Presentation on theme: "Shays Rebellion The Rebellion exposed the definite need for a Constitutional Convention to be held in May, 1787 It also showed the importance of having."— Presentation transcript:
1Shays RebellionThe Rebellion exposed the definite need for a Constitutional Convention to be held in May, 1787It also showed the importance of having a strong central government to deal with important issuesAlso brought to attention the needs of veterans of the American Revolution
2Thomas Jefferson’s View “A little rebellion now and then is a good thing It is a medicine necessary for the sound health of government... God forbid we should ever be twenty years without such a rebellion.”
3Constitutional Convention Originally scheduled to begin May 14, 1787Convention called on May 25, 1787 once a quorum had finally been reachedUncertain if the plan was to “revise” the Articles or “fix” the government
4Constitutional Convention 12 of 13 states attended with the exception of Rhode Island55 delegatesThomas Jefferson, John Adams, Patrick Henry not present
5Constitutional Convention George Washington voted presiding officerSignificant because they wanted to give the appearance of propriety to the American people
6Constitutional Convention Delegates vote to keep their debates secret3 reasons:Wanted all delegates to feel free to make suggestionsDidn’t want to alert America’s enemies that their might be dissension in the countryDidn’t want to scare American citizens that the convention was uncertain about which way to proceed
7Constitutional Convention James Madison kept a diary of the debatesHe is known as the “Father of the Constitution”Madison's Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787 remain the most complete record of the convention
8Ideas of Montesquieu adopted Frenchman from the Age of Enlightenment"government should be set up so that no man need be afraid of another"James Madison had studied his workSeparation of administrative powersThe administrative powers were the executive, the legislative, and the judicial.
9Montesquieu Executive Branch-enforce laws Legislative Branch-make or pass lawsJudicial Branch-interpret
10MontesquieuThese should be separate from and dependent upon each other so that the influence of any one power would not be able to exceed that of the other two, either singly or in combination.Checks and Balances
12Representative Plans How should states be represented in the legislative branch Virginia PlanCongress to Consist of:Two housesFirst house elected by the peopleSecond house elected by the first houseRepresentation based on populationNew Jersey PlanCongress to Consist of:One HouseEach state to have same number of representatives
13Great Compromise Establishment of Congress Two Houses First house called the House of RepresentativesRepresentatives elected by people for a two year termRepresentation based on the population of a stateSecond house called the SenateSenators elected by state legislatures for a six year termEach state to have two senators
14Separation of Powers How should the government be divided? Virginia PlanLegislative branch to make lawsChief Executive chosen by legislature to carry out the lawsJudicial branch chosen by the legislature to interpret the lawsNew Jersey PlanLegislative branch to make lawsChief Executive chosen by legislature to carry out the lawsJudicial branch made up of one Supreme Court chosen by the executive branch to interpret the laws
15Three Branches Compromise Two house legislature called CongressA Chief Executive known as the President to run the Executive branchPresident elected by the electoral collegeJudicial branch consisting of one Supreme Court, appointed by the President and approved by the Senate
16Representation and Direct Taxes How should slaves be counted in determining a state’s representation in the House of Representatives?How should slaves be counted in determining the amount of direct taxes a state owed the federal government?
17Representation and Direct Taxes Northern PlanSlaves not to be counted to determine representation in the HouseSlaves to be counted when figuring direct taxes owed by a stateSouthern PlanSlaves to be counted to determine representation in the HouseSlaves not to be counted when figuring direct taxes owed by a state
18Three-Fifths Compromise Slaves would be counted to determine representation in the House of RepresentativesSlaves would be counted when figuring amount of direct taxes owed by a stateFor every 5 slaves, 3 would be counted toward representation and direct taxes
19Interstate and Foreign Commerce What power should Congress have over trade between the states and foreign countries?
20Interstate and Foreign Commerce Western PositionNo taxes should be placed on goods or products going from one state to anotherSouthern PositionNo export taxes should be placed on goods or products going to another countrySlave trade should not be prohibited
21Interstate and Foreign Commerce Northern PositionStates shall be free to buy and sell goods to and from other countriesSlave trade should be prohibited
22Slave Trade Export Compromise Congress should control interstate and foreign commerce by passing laws with a simple majorityAll Treaties, including commercial ones, had to be ratified by a two-thirds vote of the SenateNo export taxes would be placed on products or goods going to another countryNo laws would favor the ports of one state over anotherThe Slave trade could continue without interference from Congress for 20 years—until 1808Congress could place a $10 tax on each slave brought into the country
23Election of the President Sherman/Dickinson/ Martin PlanCongress should elect the PresidentPeople are not well enough informed and educated to choose this officialWilson/Morris/Madison/Hamilton PlanPeople should directly elect the PresidentCongress would too easily control the President if elected by that body
24Electoral College Compromise A group of people called the electoral college would elect the President and Vice-PresidentElectors would be chosen by state leaders and could hold no office in the government of the U.S.Each state would have as many electors as they have senators and representatives in Congress
25Electoral College Compromise Electors would meet in December to choose the President and Vice-PresidentThe person with the most votes would be President. The person with the second highest number would be vice-PresidentIf no candidate received a majority of the electoral votes, the House of Representatives would elect the PresidentThe President’s term would be for four years
26Sept 17, 1787“I have often and often in the course of this Session, looked at that behind the President without being able to tell whether it was rising or setting; but now at length I have the happiness to know that it is a rising and not a setting Sun.”Ben Franklin
28Ratification Struggle The Constitution would be submitted to the states for their approval after the government organized under the Articles of Confederation approved the measure9 of the 13 states had to approve it for the Constitution to become legal
29Not all the delegates were pleased with the results; some left before the ceremony, and three of those remaining refused to sign: Edmund Randolph, George Mason of Virginia, and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts.
30Ratification Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists Federalists favored a strong federal union and were led by Alexander Hamilton
32Federalist Papers Alexander Hamilton-63 essays James Madison-29 essays John Jay-4 essaysHamilton feared that a Bill of Rights could be dangerous and would only allow for rights that were listed85 articles advocating the ratification of the ConstitutionMost were written by Hamilton using the pen name “Publius” friend of the people
33Anti-FederalistsAnti-Federalists were led by people like Patrick HenrySam Adams and John Hancock were also opposedGeorge Mason demanded a Bill of Rights if he was to support the Constitution. The Bill of Rights was finally added and is considered the final compromise of the Convention
34MassachusettsMassachusetts led the way in calling for a listing of rights that would be granted to all citizensSeveral states asked specifically for these amendments when ratifying the ConstitutionOthers ratified the Constitution with the understanding that a bill of rights would soon follow.
35Of the 39 who did sign, probably no one was completely satisfied. "There are several parts of this Constitution which I do not at present approve, but I am not sure I shall never approve them. ... I doubt to whether any other Convention we can obtain, may be able to make a better Constitution. ... It therefore astonishes me, Sir, to find this system approaching so near to perfection as it does; and I think it will astonish our enemies..."
37Bill of Rights Ratification On November 20, 1789, New Jersey became the first state to ratify these amendments.On December 15, 1791, 10 of these proposals became the First through Tenth Amendments — and United States law — when they were ratified by the Virginia legislature.