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15.Dynamic Programming Hsu, Lih-Hsing

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.2 Dynamic programming Dynamic programming is typically applied to optimization problems. In such problem there can be many solutions. Each solution has a value, and we wish to find a solution with the optimal value.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.3 The development of a dynamic programming algorithm can be broken into a sequence of four steps: 1. Characterize the structure of an optimal solution. 2. Recursively define the value of an optimal solution. 3. Compute the value of an optimal solution in a bottom up fashion. 4. Construct an optimal solution from computed information.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.4 15.1 Rod cutting The rod-cutting problem is the following. Given a rod of length n inches and a table of prices for i=1,2, …,n,determine the maximum revenue obtainable by cutting up the rod and selling the pieces. Note that if the price for a rod of length n is large enough, an optimal sol- tion may require no cutting at all.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.5 n= i 1 + i 2 + … + i k = p i1 + p i2 + … + p ik length i 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 price 1 5 8 9 10 17 17 20 24 30

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.6 r 1 = 1 from solution 1 = 1 (no cuts), r 2 = 5 from solution 2 = 2 (no cuts), r 3 = 8 from solution 3 = 3 (no cuts), r 4 = 10 from solution 4 = 2 + 2, r 5 = 13 from solution 5 = 2 + 3, r 6 = 17 from solution 6 = 6 (no cuts), r 7 = 18 from solution 7=1+6 or 7=2+2+3, r 8 = 22 from solution 8 = 2 + 6, r 9 = 25 from solution 9 = 3 + 6, r 10 = 30 from solution 10 = 10 (no cuts),

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.7 More generally, we can frame the values for n 1 in terms of optimal revenues from shorter rods: = max ( p n,r 1 +r n-1,r 2 +r n-2, … r n-1 +r 1 ) Optimal substructure : optimal solutions to a pro - blem incorporate optimal solutions to related subpro- blems, which we may solve independently.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.8 Recursive top-down implementation CUT-ROD (p,n) 1 if n==0 2 return 0 3 q = - 4 for i = 1 to n 5 q= max(q, p[i] + CUT-ROD(p,n-i) 6 return q

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.9 If you were to code up CUT-ROD in your favo - rite programming language and run it on your computer, you would find that once the input size becomes moderately large, your program would take a long time to run.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.10

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.11 Using dynamic programming optimal rod cutting top-down with memoization bottom-up method

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.12 MEMOIZ-CUT-ROD(p,n) 1 let r[0 … n] be a new array 2 for i = 0 to n 3 r[i] = - 4 return MEMOIZED-CUT-ROD-AUX(p,n,r)

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.13 MEMOIZED-CUT-ROD-AUX(p,n,r) 1 if r[n] 0 2 return r[n] 3 if n==0 4 q= 0 5 else q=- 6 for i= 1 to n 7 q= max(q,p[i]+MEMOIZED-CUT-AUX(p,n-i,r) 8 r[n]=q 9 return q

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.14 BOTTOM-UP-CUT-ROD(p,n) 1 let r[0 … n] be a new array 2 r[0] =0 3 for j =1 to n 4 q=- 5 for i =1 to j 6 q=max(q,p[i] + r[j-i]) 7 r[j] = q 8 return r[n] The running time of procedure BOTTOM- UP-CUT-ROD is

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.15 Subproblem graphs The subproblem graph for the problem embodies exactly this information.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.16 Reconstruction a solution 1 let r[0 … n] and s[0 … n] be new arrays 2 r[0] =0 3 for j =1 to n 4 q= - 5 for i =1 to j 6 if q < p[i] + r[j-i] 7 q = p[i] + r[j-i] 8 s[j] = i 9 r[j] = q 10 return r and s

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.17 PRINT-CUT-ROD-SOLUTION(p,n) 1 (r,s)= EXTENDED-BOTTOM-UP-CUT-ROD(p,n) 2 while n>0 3 print s[n] 4 n = n – s[n] i 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 r[i] 0 1 5 8 10 13 17 18 22 25 30 s[i] 0 1 2 3 2 2 6 1 2 3 10

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.18 15.1 Assembly-line scheduling An automobile chassis enters each assembly line, has parts added to it at a number of stations, and a finished auto exits at the end of the line. Each assembly line has n stations, numbered j = 1, 2,...,n. We denote the j th station on line j ( where i is 1 or 2) by S i,j. The j th station on line 1 (S 1,j ) performs the same function as the j th station on line 2 (S 2,j ).

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.19 The stations were built at different times and with different technologies, however, so that the time required at each station varies, even between stations at the same position on the two different lines. We denote the assembly time required at station S i,j by a i,j. As the coming figure shows, a chassis enters station 1 of one of the assembly lines, and it progresses from each station to the next. There is also an entry time e i for the chassis to enter assembly line i and an exit time x i for the completed auto to exit assembly line i.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.20 a manufacturing problem to find the fast way through a factory

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.21 Normally, once a chassis enters an assembly line, it passes through that line only. The time to go from one station to the next within the same assembly line is negligible. Occasionally a special rush order comes in, and the customer wants the automobile to be manufactured as quickly as possible. For the rush orders, the chassis still passes through the n stations in order, but the factory manager may switch the partially- completed auto from one assembly line to the other after any station.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.22 The time to transfer a chassis away from assembly line i after having gone through station S ij is t i,j, where i = 1, 2 and j = 1, 2,..., n-1 (since after the n th station, assembly is complete). The problem is to determine which stations to choose from line 1 and which to choose from line 2 in order to minimize the total time through the factory for one auto.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.23 An instance of the assembly-line problem with costs

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.24 Step1 The structure of the fastest way through the factory the fast way through station S 1,j is either the fastest way through Station S 1,j-1 and then directly through station S 1,j, or the fastest way through station S 2,j-1, a transfer from line 2 to line 1, and then through station S 1,j. Using symmetric reasoning, the fastest way through station S 2,j is either the fastest way through station S 2,j-1 and then directly through Station S 2,j, or the fastest way through station S 1,j-1, a transfer from line 1 to line 2, and then through Station S 2,j.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.25 Step 2: A recursive solution

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.26 step 3: computing the fastest times Let r i (j)be the number of references made to f i [j] in a recursive algorithm. r 1 (n)=r 2 (n)=1 r 1 (j) = r 2 (j)=r 1 (j+1)+r 2 (j+1) The total number of references to all f i [j] values is (2 n ). We can do much better if we compute the f i [j] values in different order from the recursive way. Observe that for j 2, each value of f i [j] depends only on the values of f 1 [j-1] and f 2 [j-1].

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.27 F ASTEST -W AY procedure F ASTEST -W AY (a, t, e, x, n) 1 f 1 [1] e 1 + a 1,1 2 f 2 [1] e 2 + a 2,1 3 for j 2 to n 4do if f 1 [j-1] + a 1,j f 2 [j-1] + t 2,j-1 +a 1,j 5 then f 1 [j] f 1 [j-1] + a 1,j 6 l 1 [j] 1 7 else f 1 [j] f 2 [j-1] + t 2,j-1 +a 1,j 8 l 1 [j] 2 9 if f 2 [j-1] + a 2, j f 1 [j-1] + t 1,j-1 +a 2,j

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.28 10 then f 2 [j] f 2 [j – 1] + a 2,j 11 l2[j] 2 12 else f 2 [j] f 1 [j – 1] + t 1,j-1 + a 2,j 13 l 2 [j] 1 14 if f 1 [n] + x 1 f 2 [n] + x 2 15 then f * = f 1 [n] + x 1 16 l * = 1 17else f * = f 2 [n] + x 2 18 l * = 2

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.29 step 4: constructing the fastest way through the factory P RINT -S TATIONS (l, n) 1i l* 2print “line” i “,station” n 3for j n downto 2 4do i l i [j] 5 print “line” i “,station” j – 1 output line 1, station 6 line 2, station 5 line 2, station 4 line 1, station 3 line 2, station 2 line 1, station 1

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.30 15.2 Matrix-chain multiplication A product of matrices is fully parenthesized if it is either a single matrix, or a product of two fully parenthesized matrix product, surrounded by parentheses.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.31 How to compute where is a matrix for every i. Example:

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.32 MATRIX MULTIPLY MATRIX MULTIPLY(A,B) 1if columns[A] column[B] 2then error “ incompatible dimensions ” 3else for to rows[A] 4do for to columns[B] 5do 6for to columns[A] 7do 8return C

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.33 Complexity: Let A be a matrix, and B be a matrix. Then the complexity is.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.34 Example: is a matrix, is a matrix, and is a matrix. Then takes time. However takes time.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.35 The matrix-chain multiplication problem: Given a chain of n matrices, where for i=0,1, …,n, matrix Ai has dimension p i-1 p i, fully parenthesize the product in a way that minimizes the number of scalar multiplications.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.36 Counting the number of parenthesizations: [Catalan number]

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.37 Step 1: The structure of an optimal parenthesization

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.38 Step 2: A recursive solution Define m[i, j]= minimum number of scalar multiplications needed to compute the matrix goal m[1, n]

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Step 3: Computing the optimal costs

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.40 MATRIX_CHAIN_ORDER MATRIX_CHAIN_ORDER(p) 1 n length[p] –1 2 for i 1 to n 3do m[i, i] 0 4 for l 2 to n 5do for i 1 to n – l + 1 6do j i + l – 1 7 m[i, j] 8 for k i to j – 1 9do q m[i, k] + m[k+1, j]+ p i-1 p k p j 10 if q < m[i, j] 11 then m[i, j] q 12 s[i, j] k 13 return m and s Complexity:

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.41 Example:

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.42 the m and s table computed by MATRIX-CHAIN-ORDER for n=6

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.43 m[2,5]= min{ m[2,2]+m[3,5]+p 1 p 2 p 5 =0+2500+35 15 20=13000, m[2,3]+m[4,5]+p 1 p 3 p 5 =2625+1000+35 5 20=7125, m[2,4]+m[5,5]+p 1 p 4 p 5 =4375+0+35 10 20=11374 } =7125

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Step 4: Constructing an optimal solution

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.45 MATRIX_CHAIN_MULTIPLY MATRIX_CHAIN_MULTIPLY(A, s, i, j) 1 if j > i 2 then 3 4return MATRIX-MULTIPLY(X,Y) 5else return A i example:

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16.3 Elements of dynamic programming

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.47 Optimal substructure: We say that a problem exhibits optimal substructure if an optimal solution to the problem contains within its optimal solution to subproblems. Example: Matrix-multiplication problem

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.48 1. You show that a solution to the problem consists of making a choice, Making this choice leaves one or more subproblems to be solved. 2. You suppose that for a given problem, you are given the choice that leads to an optimal solution. 3. Given this choice, you determine which subproblems ensue and how to best characterize the resulting space of subproblems. 4. You show that the solutions to the subproblems used within the optimal solution to the problem must themselves be optimal by using a “ cut-and-paste ” technique.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.49 Optimal substructure varies across problem domains in two ways: 1. how many subproblems are used in an optimal solutiion to the original problem, and 2. how many choices we have in determining which subproblem(s) to use in an optimal solution.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.50 Subtleties One should be careful not to assume that optimal substructure applies when it does not. consider the following two problems in which we are given a directed graph G = ( V, E ) and vertices u, v V. Unweighted shortest path: Find a path from u to v consisting of the fewest edges. Good for Dynamic programming. Unweighted longest simple path: Find a simple path from u to v consisting of the most edges. Not good for Dynamic programming.

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Overlapping subproblems: example: MAXTRIX_CHAIN_ORDER

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.52 RECURSIVE_MATRIX_CHAIN RECURSIVE_MATRIX_CHAIN(p, i, j) 1 if i = j 2 then return 0 3 m[i, j] 4 for k i to j – 1 5 do q RMC(p,i,k) + RMC(p,k+1,j) + p i-1 p k p j 6 if q < m[i, j] 7 then m[i, j] q 8 return m[i, j]

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.53 The recursion tree for the computation of RECURSUVE-MATRIX-CHAIN(P, 1, 4)

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.54 We can prove that T(n) = (2 n ) using substitution method.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.55 Solution: 1. bottom up 2. memorization (memorize the natural, but inefficient)

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.56 MEMORIZED_MATRIX_CHAIN MEMORIZED_MATRIX_CHAIN(p) 1 n length[p] –1 2 for i 1 to n 3 do for j 1 to n 4 do m[i, j] 5 return LC (p,1,n)

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.57 LOOKUP_CHAIN LOOKUP_CHAIN(p, i, j) 1if m[i, j] < 2then return m[i, j] 3if i = j 4then m[i, j] 0 5else for k i to j – 1 6 do q LC(p, i, k) +LC(p, k+1, j)+p i-1 p k p j 7 if q < m[i, j] 8 then m[i, j] q 9return m[i, j] Time Complexity:

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.58 16.4 Longest Common Subsequence X = Y = is a common subsequence of both X and Y. or is the longest common subsequence of X and Y.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.59 Longest-common-subsequence problem: We are given two sequences X = and Y = and wish to find a maximum length common subsequence of X and Y. We Define X i =.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.60 Theorem 16.1. (Optimal substructure of LCS) Let X = and Y = be the sequences, and let Z = be any LCS of X and Y. 1. If x m = y n then z k = x m = y n and Z k-1 is an LCS of X m-1 and Y n-1. 2. If x m y n then z k x m implies Z is an LCS of X m-1 and Y. 3. If x m y n then z k y n implies Z is an LCS of X and Y n-1.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.61 A recursive solution to subproblem Define c [i, j] is the length of the LCS of X i and Y j.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.62 Computing the length of an LCS LCS_LENGTH(X,Y) 1 m length[X] 2 n length[Y] 3 for i 1 to m 4 do c[i, 0] 0 5 for j 1 to n 6 do c[0, j] 0 7 for i 1 to m 8 do for j 1 to n

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.63 9 do if x i = y j 10 then c[i, j] c[i-1, j-1]+1 11 b[i, j] “ ” 12 else if c[i–1, j] c[i, j-1] 13 then c[i, j] x[i-1, j] 14 b[i, j] “ ” 15 else c[i, j] c[i, j-1] 16 b[i, j] “ ” 17 return c and b

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.64 Complexity: O(mn)

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.65 PRINT_LCS PRINT_LCS(b, X, c, j ) 1if i = 0 or j = 0 2then return 3if b[i, j] = “ ” 4then PRINT_LCS(b, X, i-1, j-1) 5 print x i 6else if b[i, j] = “ ” 7then PRINT_LCS(b, X, i-1, j) 8then PRINT_LCS(b, X, i, j-1) Complexity: O(m+n)

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.66 15.5 Optimal Binary search trees cost:2.80 cost:2.75 optimal!!

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.67 expected cost the expected cost of a search in T is

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.68 For a given set of probabilities, our goal is to construct a binary search tree whose expected search is smallest. We call such a tree an optimal binary search tree.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.69 Step 1: The structure of an optimal binary search tree Consider any subtree of a binary search tree. It must contain keys in a contiguous range k 1,...,k j, for some 1 i j n. In addition, a subtree that contains keys k i,..., k j must also have as its leaves the dummy keys d i-1,..., d j. If an optimal binary search tree T has a subtree T' containing keys k i,..., k j, then this subtree T' must be optimal as well for the subproblem with keys k i,..., k j and dummy keys d i-1,..., d j.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.70 Step 2: A recursive solution

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.71 Step 3:computing the expected search cost of an optimal binary search tree O PTIMAL -BST(p,q,n) 1for i 1 to n + 1 2do e[i, i – 1] q i-1 3 w[i, i – 1] q i-1 4for l 1 to n 5do for i 1 to n – l + 1 6do j i + l – 1 7 e[i, j] 8 w[i, j] w[i, j – 1] + p j +q j

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.72 9 for r i to j 10do t e[i, r –1]+e[r +1, j]+w[i, j] 11 if t < e[i, j] 12then e[i, j] t 13 root[i, j] r 14return e and root the O PTIMAL -BST procedure takes (n 3 ), just like M ATRIX -C HAIN -O RDER

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.73 The table e[i,j], w[i,j], and root[i,j] computer by O PTIMAL -BST on the key distribution.

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Computer Theory Lab. Chapter 15P.74 Knuth has shown that there are always roots of optimal subtrees such that root[i, j –1] root[i+1, j] for all 1 i j n. We can use this fact to modify Optimal-BST procedure to run in (n 2 ) time.

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