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The Java Modeling Language JML Erik Poll Digital Security Radboud University Nijmegen.

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Presentation on theme: "The Java Modeling Language JML Erik Poll Digital Security Radboud University Nijmegen."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Java Modeling Language JML Erik Poll Digital Security Radboud University Nijmegen

2 Topics What properties can you specify in JML? What properties you want to specify? And why? – what kind of properties – at what level of detail Where do these properties come from? – ‘external’ system requirements – ‘internal’ design decisions

3 JML formal specification language for sequential Java by Gary Leavens et. al. –to specify behaviour of Java classes & interfaces –to record detailed design decisions by adding assertions aka annotations to Java source code in Design-By-Contract style, using eg. – pre/postconditions – object invariants – loop invariants – lots of other stuff Design goal: JML is meant to be usable by any Java programmer Lots of info on

4 to make JML easy to use JML annotations added as special Java comments, between /*@.. @*/ or after //@ JML specs can be files, or in separate.jml files Properties written in Java syntax, extended with some operators \old( ), \result, \forall, \exists, ==>,.. and some keywords requires, ensures, invariant,....

5 JML example public class ePurse{ private int balance; //@ invariant 0 <= balance && balance < 500; //@ requires amount >= 0; //@ ensures balance <= \old(balance); public void debit(int amount) { if (amount > balance) { throw (new BankException("No way"));} balance = balance – amount; }

6 What can you do with this? documentation/specification –record detailed design decisions & document assumptions (and hence obligations!) –precise, unambiguous documentation parsed & type checked use tools for –runtime assertion checking ie. testing code –compile time (static) analyses up to full formal program verification

7 preconditions assign responsibilities //@ requires amount >= 0; public debit(int amount) {... } vs //@ requires true; public debit(int amount) { if (amount < 0) return;... } Preconditions clearly assign responsibility on caller and may remove the need for defensive coding Dually, postconditions clearly assign responsibility on callee

8 LOTS of freedom in specifying JML specs can be as strong (aka detailed) or weak as you want Eg for debit(int amount) //@ ensures balance == \old(balance)-amount; or //@ ensures balance <= \old(balance); or //@ ensures true; Even last spec is stronger than you may think!

9 LOTS of freedom in specifying JML spec can express implementation decision //@ invariant f != null; or document a more interesting, deeper property //@ invariant child.parent == this;

10 What can you specify in JML?

11 exceptional postconditions: signals /*@ requires amount >= 0; @ ensures balance <= \old(balance); @ signals (BankException) balance == \old(balance); @*/ public debit(int amount) throws BankException { if (amount > balance) { throw (new BankException("No way"));} balance = balance – amount; } Often specs (should) concentrate on ruling out exceptional behaviour

12 ruling out exceptions /*@ normal_behavior @ requires amount >= 0 && amount <= balance; @ ensures balance <= \old(balance); @*/ public debit(int amount) throws BankException{ if (amount > balance) { throw (new BankException("No way"));} balance = balance – amount; } Or omit “ throws BankException” In JML, unlike Java, runtime exceptions not explicitly declared are not allowed to be thrown.

13 loop_invariants and decreasing clauses /*@ loop_invariant 0 <= i && i < a.length & (\forall int j; 0<= j & j < i; a[i] != null ); decreasing a.length-i; @*/ while (a[i] != null) {...}

14 non_null Lots of invariants and preconditions are about references not being null, eg int[] a; //@ invariant a != null; Therefore there is a shorthand /*@ non_null @*/ int[] a; But, as most references are non-null, JML adopted this as default. So only nullable fields, arguments and return types need to be annotated, eg /*@ nullable @*/ int[] b; You can also use JSR308 Java tags for this @Nullable int[] b;

15 pure Methods without side-effects that are guaranteed to terminate can be declared as pure /*@ pure @*/ int getBalance (){ return balance; }; Pure methods can be used in JML annotations //@ requires amount < getBalance(); public debit (int amount)

16 resource usage Syntax for specifying resource usage /*@ measured_by len; // max recursion depth @ working_space (len*4); // max heap space used @ duration len*24; // max execution time @ ensures \fresh(\result); // freshly allocated @*/ public List(int len) {... } Lots on JML syntax, much of it not supported by specific tools

17 How and what to specify?

18 Where do properties come from? JML does not provide any methodology or development process for coming up with annotations JML specs can 1.capture system requirements 2.document detailed decisions made in design or implementation making some implicit requirement or guarantee explicit 3.document requirements or guarantees that follow from others a single invariant someField != null may lead to many preconditions about arguments not being null, in turn requiring many postconditions about results not being null,etc,etc

19 Example specs expressing “external” requirements int balance; //@ invariant 0 <= balance && balance < 500; //@ ensures \result >= 0; public /*@ pure @*/ int getBalance () These specs might be traced back to an important functional (or security) requirements for a banking application – assuming that getBalance is part of the public interface of the overall system

20 Example specs capturing “internal” design decisions private int length; //@ invariant 0 <= len && len < values.length; private int[] values; //@ invariant values != null; These invariants are probably internal design decisions and not mentioned anywhere in the system requirements

21 How do you start specifying? Useful bottom-line specs to start specifying specify that methods do not throw unwanted runtime exceptions such specs are simple, easy to understand, obviously correct, and capture important (safety) requirement satisfying such a bottom-line specs may rely on many (implicit!) assumptions that can be made explicit in preconditions and invariants or

22 How do you start specifying? Another way to start specifying for almost every field, there is an (implicit) invariant – eg integer fields being non-negative, arrays having some minimal/maximal/exact length, reference fields being non-null, etc. Again, satisfying these specs may rely on many others – eg lots of preconditions to prevent violating invariant (or defensive coding) or

23 Added value of specs? int i; //@ invariant 0 <= i; //@ ensures i = (\old(i)<20) ? i :(\old(i)+1)*24; public void increase(){ if i < 20 {i = (i + 1)*24}; }

24 Added value of specs? Some specs closely mirror program code – eg, a postcondition expressing a detailed functional spec may closely resemble the program code Other specs document properties that are nowhere to be found in the program code (or, at best, very implicitly) – typical example: invariants & preconditions Latter are provbably more “interesting” than former

25 When to stop specifying The challenge of using JML: choosing which properties to verify up to which level of detail and using which tools so that JML specs are cost effective cost more detailed specs, (hence?) higher assurance

26 What can you specify in JML? (continued)

27 assignable (aka modifies) For non-pure methods, frame properties can be specified using assignable clauses, eg /*@ requires amount >= 0; assignable balance; ensures balance == \old(balance) – amount; @*/ void debit() says debit is only allowed to modify the balance field NB this does not follow from the postcondition Assignable clauses are needed for modular verification Fields can be grouped in Datagroups, so that spec does not have to list concrete fields

28 model state interface Connection{ //@ model boolean opened; // spec-only field //@ ensures !opened; public Connection(...); //@ requires !opened; //@ ensures opened; public void open (); //@ requires opened; //@ ensures !opened; public void close ();

29 questions?

30 tools,...

31 tool support: runtime assertion checking annotations provide the test oracle: –any annotation violation is an error, except if it is the initial precondition Pros –Lots of tests for free –Complicated test code for free, eg for signals (Exception) balance ==\old(balance); –More precise feedback about root causes eg "Invariant X violated in line 200" after 10 sec instead of "Nullpointer exception in line 600" after 100 sec

32 tool support: compile time checking extended static checking automated checking of simple specs –ESC/Java(2) formal program verification tools interactive checking of arbitrarily complex specs –KeY, Krakatoa, Freeboogie, JMLDirectVCGen.... There is a trade-off between usability & qualifability. In practice, each tool support its own subset of JML.

33 testing vs verification verification gives complete coverage – all paths, all possible inputs if testing fails, you get a counterexample (trace); if verification fails, you typically don't.... verification can be done before code is complete verification requires many more specs – as verification is done on a per method basis – incl API specs

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