setValue(int))); // … and vice versa QObject::connect(slider, SIGNAL(valueChanged(int)), spinBox, SLOT(setValue(int))); spinBox->setValue(35);// Set initial value for spinbox, slider will then get set

23 Layout of Widgets by Qt, 3/3 // Qt manages the relative positioning of the child windows, here, as BoxLayout QHBoxLayout *layout = new QHBoxLayout; layout->addWidget(spinBox);// Place widgets in set to be layout->addWidget(slider);// poistioned window->setLayout(layout);// Installs layout manager on win window->show(); return app.exec(); }

24 Widget Styles Recall, Qt is cross-platform Can have Qt applications in windowing system style where executed (external consistency) or in same style across windowing systems (internal consistency)

25 Qt IDE Works fine

26 Qt IDE Open project Open file

27 Help Works fine

28 Help Works fine

29 End.

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