Presentation on theme: "The Constitutional Convention. The Place Philadelphia, PA Old Statehouse (known today as Independence Hall) Same place was used for Declaration of Independence."— Presentation transcript:
The Constitutional Convention
The Place Philadelphia, PA Old Statehouse (known today as Independence Hall) Same place was used for Declaration of Independence. Began on May 25, 1787
The Old Statehouse now known as Independence Hall
The Delegates 74 delegates from 12 states Only 55 attended. Rhode Island did not participate.
Organization George Washington was elected President of the convention. Each state had one vote. Simple majority ruled (7 of 13). Quorum of 7 needed to do business. Meetings kept secret/confidential to allow free discussion.
The Rising Sun Chair
"I have often looked at that picture behind the president without being able to tell whether it was a rising or setting sun. Now at length I have the happiness to know that it is indeed a rising, not a setting sun." Benjamin Franklin 1787 The Rising Sun Chair
Key Agreements Limited government Separation of powers End states creating their own money States could not interfere with creditors’ rights Stronger national government
The Major Plans Strong Congress –Lower chamber elected by people –Upper chamber elected by lower chamber President chosen by Congress Judiciary appointed by Congress
Problem!!! Big states would be in control. The Major Plans !!!
Keep basics of Articles of Confederation Unicameral Congress –One vote for each state –Given power to tax and regulate trade Weak Presidential committee appointed by Congress Judiciary appointed by President The Major Plans
Problem!!! Retained many of the problems of the failed Articles of Confederation. National government would remain weak. The Major Plans !!!
The Compromises The Connecticut Compromise The 3/5’s Compromise Compromise on Commerce and the Slave Trade
The Connecticut Compromise Bicameral Congress –House of Reps. based on population and elected by people –Senate – 2 members from each state elected by state legislatures All taxing and spending laws would start in House of Reps.
3/5 Compromise How to count slaves for representation and taxation. All slaves counted as 3/5 of a person for both representation and taxes.
Compromise on Commerce and the Slave Trade Congress given the power to regulate both interstate commerce and foreign commerce. Congress forbidden to impose export taxes. Congress could not ban slave trade until 1808 (20 years).
Other Compromises How to elect the President? (Electoral College) How long for President’s term? Many other minor compromises
Ratification Process began September 1787 Constitution went into effect June 1788 after 9 states ratified it. Rhode Island finally approved it May 1790.
Federalists Supported ratification of Constitution. Wanted strong federal government. Mostly from cities and eastern coastal regions Merchants, etc., involved in trade Wanted improved commerce
Federalists Biggest arguments for ratification: –Avoid anarchy –Protect the nation –Solve problems in trade and commerce
Anti-Federalists Opposed ratification Feared strong central government Mostly inland farmers and laborers
Biggest arguments against Constitution: –Meeting was in secret –Was extralegal (didn’t do what they were supposed to do) (they were supposed to improve the Articles of Confederation) –It did not include a Bill of Rights Anti-Federalists