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A Tragedy – by William Shakespeare (A.K.A. Billy Shakes)

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1 A Tragedy – by William Shakespeare (A.K.A. Billy Shakes)
Macbeth A Tragedy – by William Shakespeare (A.K.A. Billy Shakes)

2 Day One Journal Agree or Disagree with this statement and use examples to support your opinion: Our fate is predetermined

3 Pre – Reading Activity Individually, or in groups, write a brief scene in which one of the following situations is developed: A boy acts in a macho fashion to please his girlfriend A girl attacks a boy’s manhood Peer pressure accounts for someone committing a wrongful deed Ambition brings out the best (or worse) in someone A person wrestles with an issue of conscience These will be performed tomorrow at the start of class. Minimum one minute length

4 Day Two Journal Agree or Disagree with this statement and use examples to support your opinion: It is natural for humans to strive for power Additionally, give a modern day example of a person (or people) who either strove for power and failed or succeeded.

5 Macbeth Reading Logs These logs will help you interact with the text and will enable you me to track your understanding and comprehension. In these logs, you should… Ask questions of the text Indicate things that they do not understand in the text Note your favourite parts, or quotations, in the text Give your opinions about what is happening, about why characters are saying and doing certain things, etc. Do not simply provide plot summaries (they will receive a mark of zero!) You should submit one reading log after completing each act (five in total) Each log should reach approximately one page in length

6 Reading Log (Assessment Criteria)
Completeness, Development of entries Evidence that student is making a thoughtful attempt to come to terms with, to engage, the text. For students who read the entire play and honestly complete the logs to the best of their abilities, success rates on this aspect of the study of Macbeth should be high Levelled

7 Present Scenes

8 Backgrounding Macbeth
Macbeth was real Divine Right of Kings Tragedy Macbeth as a Royal Play

9 Reality of Macbeth (c.1005 - 1057)
Shakespeare's Macbeth bears little resemblance to the real 11th century Scottish king. Mac Bethad mac Findláich, born in around 1005. In August 1040, he killed the ruling king, Duncan I, in battle. Macbeth became king. In 1045, Macbeth defeated and killed Duncan I's father. Equal ruler and noble. In 1054, challenged by Siward, to return Malcolm to throne In August 1057, killed by Malcolm in battle (later Malcolm III).

10 The Divine Right of Kings
Royal Absolutism. Will of God. King Rules above Church + State Deposing the King = Heresy

11 King James I Believed in the Divine Right of Kings and Absolutism (King James Bible) Macbeth written between Gunpowder Plot (1605) Catholics vs. Protestants Conversions

12 Shakespearean Tragedy
Many have linked his plays to Aristotle's precept about tragedy: that the protagonist must be an admirable but flawed character, with the audience able to understand and sympathize with the character.

13 Tragedy Cont’d As one of the most influential Shakespearean critics of the 19th century, A.C. Bradley argues, " the playwright always insists on the operation of the doctrine of free will; the (anti)hero is always able to back out, to redeem himself. But, the author dictates, they must move unheedingly to their doom."

14 Day Three Journal Agree or Disagree with this statement and use examples to support your opinion: When in power, humans will do anything to maintain it. Or... God – and only god – controls what humanity achieves and endures.

15 Present Scenes

16 Day Four Journal Agree or Disagree with this statement and use examples to support your opinion: An accomplice is just as guilty as the person who commits the crime. Or… If you kill, you should be killed in return (“an eye for an eye”)

17 Study Questions Act I to Act V
That Scottish Play

18 Act I Activity Re-read this act; find references to images of the following and provide two to three examples of each. Clothing Blood Food Birds Animals Comment on the purpose and/or meaning of these references. Place these in your journals

19 Act I Scene i 1. What is the mood of this opening scene?
2. In what way is this mood created? 3. Identify two or three specific words which help establish this theme

20 Act I Scene ii 1. Why, according to the Soldier’s report is the epithet “brave Macbeth” fitting? 2. To which Roman God is Macbeth compared to? Why is this comparison effective? 3. What has Macbeth gained by the end of this scene? 4. Compare the mood of this scene with that of the opening scene.

21 Act I Scene iii 1. Describe the prophecies given to Macbeth and to Banquo. 2. What do Banquo’s observation of Macbeth (line 50) reveal to us about Macbeth 3. Why does Ross’ news surprise Macbeth? 4. What does Macbeth mean when he concludes that “This supernatural soliciting/Cannot be ill cannot be good;…?” 5. One of the most prevalent themes in Macbeth is that of the difference between appearance and reality. In what way is that theme inherent in this scene?

22 Act I Scene iv 1. Describe the character of Duncan as well as you can from what you have seen thus far. 2. What is Macbeth’s reaction to the naming of Malcolm as Duncan’s successor? 3. What does this reaction reveal to us about Macbeth?

23 Act I Scene v 1. Quote three lines from Lady Macbeth that indicate the intensity of her character. 2. Why does Lady Macbeth so quickly accept the prophecies of the witches? 3. Indicate Lady Macbeth’s plans for Duncan and cite two lines which support this. 4. Do Macbeth and Lady Macbeth love one another? Reference the text.

24 Act I Scene vi Define the term dramatic irony
1. Give an example of dramatic irony in this scene. 2. What is your final estimation of Duncan as a person and as a king?

25 Act I Scene vii Define the term soliloquy.
1. Why does Macbeth appear to hesitate about killing Duncan? Cite two examples. 2. Indicate two of three methods used, or arguments made, by Lady Macbeth to convince her husband to do the deed. 3. Outline the detail of their plan.

26 Act II Journal Assignment (Due Friday)
During this period and tomorrow’s period you will be asked to write a character analysis from what you have seen/heard from them thus far on each of the following characters: Macbeth, Lady Macbeth, Duncan, Banquo, Macduff, Malcolm, Donaldbain. In your analysis comment on the following prompt in a short essay ( words) for each character and use at least two textual references to support your opinion. Each character reveals themselves and their true character in some way in the first two acts. Write an essay describing what your think each character reveals at this point in the play. Additionally, what are they hiding? MLA/Works Cited is not needed for this activity.

27 Act II Scene i Define the term pathetic fallacy.
1. Explain its use in this scene. 2. Suggest two or three purposes served by the “Is this a dagger” soliloquy. 3. In what way does the tone of this speech change from beginning to end? 4. Does our view of Banquo change in this scene? Reference the text for support.

28 Act II Scene ii 1. Using direct references to the play, compare the reactions of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth to the murder of Duncan 2. In your opinion, which characters reaction is more realistic? Support your answer. 3. Why, according to Lady Macbeth, did she not kill Duncan? 4. What might Shakespeare’s reasons be for not showing us Duncan’s murder on stage?

29 Act II Scene iii 1.Why has Macduff arrived at the Castle?
2. On whom does Lennox immediately blame the murder?     What are his reasons? 3. What action does Macbeth take and why? 4. Why does Lady Macbeth faint when she does? 5. In what way do Banquo’s words during this scene support our view of his character? 6. Why do Malcolm and Donalbain run?     Is this a good or bad decision? Support your answer.

30 Act II Scene iv 1. Give two examples of incidents described in this scene which an Elizabethan audience would quickly recognize as harbingers of a much dreaded descent from order into chaos. 2. What is the official verdict on the murder of Duncan?

31 Journal Activity Act III
Close Reading – Choose one soliloquy (or aside) and one interaction between characters from any scene in Act III and deconstruct what is being said, the importance of what is being said, and most importantly, what significance it has to the audience and the progression of the plot overall. Each close reading should be no less than ¾ of a page in length. I’m looking for how well you are able to break down what characters say and why it is important. Be sure to pick ones worth discussing

32 Macbeth Act III Scene i A) As scene i opens, what doubts are expressed by Banquo about Macbeth B) Why does he tell no one else As Macbeth talks to Banquo he asks several specific questions. What are they, and why does he ask them? Identify 2 of the arguments used by Macbeth to persuade the murderers to kill Banquo.

33 Macbeth Act III Scene ii
Describe the change in relationship between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth and indicate why the change may have happened. Reference the text. In this scene we sense that neither Macbeth or Lady Macbeth has found the joys of kingship that each expected. Quote lines that indicate this and suggest why you think this has occurred

34 Macbeth Act III Scene iii
Cite two or three reasons that the events of scene iii are crucial to the play

35 Macbeth Act III Scene iv
If you were a noble person in Macbeth’s court, what would your reactions be to Macbeth’s behaviour during the banquet? Describe the similarity between the two entrances of Banquo’s ghost. A) In what ways does lady Macbeth try to save her husband from embarrassing himself? B) In your opinion, does she succeed? Support your answer.

36 Macbeth Act III Scene v What are Hecate’s plans regarding Macbeth

37 Macbeth Act III Scene vi
What purposes are served by Scene six?

38 Journal Activity Scene Analysis –
The three scenes in Act IV are pivotal to the final outcome of the play. In addition to your journal on the entire act, choose one scene that you believe to be the most important between the three and discuss / analyze: what occurs in the scene (brief summary) why it (actions, what they say) is important what implications it will on the rest of the play any important or symbolic pieces of dialogue between characters or individual responses that bear any significance on the action and progression of the play (you may want to read the summaries for Act V before completing these journals) 1 page minimum

39 Macbeth Act IV Scene i What deeper insights are we given into the nature of the witches in the opening of this scene? Describe each apparition and prediction given to Macbeth, and explain how each prediction comes true. What role does Lennox appear to play throughout this play Define hubris and nemesis, and discuss how hubris might be applicable to Macbeth in this scene. Hubris: Excessive pride or arrogance Nemesis: Spirit of divine retribution against those who succumb to hubris, vengeful fate personified as a remorseless goddess.

40 Macbeth Act IV Scene ii What dramatic purpose is served by the humourous conversation between Lady Macduff and her son? Describe the effect this scene has on our view of Macbeth.

41 Activity Reduce and translate Act IV, Sc iii – without losing the integrity of the dialogue or context of the scene. Line 1 – 37 Line 38 – 76 Line 77 – 114 Line 115 – 145 Line 146 – 188 Line 189 – 240

42 Macbeth Act IV Scene iii
What insights into the characters of Malcolm and Macduff are provided by their long discussion in Scene iii? a) Initially Malcolm distrusts Macduff, thinking he is a spy. Suggest what evidence Malcolm may have of this. b) Why does Malcolm tell Macduff that he is a man of many vices? c) What finally convinces Malcolm that Macduff is an honourable man? Indicate the lines where this occurs.

43 Macbeth Act IV Scene iii cont’d
Dramatic irony is used effectively in this scene. Find an example and explain its effectiveness. The killing of Macduff’s family may be the greatest error in judgement that Macbeth makes. Agree or Disagree. a) What does Malcolm tell Macduff his reaction should be to the news of the death of his family? b) What does Macduff’s reaction tell us about Macduff himself?

44 Journal Close Reading –
Choose one soliloquy/aside and one interaction between characters from any scene in Act V and deconstruct what is being said, the importance of what is being said, and most importantly, what significance it has to the audience and the progression of the plot overall. Each close reading should be no less than ¾ of a page in length. I’m looking for how well you are able to break down what characters say and why it is important.

45 Macbeth Act V Scene i Why has the Gentlewoman summoned the doctor?
In her madness in scene i, to what specific incidents in her past does Lady Macbeth refer? Why does the doctor say “More needs she the divine than the physician”?

46 Macbeth Act V Scene ii Caithness says of Macbeth “Some say he’s mad;”. Do you think Macbeth is mad? Support your answer. What doe we learn about Macbeth in this scene from his comments made by Menteith, Angus, and Caithness?

47 Macbeth Act V Scene iii Macbeth says of the witches earlier, “Damned be all those who trust them” (IV, i) Has Macbeth followed his own belief? Support your answer. Describe the doctors attitude towards Macbeth.

48 Macbeth Act V Scene iv What dramatic purpose is served by scene 4?

49 Macbeth Act V Scene v What causes the “cry of woman”?
What is Macbeth’s reaction to the news that Birnam wood is advancing in his castle?

50 Macbeth Act V Scene vi “Fair is foul and foul is fair.” Suggest how this scene reinforces the theme of appearance and reality in the play?

51 Macbeth Act V Scene vii Identify the metaphor Macbeth uses to describe himself in his opening speech and suggest why this is, or is not, appropriate. Why does Shakespeare include the fight and the death of young Siward in the play, and on stage?

52 Macbeth Act V Scene viii
Why has Macbeth avoided fighting Macduff? When Macduff informs Macbeth that he was “not of woman born,” why does still decide to fight him?

53 Macbeth Act V Scene ix In what way is Malcolm’s final speech a fitting conclusion to the play? The play ends with several significant issues left unresolved. Identify two or three of these issues and suggest why their resolution might be important if peace is to be lasting in Scotland.

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