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Bridging Java Presentation and Business Logic with an Application Model Nathan Carpenter RABA Technologies.

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Presentation on theme: "Bridging Java Presentation and Business Logic with an Application Model Nathan Carpenter RABA Technologies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bridging Java Presentation and Business Logic with an Application Model Nathan Carpenter RABA Technologies

2 Purpose Show how the Application Model design pattern provides a session-based state management solution that bridges the gap between the presentation and business tiers in a Web application

3 Agenda Background Problems Addressed The Application Model Pattern Implementing an Application Model Conclusion

4 Background Three Tier systems are very common today –Presentation Tier displays data to the user (JSP, Swing GUI) –Business Tier provides rules and logic for manipulating the data (Servlets, Session Beans) –Data Tier handles persistence of data (Entity Beans, Data Access Objects, JDBC)

5 Background Many patterns exist for Business and Data Tiers and communications between them –Session Façade, Value Object, Data Transfer Object, others Limited patterns exist for Presentation Tier or for its communication with Business Tier –Business Delegate

6 Agenda Background Problems Addressed The Application Model Pattern Implementing an Application Model Conclusion

7 Problem Three major problems between Presentation and Business Tiers –Properly designed Business Tier is client- agnostic –Stateless nature of Web-based interfaces makes keeping client state difficult –Presentation components must be decoupled from business communication logic

8 Client Agnosticism Business Tier interfaces should be developed to be useful to any number of clients –Client requirements often creep into Business Tier code –Decreases broad utility of Business Tier –Changes to the business logic may affect clients negatively

9 Stateless Clients Web interfaces are inherently stateless Clients often need to maintain some kind of state –State should not be managed by the business tier, since it is a client-specific need –State management in Web interfaces can be done with the Session –Namespace conflicts and state validation problems can become an issue in a large system

10 Decoupling Presentation Components JSPs, Custom Tags, and Struts Actions should contain no business logic or ties to the business interface –Limits impact of changes in presentation logic and business logic –Both change often during system development Need an adapter between presentation API and business API

11 The Application Model Pattern Provides a session-based state management solution that bridges the gap between the Presentation and Business tiers Works hand-in-hand with Business Delegate pattern to provide a client-specific interface to the Business Tier Used by Web-based display components such as JSPs, custom tags, and Struts actions

12 Agenda Background Problems Addressed The Application Model Pattern Implementing an Application Model Conclusion

13 The Application Model Pattern Forces Solution Participants and Responsibilities Strategy Consequences Related Patterns

14 Forces Business tiers are client-agnostic and provide data in least-common-denominator fashion Web-based interfaces are inherently stateless and need a standard way to manage state information It is desirable for clients to cache data from the server to reduce round trips Display components such as JSPs, custom tags, and Struts actions should not perform data translation and composition

15 Solution Use an Application Model to provide a client-specific interface to one or more business services, with caching and manipulation of the server-provided data encapsulated within a client-oriented model

16 Benefits of Solution Provides the interface that display-oriented components use to access the business tiers Yields a highly client-oriented interface that acts as a façade to multiple Business Delegates and Service Locators Acts as the Model while the display components act as the View and the web framework acts as the Controller

17 Structure of Application Model 1..*

18 Participants And Responsibilities

19 Client submits a request to the Controller (usually a Servlet or JSP) Participants And Responsibilities

20 Controller retrieves an instance of the Application Model from the Session Participants And Responsibilities

21 Controller executes method to access state maintained by the Application Model Participants And Responsibilities

22 Application Model returns stored state or uses Business Delegate to get remote information Participants And Responsibilities

23 Application Model returns control to the Controller Participants And Responsibilities

24 Strategy Implement the Application Model as a Session Singleton –One instance of the Application Model per user –Instance stored in the user’s Session –Expires when session is invalidated Details in the Implementation section

25 Consequences Provides a client-oriented API for display components –Takes the client-agnostic APIs generally provided by Business Delegates or Session Facades and creates a client-specific API –Within the Application Model, data is transformed based on client-specific requirements and cached if needed

26 Consequences Allows the Web application to maintain state using a consistent strategy –Reduces risk of namespace conflicts between developers in complex systems –Allows for related data to be logically grouped in the session and in code, which simplifies debugging and maintenance

27 Consequences Gives the Web application a consistent means for checking for loss of state –State validity checking is encapsulated into the instance retrieval method –Application Model can ensure that it is in the proper state before responding to any call

28 Related Patterns Business Delegate –Encapsulates the remote communications methods –Maps network exceptions into business exceptions Service Locator –Looks up remote objects if a Business Delegate does not exist for the remote interface

29 Agenda Background Problems Addressed The Application Model Pattern Implementing an Application Model Conclusion

30 Basic Requirements Must be Serializable to store in the Session Needs a unique handle to prevent namespace conflicts in the Session Has to be able to tell if the Session was invalidated between calls to the instance Needs a method to retrieve an instance from the Session

31 public class MyAppModel implements Serializable { private static final String SESSION_NAME = MyAppModel.class.getName(); private boolean transient isModelValid = false; private DemoBusinessDelegate delegate = null; // Other member variables go here // Mark any nonserializable ones as transient! Core Implementation

32 protected MyAppModel(HttpSession session) { // Initialize the business delegate(s) this.delegate = new DemoBusinessDelegate(); // Initialize other models or members // Set the model state to valid this.isModelValid = true; } Core Implementation (cont.)

33 public synchronized static MyAppModel getSessionInstance(HttpSession session) { Object o = session.getAttribute(SESSION_NAME); if (o == null || !(o instanceof MyAppModel) || !(((MyAppModel)o).isModelValid)) { o = new MyAppModel(session); session.setAttribute(SESSION_NAME, o); } return ((MyAppModel)o); } Core Implementation (cont.)

34 Implementation Notes Constructor must be protected to ensure singleton status All non-serializable members must be marked transient All public methods that manipulate member variables must be synchronized in case a user makes many requests rapidly

35 Demonstration Model Build an application model to interface to a simple personnel database Employee has name and address Server API has following methods: public Employee getEmployee(employeeId) public Employee[] getEmployees() public void addEmployee(Employee employee)

36 Build Client API Add code to support these client functions Retrieve a single employee and display their information Retrieve employee names and addresses from the server and cache them for display Create a wizard allowing entry of an employee record

37 Retrieve Employee Make a call to the business delegate passing the employee’s ID Let’s also figure that the client will want to operate multiple times on the same employee, so we should cache the result

38 private Employee cachedEmployee = null; public synchronized Employee getEmployee(String id) { if (this.cachedEmployee == null || !(this.cachedEmployee.getEmployeeId().equals(id))) { this.cachedEmployee = delegate.getEmployee(id); } return this.cachedEmployee; } Model Implementation

39 <% MyAppModel myAppModel = MyAppModel.getSessionInstance(session); String id = request.getParameter(“employeeId”); Employee employee = myAppModel.getEmployee(id); %> Name: <%= employee.getLastName() + “, ” + employee.getFirstName()%> JSP Implementation

40 Retrieve Employee List Make a call to the business delegate and get the array back Let’s also figure that the client will want to operate multiple times on the same list, so we should cache the result

41 private Employee[] cachedEmployees = null; public synchronized Employee[] getEmployees() { if (this.cachedEmployees == null) { this.cachedEmployees = delegate.getEmployees(); } return this.cachedEmployees; } Model Implementation

42 <% MyAppModel myAppModel = MyAppModel.getSessionInstance(session); Employee[] employeeList = myAppModel.getEmployeeList(); %> JSP Implementation

43 Adding Employee Previous examples focused on caching – this example will focus on state management Data Entry is often a multistage, branching process Real power of Application Model is here

44 Desired Outcome We’ll simulate a “wizard” for entering employee information First, enter first and last name and continue Next enter address and save record Real application would be more complex

45 Strategy We’ll create a “working” Employee object managed by the Application Model When all information is complete, this will be passed to the Business Delegate for saving

46 private Employee workingEmployee = null; public void setWorkingEmployee(Employee e) { … } public Employee getWorkingEmployee() { … } public synchronized void addEmployee(Employee employee) { delegate.addEmployee(employee); this.employees = null; this.currentEmployee = employee; } Model Implementation

47 The first step in the Wizard would fire the following Controller action /** setup action **/ Employee employee = new Employee(); employee.setEmployeeId(String.valueOf(new java.util.Date().getTime())); employee.setFirstName(form.getFirstName()); employee.setLastName(form.getLastName()); myAppModel.setWorkingEmployee(employee); /** rest of action **/ Controller Implementation

48 The second step in the Wizard would fire the following Controller action /** setup action **/ Employee employee = myAppModel.getWorkingEmployee(); employee.setStreet(form.getStreet()); employee.setCity(form.getCity()); employee.setState(form.getState()); employee.setZip(form.getZip()); myAppModel.setWorkingEmployee(null); // We’re done myAppModel.addEmployee(employee); /** rest of action **/ Controller Implementation

49 Demo

50 When To Use Use when you have complicated branching of requests while building up enough state information for a submission –Redundant for simple form state management problems since Web framework such as Struts and JSF provide standard constructs for this

51 When To Use Use when Presentation Tier use cases do not map well to Business Tier use cases –Adds needless level of indirection if you have a one-to-one method and exception mapping in your Application Model with no additional logic

52 When To Use Use for caching of server information when it doesn’t involve very complicated rules or huge data sets –Complicated caching logic is best handled by an off-the-shelf caching solution –Large data sets will overwhelm the session and are better handled by a focused caching solution

53 Agenda Background Problems Addressed The Application Model Pattern Implementing an Application Model Conclusion

54 The use of an Application Model –Allows Web client developers to create a client-oriented API –Encapsulates caching and data transformation specific to the client’s needs –Maintains state in a more predictable way than simply storing data in the session –Takes advantage of the Business Delegate and Service Locator patterns as best practices

55 Questions Contact Me Get The Code –http://www.jugaccino.orghttp://www.jugaccino.org Thanks For Attending!


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