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The Presidency The Congress The Judiciary 1 2 3.

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Presentation on theme: "The Presidency The Congress The Judiciary 1 2 3."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Presidency The Congress The Judiciary

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6 Magna Carta stood for 400 years The Magna Carta stood for 400 years. The ideas of greater Parliamentary power grew… Petition of Right In 1628, King Charles II asked Parliament to levy heavier taxes, but they refused until he was willing to sign the Petition of Right. Petition of Right firstlimited the king’s powers by not allowing him to imprison or punish people without a jury impose martial lawquarter troops without the consent of citizens The Petition of Right [1628] first limited the king’s powers by not allowing him to imprison or punish people without a jury of his peers (or law of the land), to impose martial law, or to quarter troops without the consent of citizens. extended the power of the Parliament by requiring their consent on most matters Most importantly, it extended the power of the Parliament by requiring their consent on most matters… challenged the theory of the divine right It challenged the theory of the divine right! 5

7 1688 In 1688, Parliament overthrew King James who escaped to France. Glorious Revolution. T his became known as the Glorious Revolution. William and Queen Parliament invited King William and Queen Mary of the Netherlands Mary of the Netherlands to take the throne.

8 William and Mary did away with the Dominion of New England and restored the assemblies English Bill of Rights They also signed the English Bill of Rights (1689) William III (of Orange) Mary II Queen Mary II, after a painting by William Wissing Public domain image

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10 So, as you can see,the foundation of British government are these three: 1. Magna Carta 2. Petition of Right 3. English Bill of Rights

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15 Review Early English settlers brought knowledge of political systems from __________ __________ _______? 2. The English colonists brought what 3 ideas that helped shape our current democracy? 3. What document was signed by King John I and protected rights such as trial by jury, due process, protections of life, liberty and property? 4. What document signed by King Charles II limited the king’s powers by not allowing him to imprison or punish people without a jury of his peers (or law of the land), to impose martial law, or to quarter troops without the consent of citizens? 5. What document guaranteed, passed in 1689 guaranteed trial by jury, protection from cruel and unusual punishment, ensured that the King could not raise taxes or an army without Parliament’s approval and it granted freedom of religious worship to all Christians, except Catholics, and persons denying the Trinity (Jews, etc.). 6. The first colony established was Virginia. What year was this? 7. What is a charter? 8. Colonies directly controlled by the king who appointed a governor and counsel of advisors was called a what? 9. Colonies that were organized by someone to whom the King gave a land grant were called what? 10. Colonies that were based on charters granted by the king and given very generous powers of self-rule were called what? English Common Law Ordered, Limited, & Representative Government Magna Carta Petition of Right English Bill of Rights 1607 Charters based on charters granted by the king Royal Colonies Proprietary Colonies Charter Colonies

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17 The British government found itself in serious debt after the French & Indian War- £133,000,000!!! The British government found itself in serious debt after the French & Indian War- £133,000,000!!! Taxes in Great Britain rose tremendously! Taxes in Great Britain rose tremendously!

18 As a result, Prime Minister George Greenville decided to institute a tax in the colonies on molasses, reasoning that the colonists had gained the most as a result of the French and Indian War and needed to pay their share of the debt. George Greenville Courtesy of Florida Center for Instructional Technology. ( ) Member of the House of Commons and First Lord of the Treasury Source: Benson J. Lossing, The Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1852) Keywords: portrait, House of Commons, Lord of the Treasury

19 SUGAR ACT of 1764 The SUGAR ACT of 1764 (Grenville American Revenue Act) was passed by Parliament. forbade the import of foreign molasses It replaced the Molasses Act of 1733 which forbade the import of foreign molasses (no molasses from French, Dutch, Spanish colonies). ignored the Molasses Act Most merchants and traders ignored the Molasses Act of 1733 and smuggled molasses from the West Indies or bribed tax collectors.

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21 Actual British Government Stamp 14

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23 The purpose of the Stamp Act was to help pay for the large number of British troops in the colonies

24 Protests Protests broke out in New York City, Newport, RI, Boston, MA Hartford, CT and Charleston, SC. Mobs burned effigies tarred and feathered Mobs burned effigies (likenesses) of tax collectors and some were tarred and feathered. The Bostonians paying the exciseman or tarring & feathering. (Cartoon). Lithograph by Pendleton, 1830, after print published in London in Colorized. Public domain image

25 The British were surprised and outraged by the colonists unwillingness to accept the taxes British paid 25 times more The British paid 25 times more in taxes than the colonists. $1.20 in taxes per year The average colonist paid the equivalent of $1.20 in taxes per year.

26 NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION! they were being taxed without representation in Parliament dated back to the Magna Carta The problem with that, the colonists argued, was not with the tax itself, but with the fact that they were being taxed without representation in Parliament (the right to be taxed with representation, they argued, dated back to the Magna Carta). What they wanted was colonial approval of taxes in their own legislatures.

27 James Otis. The first to use the term was James Otis. He was a wealthy lawyer who quit his position as the King’s advocate general of the vice- admiralty after his conscience got the best of him. “Taxation without representation is tyranny.” He said, “Taxation without representation is tyranny.” James Otis James Otis, portrait by J. Blackburn, 1755; in the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 15

28 Stamp Act Congress opposed to the Stamp Act On October 7, 1765, the first meeting of the Stamp Act Congress was held in New York City by delegates opposed to the Stamp Act. The meeting was the idea of James Otis. Delegates from 9 colonies attended (VA, NH, NC and GA declined). Stamp Act protest by newspaper publisher William Bradford Library of Congress Public domain image 16

29 George III by Allan Ramsay, National Portrait Gallery, London. Public domain image

30 boycott 14% drop in trade. The boycott resulted in a 14% drop in trade. British merchants and workers suffered because of the boycott.

31 Declaratory Act right of the Parliament to raise taxes on the colonies In 1766, the Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, but it passed the Declaratory Act which reserved the right of the Parliament to raise taxes on the colonies. Although the colonists were happy about the repeal, taxation without representation would still be an issue.

32 Review Why did the British feel it was proper to increase taxes in the colonies? 12. What act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733 placing allowing merchants to purchase molasses from foreign nations by paying a tax? 13. What Act imposed a tax on 55 types of printed material including wills, diplomas, almanacs, newspapers, playing cards, and dice 14. What group met for the first time on October 7, 1765 in order to draft petitions to King George III demanding that he repeal colonial taxes? 15. What tactic, or form of protest, ultimately led to the repeal of the Stamp Act of Sugar Act of 1764 The colonists had gained the most in the French & Ind. War. Stamp Act of 1765 Stamp Act Congress Boycotted British goods

33 In 1767, Charles Townshend, the leader of the British Treasury, proposed the Townshend Acts Townshend Acts The Townshend Acts tax on lead, paint, glass, tea, silk, and paper (1) placed a tax on lead, paint, glass, tea, silk, and paper (it would again be used to pay for troops in the colonies). new and corrupt customs officers (2) It also ordered new and corrupt customs officers into the area. The Honorable Charles Townshend 17

34 Merchants and planters from all 13 colonies signed nonimportation agreements. The agreements promised that they would boycott the importation of British goods in the hope that the Townshend Acts would be repealed.

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36 Another British law that causes great controversy in the colonies is the Quartering Act (1765). T he Quartering Act colonists pay for the quartering T he Quartering Act required that colonists pay for the quartering (lodging) of British soldiers (as well as bedding, candles, and drinks). quartering of soldiers in private homes taxes to be used to pay for barracks and for lodging in taverns and inns In 1774, the British required the quartering of soldiers in private homes. The Quartering Act called for taxes to be used to pay for barracks and for lodging in taverns and inns. 19

37 Two regiments of British soldiers arrived shortly thereafter. They set up camp on Boston Common. They suffered insults and beating when walking the streets.

38 The Boston Massacre British soldiers were paid very little, and they were not provided with the necessities of life (food, etc). As a result, many searched for work in their off hours. One soldier searched for work near Grey’s Ropewalk. A small number of colonists showed their displeasure by rioting and later harassed a sentry in Boston… 400 eventually gathered!

39 Boston Massacredeaths of5 colonists. 6 were wounded In the end, the Boston Massacre resulted in the deaths of 5 colonists. 6 were wounded. Crispus Attucks - 1. Crispus Attucks - shot twice in the chest (considered the first martyr for American Independence) Samuel Grey - 2. Samuel Grey - shot in the head James Caldwell - 3. James Caldwell - shot twice in the back Samuel Maverick - 4. Samuel Maverick - 17 years old, shot in the abdomen Patrick Carr - 5. Patrick Carr - shot in the hip, exited side Boston Massacre, Mar. 5, Chromolithograph by John Bufford National Archives and Records Administration 20

40 Captain Preston and six of his men were charged with murder. Two prominent lawyers decided to defend the soldiers. Josiah Quincy and John Adams, despite their patriot loyalties, took the case because they strongly believed in the right to a fair trial. The lawyers argued that the men only acted in self-defense. Josiah Quincy John Adams

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42 inform citizens in Massachusetts about the actions of the To inform citizens in Massachusetts about the actions of the Britishcommittees of correspondence. British, Sam Adams set up committees of correspondence. Soon, committees of correspondence were set up in all 13 colonies. This helped Americans unite against the British. 21

43 Review What act placed taxes on lead, paint, glass, tea, silk, and paper 17. How did merchants and planters protest the Townshend Acts? 18. What group held meeting around ‘liberty trees” & hanged effigies of British officials? 19. What act required that colonists pay for the lodging of British soldiers (as well as bedding, candles, and drinks)? 20. The event that famously took place on March 5, 1770, referred to as the “Boston Massacre”, led to the death of how many men? 21. What was the purpose of the committees of correspondence? Townshend Acts Boycotted the importation of British goods Sons of Liberty Quartering Act 5 To inform MA citizens of British actions

44 Teapopular in the colonies Tea was incredibly popular in the colonies. British East India Company was the major source of tea The British East India Company was the major source of tea in the colonies. The company was in great financial trouble and the British government decided to help.

45 Tea Act of 1773 The Parliament passed the Tea Act of 1773 to help reduce the 15 million pounds of tea in British warehouses. act actually lowered taxes in the colonies The act actually lowered taxes in the colonies and allowed the British East India Company to sell tea directly to colonial merchants (of their choice) and bypass the wholesalers and retailers who usually bought it from them first in England. The British thought the colonists would be pleased by this action. TEA

46 Tea Act was unpopular To the surprise of Parliament, the Tea Act was unpopular. destroy colonial merchants American tea smugglers hated it American merchants argued it was an attempt to destroy colonial merchants by cutting them out of the tea trade… and American tea smugglers hated it for obvious reasons (many colonists purchased smuggled tea). trick to get colonists to accept British taxes The Sons of Liberty argued that it was a trick to get colonists to accept British taxes, regardless of how small it was.

47 boycott The colonists again instituted a boycott. “liberty tea” Daughters of Liberty served coffee or “liberty tea” made from raspberry leaves. prevented ships carrying British tea from unloading Sons of Liberty prevented ships carrying British tea from unloading.

48 darkness of night The Sons of Liberty rowed quietly out to the three ships in the darkness of night and boarded them on Dec. 16, 1773 "The Destruction of Tea at Boston Harbor." Copy of lithograph by Sarony & Major, Credit: National Archives and Records Administration NOTE THE INACCURACY! Public domain image

49 dumped 342 crates of tea into Boston Harbor $90,000 The men dumped 342 crates of tea into Boston Harbor which was valued at about $90,000. quietly rowed back to shore. When they were finished, they quietly rowed back to shore.

50 King George III was outraged! He asked Parliament to pass a series of very harsh laws designed to punish the people of Boston. King George III

51 The Intolerable Acts Coercive Acts The Intolerable Acts (or Coercive Acts), as they were nicknamed by the colonists Did several things: 1. closed Boston Harbor 2. limited power of MA legislature, made the governor more powerful. 3. local officials were to be appointed by the royal governor. 4.Town meetings could only be held once per year. 5.British officials charged with major crimes were to be tried in England. 6. Quartering Act was extended to include private homes. 22

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53 The meeting consisted of a lot of arguments and a lot of prayer. In the end they did the following: Denounced the Intolerable Acts and Quebec Act. Denounced the Intolerable Acts and Quebec Act. Called for a boycott of all British goods as well as an exportation ban. Called for a boycott of all British goods as well as an exportation ban. Urged colonies to train militias. Urged colonies to train militias. The delegates also agreed to meet again in May The delegates also agreed to meet again in May "The Bostonians in Distress." Copy mezzotint attributed to Philip Dawe, 1774 Credit: National Archives and Records Administration

54 first battle of the Revolution On April 19, 1775, the first battle of the Revolution ensued with 70 men standing on Lexington Lexington Green against 400 British troops on their way to Concord. 8 colonists were killed In the end, 8 colonists were killed with no British fatalities. Courtesy of the Army National Guard

55 LEXINGTON AND CONCORD With Paul Revere’s announcement, the Colonists and the British began fighting in April of 1775 American RevolutionThe first battle of the American Revolution lasted only 15 minutes, but its impact has lasted for over 200 years

56 When the British returned from Concord they met 300 colonial militia on the North Bridge (just outside of Concord). Fighting broke out, and the colonials drove the British back. As the British retreated, they were picked off by snipers hiding in trees and in the fields (likely 11,000 militia participated).

57 Lexington and Concord Word of the Battles of Lexington and Concord spread quickly. war was now inevitable Many colonists realized that war was now inevitable. There was no possibility of resolving the differences between the colonies and Great Britain peacefully. 24

58 Review Why did colonists oppose the Tea Act of 1773? 23. List three things the Intolerable (Coercive) Acts did? 24. How did colonists outside of Massachusetts demonstrate their support for the people of Boston? 25. In what year did the First Continental Congress meet? 26. What was accomplished during the first meeting of the Continental Congress? 27. Massachusetts militiamen who could be ready for battle in a minute, were referred to as what? 28. Where was (a) the first engagement between British troops and Massachusetts militiamen, & (b) what was the result ? 29. The 1 st battles of 1775 convinced many colonists of what? They thought it was an attempt to destroy colonial merchants. 1.Closed Boston harbor 2. Limited town meetings to once a year. 3. Extended quartering act to private homes Boycott British goods 1774 “Minutemen” Lexington – 8 colonists were killed; no British were killed. That war was inevitable.

59 OLIVE BRANCH PETITION By July 1775, the Second Continental Congress was readying for war, though still hoping for peace Most delegates deeply loyalMost delegates deeply loyal to King George III Olive Branch PetitionJuly 8 – Olive Branch Petition sent to King who flatly refused it

60 Many of those in positions of power were also impressed Thomas Paine’s Common Sense by Thomas Paine’s Common Sense “I am now convinced… of the necessity for separation.” Virginia delegate to Second Continental Congress, Richard Henry Lee, was moved to say, “I am now convinced… of the necessity for separation.” Richard Henry Lee By Charles Wilson Peale, Thomas Paine

61 Richard Henry Lee That these United States are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states… and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be totally dissolved.” On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia resolved before the Congress, “That these United States are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states… and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be totally dissolved.” Richard Henry Lee 26

62 Voting in favor of Lee’s resolution was dangerous treason The delegates realized that Great Britain would treat a vote in favor of independence as treason. They realized that a conviction as a traitor would result in their execution

63 After a day of debate, and 2 colonies (PA and SC) changing their votes in favor of independence, the delegates decided to appoint a committee to write a Declaration of Independence.

64 The committee appointed to draft a declaration of independence included John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston. The purpose for creating the Declaration of Independence was to tell the world why they felt it was necessary to break away from Great Britain and form their own government. Courtesy of John Buxton. Founding Fathers – The Declaration Committee by John Buxton

65 Thomas Jefferson chosen to actually write the Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson was chosen to actually write the Declaration of Independence. He was considered an incredibly eloquent writer, but his earlier writings were much too radical for most Americans 27

66 The first draft of the Declaration of Independence included a paragraph on the evils of slavery, blaming King George III for the institution in the Americas. Southern slave holders and Yankee traders successfully insisted that it be removed. Early draft of the Declaration Public domain image

67 “free and independent states.” On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted that the 13 colonies were “free and independent states.” Declaration of Independence On July 4, 1776, delegates signed (but not all) the Declaration of Independence.

68 "Reading the Declaration of Independence from the East Balcony of the Old State House, Boston, Mass. July 18, 1776." Keywords: Revolutionary War Credit: National Archives and Records Administration

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70 John Locke all men were entitled to the rights of life, liberty, and property Jefferson’s ideas about the rights of human beings came from an English philosopher named John Locke ( ) who argued that all men were entitled to the rights of life, liberty, and property. property pursuit of happiness. Jefferson’s wanted to broaden the philosophy and changed “property” to “pursuit of happiness.” John Locke Painted by Sir Gotfrey Kneller, 1697 Public domain image 28

71 purposes of a governmentprotectthe basic rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness The Declaration also argued that one of the purposes of a government was to protect the basic rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Governments only existed if they had the consent of the governed. Governments only existed if they had the consent of the governed. 29

72 to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security If the government failed to protect basic human rights or were the cause of a violation of rights, the Declaration stated that citizens had a right and a duty “…to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.”

73 Second part wrongs committed by King George III. The Second part of the Declaration of Independence lists the wrongs committed by King George III. SUCH AS It lists a variety of abuses of power SUCH AS : dismissal of legislatures, sending corrupt customs agents sending troops to America during peace time imposing taxes without consent requiring the quartering troops depriving colonists of a trial by jury… (pg ) Part II 30

74 The third part of the Declaration of Independence officially announced that the 13 British Colonies were now the United States of America. It stated that the United States could make alliances and trade as it pleased. Part III

75 Review Who wrote the essay Common Sense which was published in 1776? 31. Who resolved on June 7, “That these United States are, and of right ought to be, free & independent states”? 32. Why was voting in favor of the resolution above considered an act of bravery by many? 33. Who served on the committee in charge of writing a Declaration of Independence? 34. Who is considered the chief author of the Declaration of independence? 35. On what date did members of the Second Continental Congress begin to sign the Declaration of Independence? 36. What was the purpose of the first part of the Declaration of independence? 37. What European philosopher influenced Jefferson’s premise in the first part of the Declaration of independence? 38. What was the purpose of the second part of the Declaration of independence? 39. What was the purpose of the third part of the Declaration of Independence? Thomas Paine Richard H. Lee Gr. Britain would consider this treason. Adams, Franklin, and Jefferson Thomas Jefferson July 4, 1776 Basic rights on which the nation was founded John Locke Lists the wrongs committed by the king Announced that the 13 colonies were now the U.S. of A

76 During the Revolutionary War, State governments began to dissolve. As a result, in May of 1776, the Second Continental Congress began to ask States to form their own governments. In July of 1776, the Congress began to organize a national government. Source: National Park Service

77 Most states createdConstitutions (documents that set laws and principles of a government), which served 2 purposes: 1. spell out rights of citizens. 2. limit the power of government.

78 Americans wanted to prevent an abuse of power so they divided government into two parts: All colonies had a Legislative Branch: Lawmakers Lawmakers Elected by voters. Elected by voters. had an Upper (Senate) and Lower House. had an Upper (Senate) and Lower House. Executive (governor): Carried out laws. Carried out laws. All states but PA had a governor. All states but PA had a governor. Samuel Adams Library of Congress

79 Virginia was the first of several colonies to include Bill of Rights a Bill of Rights which lists the freedoms the government promises to protect: For example, freedom of: speech religion assembly press trial by jury 31

80 The right to vote also expanded under state constitutions. To vote you had to be male At least 21 years of age property owner or pay a tax. In some states free blacks could vote. In New Jersey, women could vote for a while.

81 national plan of government Members of the Continental Congress also agreed that a national plan of government had to be created. Because most Americans were loyal to their States, few saw themselves as citizens of the “United States”. They did not want to turn over powers of the State to a national government.

82 tyranny weak national government Because Americans feared tyranny, the Congress created a very weak national government The first American constitution, completed in 1777, was Articles of Confederation the Articles of Confederation Source: National Archives 32

83 Articles of Confederation firm league of friendship The authors of the Articles of Confederation did not create a nation, but a “firm league of friendship” between the 13 states Articles of Confederation each state only had one vote. The Articles of Confederation created a Congress with 2-7 delegates from each state- BUT each state only had one vote. notcreate an executive or judicial branch It did not create an executive or judicial branch The Articles of Confederation, ratified in This was the format for the United States government until the Constitution 33

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85 9 of the 13 states I n order to pass laws, 9 of the 13 states had to vote in favor. Articles of Confederation Summary of the Articles of Confederation: loose alliance between states. 1. created a loose alliance between states. did not provide for a president 2. did not provide for a president (no executive branch) and laws had to be enforced by the states. did not create a courtsystem 3. did not create a court system (no judicial branch) and the government could not resolve differences between the states. CREDIT: Tholey, Augustus, artist. "Leaders of the Continental Congress." Wm. Finley & Co., copyright Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.

86 Maryland demanded that all of the land west of the Appalachian Mountains be turned over to the Congress They rejected the demand. The larger States rejected the demand. Thomas Jefferson Fortunately, Thomas Jefferson and other respected leaders stepped forward and convinced lawmakers to give up their claims to western lands 1781 They were successful and Maryland ratified the Articles of Confederation and they went into effect in 1781 Thomas Jefferson

87 After the Revolution, the United States fell into an economic depression During an economic depression… business activity slows business activity slows wages fall wages fall prices fall prices fall unemployment rises unemployment rises

88 depression hit farmers the hardest. The depression hit farmers the hardest. During the war, there was a high demand for the food produced by farmers. As a result, farmers borrowed money to buy more land, livestock, seeds, and tools. farmers could not repay their loans With the war over and a depression in its place, the farmers could not repay their loans.

89 In Massachusetts, farmers were even more outraged when the state raised taxes on farmers. The courts began to seize land and put farmers in jail for inability to pay off loans. The state also refused to accept paper money for debt repayment.

90 Shays’ Rebellion Daniel Shays In 1786, Daniel Shays, a Massachusetts farmer who served as a Captain during the Revolution, organized 2,000 farmers to help farmers keep their land. court houses His men, many dressed in their old Army uniforms, attacked court houses that were in charge of hearing cases about land foreclosures and punishments for debtors.

91 During their final assault, Shays and his men decided to attack the Federal Arsenal in Springfield. The Massachusetts militia was assembled by the Governor and it defended the arsenal, killing 4 of Shays’ men and wounding 24. This was the first time the militia had been called in after nearly 5 months of attacks.

92 On February 3, 1787 the farmers were attacked in Petersham, MA by General William Lincoln. The farmers scattered, and the rebellion was ended. The Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts sentenced 14 of the rebellion's leaders, including Shays, to death for treason. They were later pardoned by the newly elected Governor John Hancock. General William Lincoln Governor John Hancock Lincoln, Benjamin. Painting by Henry Sargent.

93 Shays’ Rebellion proved one thing: The federal government was much too weak and a stronger national government was needed! Shays' Rebellion is considered one of the leading causes of the formation of the United States Constitution.

94 Many Americans feared that Shays’ Rebellion was proof that the Articles of Confederation were too weak. Many leaders called for a convention to improve the Articles of Confederation. They decided to meet in May of 1787… but they ended up doing a lot more than just improving the Articles of Confederation! 36

95 Constitutional Convention Soon after the Constitutional Convention Philadelphia 1787 met in in Philadelphia, PA in May of 1787, it was decided that the Articles of Confederation needed to be set aside and a new, stronger document needed to be created. Framers 55 delegates, from 12 of the 13 states (all but Rhode Island), helped craft a document that is still celebrated around the world as a great achievement. These men became known as the “ Framers ” of the Constitution

96 Many notable framers at the Constitutional Convention including: Benjamin Franklin: 81 years old, (oldest delegate) wise, and well respected. George Washington: elected president of the convention. Many thought that he would be able to best control the debate. Alexander Hamilton: a staunch advocate for a stronger federal government. He had served as Washington’s personal secretary during the Revolution. James Madison: highly intelligent, well prepared,36 year old. He was soft spoken but eloquent. He took excellent notes during the convention which have served historians well.

97 secret It was decided that the meetings during the Constitutional Convention would be kept secret so delegates could feel free to speak their minds without outside pressure. Guards were posted at the doors and all of the windows were closed. Some resented the secret meetings, believing that government meetings should be open to the public in a free society. Independence Hall Philadelphia, PA

98 Edmund Randolph and James Madison put together a plan for government early on known as the Virginia Plan Edmund Randolph James Madison

99 Virginia Plan The Virginia Plan created a strong national government and called for the following: 1.Three branches of Government Legislative Branch (pass laws) Executive Branch (carry out/ enforce laws) Judicial Branch (interpret laws- see if laws are fair and carried out fairly ). bicameral2 houses 2.Legislative Branch would be “bicameral” or have 2 houses. membership upon the population of States Both houses would base membership upon the population of States (therefore, States with greater population would be better represented) Lower House elected by people, Upper House elected by Lower House. 3.Chief Executive (President) would be elected by the legislature. Virginia Plan 39 40

100 Smaller states objected to the Virginia Plan, believing that it was unfair to States with smaller populations. As a result, William Paterson introduced the New Jersey plan to counter the Virginia Plan. William Paterson

101 New Jersey Plan T he New Jersey Plan created strong national government and called for the following: 1.Three branches of Government Legislative Branch (pass laws) Executive Branch (carry out/ enforce laws) Judicial Branch (interpret laws- see if laws are fair and carried out fairly). unicameral one house allow each State to have one vote only 2.Legislative Branch would be “ unicameral ” or have only one house. The single house would allow each State to have one vote only. Population was not an issue. elected by legislature 3. Chief Executive (President) would be elected by legislature… could be multi-person. New Jersey Plan 41 42

102 The Constitutional Convention was at a deadlock, as neither side could sway the other. Many believed that the convention would fail. Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy.

103 Roger Sherman proposed a compromise Great Compromise (or Connecticut Compromise). Finally, a delegate from Connecticut named Roger Sherman, proposed a compromise which came to be known as the Great Compromise (or Connecticut Compromise). bits and pieces from both Taking bits and pieces from both the New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan, Sherman created a government which has changed very little. Roger Sherman Source: National Park Service 43

104 Great Compromise The Great Compromise proposed a strong national government with: 1.Three Branches of Government Legislative Branch (pass laws) Executive Branch (carry out/ enforce laws) Judicial Branch (interpret laws- see if laws are fair and carried out fairly) The Great Compromise

105 Bicameral Legislature Upper House United States Senate- United States Senate- Each State would have equal representation (1 state, 2 votes). Members would be chosen by State legislatures. Lower House United States House of Representatives- United States House of Representatives- Each State would be represented based upon population and elected directly by the people of their State.

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107 36 Reps 2 Senators = 38 Electoral Votes electors Each state would have as many “electors” as it had representatives and senators vote for electors When we vote for president, we actually vote for electors to cast votes for a candidate

108 On July 16, 1787, the Great Compromise was approved by 38 of the 55 delegates. But other issues arose that would require even further compromise.

109 issue of slavery questions of representation The issue of slavery became a problem for Northerners and Southerners… not due to moral differences, but because of questions of representation. Southerners wanted to count their entire population Southerners wanted to count their entire population of slaves to boost their numbers in Congress. Northerners objected citing that slaves were not considered citizens Northerners objected citing that slaves were not considered citizens and could not vote. Library of Congress

110 SlaveryNext difficult issue: Slavery Southern states wanted slaves included in the population figures used to determine Representatives Northern states which had few slaves, disagreed 3/5thsCompromise was to count each slave as 3/5ths of a person

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112 Another issue that arose also related to slavery. Many northerners opposed slavery and most northern states had outlawed the institution of slavery. Therefore, Northerners called for an end to the slave trade in the United States. Library of Congress

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114 After resolving a series of important issues, the United States Constitution was completed on September 17, 1787 and read to the convention for the last time

115 rising sun As members stepped forward to sign the Constitution, Benjamin Franklin pointed to a chair behind George Washington and said, "I have often... in the course of the session... looked at that sun behind the President without being able to tell whether it was rising or setting. But now at length I have the happiness to know it is a rising sun and not a setting sun."

116 The Constitution was an incredible achievement. No other nation had created a document that was as bold or daring. The world watched to see if it would succeed… But first it needed to be ratified by the states!

117 Review In what city was the Constitutional Convention held? 41. What was the only state that refused to send delegates to the Constitutional Convention? 42. Who served as President of the Constitutional Convention? 43. Who was the oldest delegate in attendance? 44. Explain the Virginia Plan. 45. Which types of states did the Virginia Plan favor? 46. Explain the New Jersey Plan. 47. Which types of states did the New Jersey Plan favor? 48. Who proposed the Great Compromise? 49. Explain the Great Compromise. 50. Why did Southerners want to count their slaves as part of their population? 51. Why did Northerners object to the counting of slaves as part of the Southern population? 52. Explain the Three-Fifths Compromise. 53. What was the main reason given by Southern delegates against banning slavery? 54. Explain the compromise agreed to by the delegates relating to the importation of slaves. Philadelphia Rhode Island Washington B. Franklin Called for 3 branches w. a strong national gov. Large States 3 branches but unicameral legislature Small States Roger Sherman One house based on = repre & other based on pop. To boost their numbers in Congress Slaves were not considered citizens. Count each slave as 3/5 of person. Would ruin the sountern economy. Slavery to continue for 20 years, then be regulated.

118 At the conclusion of the Constitutional Convention “Well, Doctor… what have we a got, a republic or a monarchy?” a woman approached Benjamin Franklin and asked, “Well, Doctor… what have we a got, a republic or a monarchy?” “A republic. If you can keep it.” Franklin replied, “A republic. If you can keep it.” Library of Congress

119 republic A republic is a nation in which voters elect representatives to govern them. “We the people…” The Constitution begins “We the people…” which exemplifies the American desire to have a government controlled by the people

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121 John Locke The theories of political philosophers were also incorporated John Locke English philosopher John Locke published the Two Treatises of Government from which the framers drew 2 very important ideas.

122 1.John Locke’s first idea was that all people had natural rights to life, liberty, and property. These were cited in the Declaration of Independence, although Jefferson changed the right to “property” to the right to the “pursuit of happiness.”

123 second idea 2. The second idea was that there was an agreement between the people and the government. In this idea, he suggested that citizens give the government its power and promised to obey its laws; but in turn, the government had an obligation to protect the natural rights of man. If they failed to protect those rights, the people could rebel. “ Social Contract Theory ”. This is known as the “ Social Contract Theory ”.

124 French political philosopher, Baron de Montesquieu separation of powers Baron de Montesquieu, suggested the separation of powers in his book The Spirit of the Laws branches of government legislative branch executive branch judicial branch He believed in the separation of powers in which there would be 3 branches of government; a legislative branch, an executive branch, and a judicial branch

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126 Maurice-Quentin La Tour, 1753

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128 Powers of the government changed under the Constitution Articles of Confederation Under the Articles of Confederation, the states had greater power than the federal government. Constitution Under the Constitution, the States were required to give up some powers, but kept many of them. sharing of power between the States and The sharing of power between the States and national governmentFEDERALISM FEDERAL SYSTEM national government is known as FEDERALISM (or the FEDERAL SYSTEM). 44

129 The Federal System gives Americans the ability to vote for both State and national officials. The federal government acts for the nation as a whole. The States have power over local matters. limited government government is restricted in what it can do We have limited government in that the government is restricted in what it can do and each individual has certain rights. 45

130 Federal Powers State Powers Shared Powers Some Examples - Coin Money - Declare War - Regulate Trade (b/twn states and states and foreign nations) - Make Treaties - Regulate trade within borders - Decide who can vote in state elections - Control Education - All powers not delegated to federal government - Raise taxes - Build roads - Decide penalties for crimes

131 Of course, disagreements between the States and the federal government were inevitable “Supreme law of the land”. To ensure that disagreements were resolved with greater ease, it was decided that the Constitution would serves as the “Supreme law of the land”. In other words… the Constitution was the final word!

132 To ensure that the government was not too powerful, the Constitution divided the government into three separate branches (using Montesquieu’s theory) Legislative Executive Judicial

133 Article 1 Legislative Branch Article 1 of the Constitution created the Legislative Branch bicameral legislature It created a bicameral legislature: The House of Representatives 2 year terms The House of Representatives: Representatives are elected by the citizens of their Congressional District for 2 year terms. The Senate The Senate: 6 year terms Senators were originally chosen by state legislatures but in 1913 the Constitution was amended allowing citizens to directly vote for Senators (Amendment 17). 6 year terms makes laws The main purpose of the Congress is to makes laws. Article 1 also states the powers of the Legislative Branch (collect taxes, regulate foreign and interstate trade, declare war, raise and support armies).

134 Article 2Executive Branch Article 2 of the Constitution created the Executive Branch Although many feared a strong executive branch (because of the American experience with King George III), it was decided that a strong executive branch would be needed to balance the Congress. James Madison argued that a Congress had the potential to act tyrannically as well. The President has a 4 year term10 years. The Executive Branch is headed by the president but also includes the Vice President and all of his appointed advisors. The President has a 4 year term, and can serve no more than a total of 10 years. enforce laws. The main purpose of the Executive Branch is to enforce laws.

135 Article 3 Judicial Branch Article 3 of the Constitution created the Judicial Branch interpret, or determine if laws are fair. Article 3 called for the creation of a Supreme Court and other federal courts created by the Congress to interpret, or determine if laws are fair. The Supreme Court and other federal courts hear cases dealing with the Constitution, laws passed by Congress, and cases that involve disagreements between states. lifetimeThose who serve on federal courts have a lifetime tenure.

136 After the creation of the Executive Branch of government, there was still debate about how the President would be elected. Some feared a direct vote by the people would lead to the election of a demagogue. Others feared that citizens from the north would not get to know candidates from the south and vice versa.

137 electoral college The delegates decided to create an electoral college to solve these problems. wise and well educated people According to the framers, the electoral college would be made up of wise and well educated people who would chose a President for us. Picking members of the electoral college would be determined by the States. In most cases, each State has a slate of electors for each candidate chosen by the political parties.

138 was necessary to create a The framers also thought it was necessary to create a System of Checks and Balances as a way to limit the powers of government. In this system, each branch of government can “check” the other 2 branches.

139 For example… Congress passes a bill and sends it to the president to be signed. signin vetoing The President checks the Congress by either signing or vetoing (rejecting) the bill. overriding If he vetoes the bill, it returns to Congress where they can check the President by overriding the President’s veto if they get a 2/3 majority in both houses. Send a bill to the President President can sign or veto the bill. If he vetoes the bill, it goes back to the Congress Congress can override a presidential veto IF they get a 2/3 majority in each house

140 The Congress can also check the President’s power by approving or disapproving official appointments (cabinet posts, ambassadors, judges) in the Senate. The Congress also approves treaties negotiated by the President (2/3 of the Senate must approve). Judge Sam Alito

141 Congress can also remove a President from office if he is guilty of a crime or serious misbehavior. impeachment. A case against the President must be brought to the House of Representatives in a process called impeachment. simple majority 2/3 vote in favor of conviction is required A President can be impeached in the House of Representatives by a simple majority, and then a trial is held in the Senate. A 2/3 vote in favor of conviction is required to remove the President from office. Andrew JohnsonBill Clinton

142 The President and the Congress have checks on the Courts. The President appoints judges. The Senate must approve judges. Congress may also impeach judges who commit crimes or seriously misbehave.

143 The Judicial Branch has checks over each of the other two… but those checks are enormous. unconstitutional constitutional 1. They can declare a law or a part of a law passed by Congress or a state legislature to be unconstitutional or they can affirm that laws challenged by citizens are constitutional. For example, the Supreme Court found in 1989 and in 1990 that laws banning flag burning violated the First Amendment right to free expression (speech). 2. They can declare acts of the president or a state executive unconstitutionalconstitutionality to be unconstitutional or the can affirm the constitutionality of his/her act. For example, the Supreme Court ruled in 2006 stated that it was unconstitutional to conduct special military commissions established by the Department of Defense (in the Executive Branch) for detainees at Guantanamo. Bay, Cuba, and that they were entitled to broader protections of their rights.

144 (Legislative Branch) Passes laws Can override President's veto Raises and supports the military Can declare war Approves treaties and presidential appointments Creates lower federal courts Prints and coins money Regulates foreign and interstate trade Appropriates (set aside for a specific purpose) money Can impeach and remove President and other high officials (Executive Branch) Enforces Laws Many veto a bill Proposes laws Appoints Federal judges Negotiated foreign treaties Serves as Commander in Chief of the US Military Can grant pardons to those who have been convicted of federal crimes (Judicial Branch) Interprets Laws Can declare laws unconstitutional (both federal and State) Can declare executive actions unconstitutional (both federal and State) Each of these Checks is a check on which branch? All photographs courtesy of whitehouse.gov

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146 Articles of ConfederationThe US Constitution 1. Unicameral Congress (1 house) 2. Equal (one) vote in Congress per state 3.No Executive Branch 4. No Judicial Branch 5.9 out of 13 states had to approve laws in Congress 6.States could coin their own money 7.States could regulate trade with states and foreign nations 8.States had great autonomy to govern themselves 9.Only states had the power to impose taxes 1. Bicameral Congress (2 houses) 2. In House of Representative, states were represented based on population; In the Senate each state got two votes regardless of population 3. Executive Branch established, lead by US President, carries out laws 4.Judicial Branch established, headed by Supreme Court, interprets laws 5.Majority rules! (50% +1 in each house to pass laws) 6.Congress has exclusive right to coin money 7.Only Congress could regulate trade with states and foreign nations 8.States recognize the US Constitution as the final word on all matters 9.Congress can impose taxes as well

147 Review What is a republic? 56. List 3 examples of documents/institutions that contributed to the creation of the Constitution? 57. What two important ideas were taken from the theories of John Locke? 58. What important ideas were taken from Baron de Montesquieu? 59. What important idea was taken from Jean-Jacques Rousseau. 60. Define federalism. 61. Give 3 examples of federal powers 62. Give 3 examples of state powers? 63. Give 3 examples of shared powers? 64. To ensure that there was no disagreements about the powers of government, it was decided that the Constitution would serve as the “___________________________”. Nation in which voters elect representatives to govern them. Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, & Fundamental Orders of Connecticut All people had natural rights and the “Social Contract Theory” Separation of powers and that laws should be clear and understandable All government rested on a social contract and not God given rights Sharing of power between the States and national government They both would raise taxes, build roads and decide penalties for crimes. National G would coin money, regulate trade and make treaties. States would control education, decide who can vote, and regulate trade within borders. “Supreme Law of the Land”

148 Review Article 1 of the Constitution created what branch of government? 66. What is the main purpose of the branch above? 67. The branch above is separated into a bicameral body containing the _______________ and the ______________. 68. Article 2 of the Constitution created what branch of government? 69. What is the main purpose of the branch above? 70. Article 3 of the Constitution created what branch of government? 71. What is the main purpose of the branch above? 72. To ensure that the President was selected by wise and well educated men, the framers created what? 73. In order to limit the powers of each of the branches of government, what system was put into place? 74. Give an example of how the executive branch can “check” the legislative branch. 75. Why is the Constitution referred to as a “living document”? Bicameral legislature Make the laws SenateHouse Executive branch Enforce the laws Judicial branch Interpret the laws An electoral college Separation of powers The president can veto a bill. Changes could be made.

149 Ratifying the Constitution was not an easy task delegates In , citizens in each State had to elect delegates to state conventions to debate and discuss whether or not to approve the new Constitution 46

150 Two Groups Emerged… Federalists - s ss supported ratification of the Constitution. Anti- Federalists - o oo opposed ratification of the Constitution

151 Federalists Federalists supported ratification because they wanted a strong national government Alexander HamiltonJames Madison The most famous Federalist leaders were Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay. and John Jay.

152 Federalists’ The Federalists’ ideas about strong national government were included in the Constitution. Separation of Powers System of Checks and Balances. System of Checks and Balances. Shared Powers between State and Federal Government. Shared Powers between State and Federal Government.

153 The Federalist Papers In support of their beliefs, Federalists wrote a series of essays called The Federalist Papers to try to convince the people of New York to support ratification. Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, The 85 Federalist Papers were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay and John Jay from October 1787 to May Publius They always used the pen name “ Publius ” when signing their essays. Publius was a Roman statesman.

154 Anti-Federalists George MasonPatrick HenryRichard Henry Lee. Anti-Federalists opposed ratification because they wanted a much weaker federal government and stronger state powers. The most famous Federalist leaders were George Mason, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee.

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156 The biggest and most convincing argument of the Anti-Federalists was that of the need for a Bill of Rights. They argued that rights would be ignored if they weren’t spelled out. Federalists argued it was excessive and unnecessary. They also contended that it would be impossible to list all of the natural rights of man.

157 Order State Delaware Pennsylvania New Jersey Georgia Connecticut Massachusetts Maryland South Carolina New Hampshire Virginia New York North Carolina Rhode Island Date Dec. 7, 1787 Dec. 12, 1787 Dec. 18, 1787 Jan. 2, 1788 Jan. 9, 1788 Feb. 6, 1788 Apr. 28, 1788 May 23, 1788 June 21, 1788 June 25, 1788 July 26, 1788 Nov. 21, 1789 May 29, 1790 Votes For Votes Against Ratification 49

158 After the ratification of the Constitution, cities throughout the United States celebrated with fireworks, ringing church bells, and parades. The Constitution would be a great experiment.

159 civic virtue 1789 George Washington, in a great display of civic virtue, came out of retirement and was elected the first President of the United States in January of 1789.

160 New York City The Congress met in New York City, which served as the United States’ first post- Constitution capital. There were 59 Representa- tives and 26 Senators.

161 After ratification, Congress decided to create a Bill of Rights. amendments But first, they had to set up a process for adding amendments (changes) to the Constitution. They realized that conditions would change throughout time and that the Constitution would need to reflect those changes…. BUT the Congress wanted to make the process difficult so that it would not be taken lightly.

162 Congress Created 2 Ways to Propose Amendments to the Constitution 1. 2/3 of both houses of Congress can propose Amendments 2. 2/3 of the states call for a Constitutional Convention for the purpose of creating amendments (never been done) 2/3 of 2/3 of

163 After Amendments have been proposed they must be ratified by ¾ of the states before it becomes part of the Constitution. Congress decides how After a successful proposal process, Congress decides how the bill will be ratified the bill will be ratified by the States: state legislatures by the ¾ of state legislatures… or special state conventions by ¾ of special state conventions (only used once)

164 By December of 1791, ¾ of the states had ratified the First 10 Amendments of the Constitution The First 10 Amendments James Madison Bill of Rights The First 10 Amendments, all written by James Madison are referred to as the Bill of Rights NOT Madison insisted that the government was NOT giving these rights to citizens… those rights already existed

165 Religion Speech Press Assembly P e t i t i o n

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170 Review What was the method used to ratify the Constitution? 77. (a) What were the two groups that emerged during the debate over ratification, and (b) what position did each group take in reference to ratification? 78. Who were the 3 best known leaders of the Federalists and what was the name of the series of 85 essays they wrote? 79. Who were the 3 best known leaders of the Anti-Federalists? 80. What were the major objections of the Anti-Federalists to the ratification of the Constitution? 81. Although the 9 of the 13 states had ratified the Constitution by June of 1788, which 2 large and very important States had yet to do so? 82. Who was elected as the nation’s first President in January of 1789? States elected delegates to conventions to approve/disapprove the Constitution. Federalist were for ratification and the Anti-Federalist were against ratification. Hamilton, Madison, and Jay; The Federalist Papers George Mason, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee It had no Bill of Rights & the national government had too much power. Virginia and New York. George Washington

171 Review What city served as the United States’ first post-Constitution capital? 84. Why did Congress make amending the Constitution a difficult task? 85. What are the two ways that Amendments to the Constitution can be proposed? 86. Once an amendment is proposed, (a) what fraction of the states must ratify it, and (b) what are the 2 ways it can be ratified? 87. Which amendments are considered the Bill of Rights in the Constitution? 88. What are the 5 freedoms guaranteed under the First Amendment? 89. Which amendment guarantees the right to a trial by jury? 90.Which amendment protects Americans from being tortured as a punishment for a crime? New York So it would not be taken lightly. ¾; ¾ of State legislatures or ¾ of special State conventions [used once] A. 2/3 of both houses of Congress can propose Amendments B. 2/3 of the states call for a Constitutional Convention for the purpose of creating amendments (never been done) First Ten Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition Amendment VI Amendment VIII

172 1. Three ideas from the English that helped shape our democracy were ordered government, limited government, and _______________ government. 2. (Ordered/Limited/Representative) government brought the idea that government is not all-powerful. 3. (Ordered/Limited/Representative) government is the idea that government serves the will of the people. 4. The _______ ________ in 1215, protected rights such as trial by jury, due process, and protections of life, liberty, and property. 5. The __________ __ ________ first limited the kings powers by not allowing him to imprison people without a jury of his peers. 6. The _________ ______ ___ ________ in 1689 guaranteed several things including protection against cruel and unusual punishment. 7. The first colony was at (Boston/Jamestown/Dallas/L.A.). 8. A (charter/petition) was a written grant of authority from the king. 9. (Royal/Proprietary/Charter) colonies were controlled by the king. 10. (Royal/Proprietary/Charter) colonies were organized by someone to whom the king gave a land grant. 11. (Royal/Proprietary/Charter) colonies were colonies based on charters granted by the king. 12. A Charter colony was the most liberal as most matters were handled by the (colonists/king). 13. The (Sugar/Tax) Act of 1764 took measures to stop smuggling and bribes. 14. The (Sugar/Stamp) Act of 1765 imposed a tax on 55 types of printed material. representative Magna Carta Petition of Rights English Bill of Rights

173 15. (James Otis/Patrick Henry) said, “Taxation without representation is tyranny.” 16. The (Stamp Act Congress/Sugar Act Congress) occurred in 1765 to oppose the Stamp Act. 17. The (Sugar/Stamp/Townshend) Acts placed a tax on lead, glass, paint, tea, silk and paper. 18. The (Sons of Liberty/Veterans of Liberty) hung lanterns and conducted mock hangings of British officials. 19. The (Quartering Act//Housing Act) required the colonists to pay for quartering of British soldiers. 20. The Boston Massacre resulted in the deaths of (two/three/five/10) colonists. 21. To inform citizens of Massachusetts of the actions of the British, Sam Adams set up (committees of correspondence/committees of action). 22. Another name for the Intolerable Acts was the (Do-AS-I-Say/Coercive) Acts. 23. The (First/Second) Continental Congress met on September 5, The first battle of the Revolution was at (Lexington and Concord/Philadelphia/Jamestown). 25. Common Sense was written by (Benjamin Franklin/George Washington/Thomas Paine). 26. It was (Richard Henry Lee/Patrick Henry/Thomas Edison) who said in 1776 that, that “These United States are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states…” 27. The man chosen to write the Declaration of Independence was (George Washington/Thomas Jefferson).

174 28. In writing the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was greatly influenced by (John Locke/Sam Adams/Charles II). 29. Governments only existed if they had the consent of the (President/Prime Minister/governed). 30. The 2nd part of the Declaration of Independence had to do with the wrongs of (Virginia settlers/George III). 31. Virginia was the first colony to have a (Petition of Rights/Bill of Rights). 32. The first American Constitution was the (Bill of Rights/Petition of Rights/Articles of Confederation). 33. The Articles of confederation (did/did not) create an executive or judicial branch. 34. Under the Articles of Confederation, the government (could/could not) force the States to pay to keep the federal government going. 35. Under the Articles of Confederation, (five/seven/nine/eleven/thirteen) of the 13 States had to vote in favor of passing laws. 36. After (Shay’s Rebellion/Magna Carta/ the Stamp Act), many Americans were convinced that the Articles of Confederation were too weak. 37. The Constitutional Convention met in (Philadelphia/New York) in The delegates who crafted the Constitution were called (Framers/Money Launderers/Turncoats). 39. The “Big State” plan with membership based on population was the (New Jersey/Virginia) Plan. 40. The “two-house” legislative plan was called a (unicameral/bicameral) plan.

175 41. The “small State” plan with equal membership from each State was the (New Jersey/Virginia) Plan. 42. The “one-house” legislative plan was called a (unicameral/bicameral) plan. 43. The man who proposed the Great Compromise was (Ben Franklin/Roger Sherman). 44. The sharing of power between the States and the Federal Government is known as (federalism/charter). 45. We have (limited/unlimited) government which means the government is restricted in what it can do. 46. Citizens elected to State conventions were called (delegates/conventioners). 47. (Federalists/Anti-Federalists) supported ratification of the Constitution. 48. (Federalists/Anti-Federalists) did not support ratification of the Constitution. 49. Ratification of the Constitution took the vote of (five/seven/nine/eleven) States. 50. My favorite course so far this semester is (government/any other courses here at school, OK, maybe Economics).

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