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Phillip Long MIT The Story of “O” (as in Open Source) Thursday, May 13th, 2004

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Presentation on theme: "Phillip Long MIT The Story of “O” (as in Open Source) Thursday, May 13th, 2004"— Presentation transcript:

1 Phillip Long MIT The Story of “O” (as in Open Source) Thursday, May 13th, 2004

2 How many open source developers does it take to change a light bulb?

3 17 to agree about the license 17 to argue about the brain deadedness of the light bulb architecture 17 to argue about a new model that encompasses all models of illumination & makes it simple to candles, campfires, pilot lights and skylights with the same easy to extend mechanism 17 to speculate about the secretive industrial conspiracy that insures that light bulbs will burn out frequently 1 to finally change the light and 16 who decide that this solution is good enough for the time being Peter Wayner, “Free for all; how linux and the free software movement undercut the high-tech titatns”, NY, Harper-Collins, 2000

4 The e-decade The o-decade e-publishinge-commerce e-business e-Bay open sourceopen systemsopen standards open access open archives open tools

5 Meme - "ideas should freely spread from one to another over the globe” Thomas Jefferson Liberation Technology 1 1 John Unsworth - Chronicle of Higher Education, Jan. 30, 2004 Dean of the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

6 Liberation technology is not anti-business Commerce across a continuum of non- exclusive commercial rights

7 The Cast Open Content Open Standards Open Systems Open Tools Open Access

8 Open Content “OpenCourseWare looks counter-intuitive in a market-driven world. It goes against the grain of current material values. But it really is consistent with what I believe is the best about MIT. It is innovative. It expresses our belief in the way education can be advanced – by constantly widening access to information and by inspiring others to participate.” – Charles M. Vest, President of MIT Sept

9 Furthers MIT’s fundamental mission Embraces faculty values Teaching Sharing best practices with the greater community Contributing to their discipline Counters the privatization of knowledge and champions the movement toward greater openness Why Is MIT Doing This?

10 Design pub process Implement technology strategy Develop IP strategy Implement dept. liaison program Develop evaluation strategy Conduct baseline evaluation Partner with Universia (translation affiliate) Inventory content and improve quality Enhance site features and functions Add video materials Plot new content capture tactics Implement reporting strategy Conduct annual evaluations and focused studies Facilitate other opencoursewares Partner with translation/distribution affiliates Build awareness Foster learning communities Phase I Pilot Phase II Expansion Phase III Steady State Courses Publication Evaluation Outreach 701 Courses Each year: Add new courses: ~100 Revise existing: ~ 275 Archive old: ~ 100 Conduct annual evaluations and studies Collaborate with consortium members Where We Are

11 Publishing 700 Courses Site Highlights Syllabus Course Calendar Lecture Notes Assignments Exams Problem/Solution Sets Labs and Projects Simulations Tools and Tutorials Video Lectures Open Content

12 Since 10/1/03* DecemberJanuaryFebruaryMarch Page Views20,604,4272,680,7943,311,6112,884,0613,025,412 Average Daily Visits *11,1039,27611,62411,17410,891 Average Monthly Visits *301,719287,546360,360324,058337,620 First-Time Visits*174,407172,536196,710174,961187,348 Monthly Repeat Visits *127,312115,010163,650149,097150,272 * Figures in italics are averages Access Data Site Traffic Overview Open Content

13 Traffic Volume by Geography Country Hits 11Brazil340,281 12France334,190 13Spain318,292 14Indonesia251,495 15Australia240,689 16Turkey239,972 17Colombia196,504 18Singapore185,495 19Mexico165,221 20Greece164,496 CountryHits 1India954,167 2Canada859,782 3China822,206 4U.K.672,339 5South Korea448,975 6Japan421,334 7Germany402,965 8Vietnam401,498 9Taiwan392,701 10Italy366,484 March 2004 Open Content

14 Access Data Self-learners are 52% of visitors –Average of over 6000 daily visits –Most likely from North America (60% of North American visitors) Students are 31% of visitors –3600 daily visits Educators are 13% of the visitors –1550 visits per day –55% of educators teach at 4-year colleges or the equivalent –Almost 49% have less than 5 years teaching experience Almost 70% of users have a bachelors degree or higher Open Content

15 Other OCWs are beginning to appear Some using MIT materials, some using the format, some using the idea Emerging “opencoursewares” Open Content

16 Provide free, searchable, coherent access to all MIT course materials for educators, students, and individual learners around the world Create an efficient, standards-based model that other educational institutions may use to publish their own course materials Dual Mission: Open Content

17 Open Standards Interoperability Portability Coordinated effort end

18 Dimensions of Interoperability Service Definitions Data Definitions Technology Choices UI/Application Frameworks Open Standards

19 Goals of Interoperability  Data Exchange/Synchronization  Enterprise Integration  Application Portability  Tool/UI Integration  Language Integration  Inter-Enterprise Resource Sharing  Etc…

20 "an open and extensible architecture that specifies how the components of an educational software environment communicate with each other and with other enterprise systems." Open Knowledge Initiative Open Standards

21 O.K.I. is: Service based architecture specifications Open Service Interface Definitions (OSIDs) Open source implementations Open source exemplar applications Educational Development Community Funded by Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, CMI, MIT Open Standards

22 O.K.I. Solution Focus on Service Based architecture specifications (data/metadata specifications are “doing fine”) Identify software infrastructure services critical to eLearning applications Define interfaces to them. Don’t define how to implement them! Open Service Interface Definitions (OSIDs) Open Standards

23 OSIDs… Provide Architectural Model for software interoperability Allow for easy mobility of application tools among enterprise infrastructures Provide software developers with common, yet flexible, specifications for collaboration Define boundaries between “user facing” applications and critical services (“MiddleWare”) Help to “Future Proof” against changing technologies Enable “marketplace” of software components Are about Architecture, NOT Technology Open Standards

24 Enterprise Applications Monolithic Factored

25 Service Based Architecture public class Factory implements org.okip.service.Example.api.Factory { private static final blah blah bhal private static final yada yada yada } … Example OSID … org.okip.service.shared.api.Thing things = myFactory.getSomething(); if (null != thingss) { for (int i = 0; things.length != i; i++) { out.println(things[i]); System.err.println(types[i]); } } … Application Implementation Infrastructure Service e.g. authentication Open Standards

26 Boundaries Open Standards Opportunity: the OKI license encourages derivative works

27 Code what counts Borrow or buy the rest Who will provide the services?

28 Open Systems Hiroyuki Sakai Iron Chef French – Fusion Cuisine

29 Sakai Project Core Universities: UMich, IU, Stanford, MIT Commitments –5+ developers/architects, etc. under project leadership – no local responsibility for 2 years –Public commitment to implement Sakai –Open/Open licensing Project –$4.4M in institutional staff (27 FTE) –$2.4M Mellon Foundation –Additional investment through partners (SEPP) Open Systems

30 Sakai Project Deliverables 1. Tool Portability Profile  Specifications for writing portable software 2. Pooled intellectual property…best of  JSR-168 portal  Course management system  Quizzing and assessment tools, etc  Research collaboration system  Workflow engine  …modular & pre-integrated 3. Synchronized adoptions at Michigan, Indiana, MIT, Stanford with open-open licensing Open Systems Tool Portability Profile

31 Michigan CHEF Framework CourseTools WorkTools Indiana Navigo Assessment Eden Workflow OneStart Oncourse MIT Stellar Stanford CourseWork Assessment OKI OSIDs uPortal SAKAI 2.0 Release Tool Portability Profile Framework Services-based Portal SAKAI Tools Complete CMS Assessment Workflow Research Tools Authoring Tools Primary SAKAI Activity Refining SAKAI Framework, Tuning and conforming additional tools Intensive community building/training Activity: Ongoing implementation work at local institution… Jan 04 July 04May 05Dec 05 Activity: Maintenance & Transition from a project to a community SAKAI 1.0 Release Tool Portability Profile Framework Services-based Portal Refined OSIDs & implementations SAKAI Tools Complete CMS Assessment Primary SAKAI Activity Architecting for JSR-168 Portlets, Refactoring “best of” features for tools Conforming tools to Tool Portability Profile "Best of" Sakai Core Project Open Systems Refactoring

32 Service Abstractions for Interoperability Open Systems App. 1 Applications App. 2 Application ClientServers Network Service A 1 Network Service B Network Service A 2

33 Service Abstractions for Interoperability Open Systems App. 1 OSID Applications App. 2 Application ClientServers Network Service A 1 Network Service B Network Service A 2

34 Service Abstractions for Interoperability Open Systems App. 1 Imp. A – Protocol Connector (plus Local Business Logic) Imp. B – Protocol Connector OSID Implementations Applications App. 2 Application ClientServers Protocol A Protocol B Network Service A 1 Network Service B Network Service A 2

35 Service Abstractions for Interoperability Open Systems App. 1 Imp. A – Protocol Connector (plus Local Business Logic) Imp. B – Protocol Connector OSID Imp. C - Local Connector Local Service C Implementations Applications App. 2 Application ClientServers Protocol A Protocol B Network Service A 1 Network Service B Network Service A 2

36 Service Abstractions for Interoperability Open Systems App. 1 Imp. A – Protocol Connector (plus Local Business Logic) Imp. B – Protocol Connector OSID Imp. C - Local Connector Local Service C Implementations Applications App. 2 Application ClientServers Protocol A Protocol B Network Service A 1 Network Service B Network Service A 2 Data

37 Sakai Architecture App. 1 OSIDs App. 2 App. 3 App. 4 JSR169 Enabled Portal JSR 168 Portlet API Open Systems

38 Sakai Educational Partners Program Facilitate adoption and development of tools for inter-institutional portability What’s a SEP get? –Strategic briefings –Project Roadmap input –Early Access Tool Portability Profile (TPP) Software/Tools Developer training –Community Technical liaison Implementation support Open Systems SEP Costs Large institutions: –$30K ($10k/year for 3 years) Small institutions (<3000 students) –$15k ($5k/year for 3 years)

39 Open Systems SEPP 1st Conference

40 Open Systems

41 JISC Technical Framework Sakai Technical Framework Open Systems

42 LionShare Emerging from Napster + Kazaa + Gnutella ….. peer-to-peer with authentication Open Systems

43 Segue & Harmoni - Middlebury College Segue - PHP based CMS –http://sourceforge.net/projects/segue/http://sourceforge.net/projects/segue/ –http://segue.middlebury.edu/index.php?&action =site&site=mit-testhttp://segue.middlebury.edu/index.php?&action =site&site=mit-test Harmoni - next gen Segue –http://harmoni.sourceforge.net/http://harmoni.sourceforge.net/ Open Systems

44 Harmoni Architecture

45 Harmoni Basics Development Status: 1 - Planning, 2 - Pre-Alpha, 4 - Beta Environment: Web Environment Intended Audience: Developers, Education, System Administrators License: GNU General Public License (GPL) Natural Language: English Operating System: MacOS X, Windows, POSIX Programming Language: Java, Perl, PHP Topic: Front-Ends, CGI Tools/Libraries, Site Management, Security, Software Development

46 Tufts Visual Understanding Environment (VUE) Open Tools

47 Many Repositories… IDC I BM Remote IDC Institutional Local

48 Many Repository Related Protocols… IDC I BM IDC SOAP SRW HTML Z39.50 File System DRI Remote Local Institutional

49 Many Data Specs/Standards… IDC I BM IDC SOAP SRW HTML Z39.50 DRI Remote Institutional Mark DC LOM SCORM METS IMS CP Local File System

50 Federated Search Open Tools

51 Gradebook Open Tools

52 Sakai GradeBook Open Tools

53

54

55

56

57 Reload Chandler Connexions TWicki

58 Open Access - DSpace

59 Fedora Cornell/Univ.of Virgina open source digital repository project Repository exposed via web service APIs & OKI OSIDs Associate services with objects Provides version control Open Access

60 Open Architecture

61 Ed Tech Architecture Should… Make it easy for software developers to utilize enterprise infrastructure, otherwise they won’t. Make it possible for institutions to share and collaborate on educational software Provide ability for integration requirement to be more clearly specified in RFPs Mitigate technology change Support both Web and Client based applications Driven by sustainability concerns NOT research (Pioneers not Trailblazers)

62 Continuum of Open A growing ecology where open standards builds markets –Allowing open, community or proprietary source to add value –Business opportunities are expanding, shifting to the services not just the products Be sanguine about what open standards means to you –The point is to get interoperability, portability, and persistence

63 Commerce across a continuum of non- exclusive commercial rights

64 Where are these ideas tested? Alt-i-lab 2004, in the Bay Area, July Watch IMS website MIT last year

65 What does higher ed care about? Choice Flexibility Sustainability Scholarship as a methodology –The largest open source project has the Human Genome Project Enabling investments - getting the web and the desktop to work together

66 Are new ideas good ideas?

67

68 Not always…

69 Open Content Open Standards Open Systems Open Tools Open Access Reflect the application of scholarship to the problem of learning systems - that’s what higher ed does well If higher ed innovates… where’s the opportunity? It’s hard for individual institutions to support, maintain, or incrementally advance products and services well; (consortia?) HE needs interoperable content; HE needs partners not vendors

70 (Questions - Your Turn) Thank you.

71 Some Open Source Links MIT OpenCourseWare CETIS Creative Commons eduplone (Plone is an enterprise CMS based on Zope/CMF) and IMS Global Learning Consortium Open Knowledge Initiative Opensource CMS The Sakai Project Segue - Middlebury College - uPortal DSpace Federation The Fedora Project Connexions LionShare


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