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Robotics and Automation Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Robotics and Automation Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Robotics and Automation Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. 1

2  The purpose of this lesson is to allow students to develop the ability to use and maintain technological products, processes, and systems.  Students will demonstrate the use of computers to manipulate a robot or automated system and associated subsystems. 2 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

3  Students enrolled in this course will demonstrate knowledge and skills necessary for the robotic and automation industry. Through implementation of the design process, students will transfer advanced academic skills to component designs in a project- based environment. Students will build prototypes or use simulation software to test their designs. Additionally, students explore career opportunities, employer expectations, and educational needs in the robotic and automation industry. 3 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

4  TEKS (c)(5)(A) Demonstrate the use of computers to manipulate a robot or automated system and associated subsystems.  TEKS (c)(5)(C) Demonstrate knowledge of process control factors. - Section I - Robot Program Language Development - Section 2 - Language Classification - Section 3 - On-line and Off-line Robot Programming - Section 4 - Robot Program Steps 4 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

5 5 The terms and definitions listed below are discussed in this lesson. Please review before proceeding with this lesson. TermsDefinitions Programming Languagesare the basic communication mechanisms between human beings and intelligent machines. Intelligent Machinesare computers programmed to solve problems in business or scientific areas. Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

6 6 The terms and definitions listed below are discussed in this lesson. Please review before proceeding with this lesson. TermsDefinitions Software Developmentfocuses on the development of the programming languages and application programs. Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

7 7 The terms and definitions listed below are discussed in this lesson. Please review before proceeding with this lesson. TermsDefinitions Program Developmentfocuses on using the languages and application programs to control an automated process. Programmers computer science graduates who develop the programming tools (i.e., languages and applications) for industrial applications. They use programming languages like C or C++. Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

8 8 The terms and definitions listed below are discussed in this lesson. Please review before proceeding with this lesson. TermsDefinitions Automation Programmershandles programming for a number of automation machines like robots, Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) m illing machines, vision systems, sensors, or cell- control software. Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

9  Robot Programming Languages are used to design: 9 Robot Features 1. The control needs of the robot arm. 2. The new control language structures: conditional branching and input/output interfacing. Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

10  The T3 robot programming language was used in the 1970s to develop Cincinnati Milacron’s industrial robot.  In the 1970’s, VAL and BASIC programming languages were used to program the Unimation PUMA robot’s motion control commands. 10 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

11  Current robot language designs start with the language control structure and robot arm control needs.  Current development process produces a new general-purpose robot language.  Robot Language supports four system functions: 1. Manipulation 2. Sensing 3. Intelligence 4. Data Processing 11 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

12  Robot Language supports four system functions: 12 WordsDefinitions ManipulationTo treat or operate with or as if with the hands or by mechanical means especially in a skillful manner. Involves the robot arm and the gripper at the end of the arm. SensingTo detect automatically especially in response to a physical stimulus (as light or movement). IntelligenceThe ability to perform computer functions. Data ProcessingThe converting of raw data to machine-readable form and its subsequent processing (as storing, updating, rearranging, or printing out) by a computer. Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

13  Currently, few guidelines/standards exist for robot control programming languages.  There are only limited interchangeability of computer programs between robot models from the same manufacturer.  There is no interchangeability of computer programs among manufacturers. 13 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

14  Robot Manufacturers use four basic Programming Language Levels: 1. Level 1 – Joint Control Languages 2. Level 2 – Primitive Motion Languages 3. Level 3 – Structured Programming Languages 4. Level 4 – Task-Oriented Languages 14 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

15  Level 1 – Joint Control Languages - Concentrates on the physical control robot motion. - Commands expressed in terms of joint and axes position. - Mostly point-to-point and stop-to-stop robots. - Used on most stop-to-stop pneumatic robots. 15 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

16  Level 2 – Primitive Motion Languages - Confined to older robot programming languages. - Program editing capability is provided. - Commands expressed in terms of program points; program point is generated by moving the robot to a desired point and depressing a program switch; sequence of points is saved; producing a complete program. - Permits simple subroutines and branching. 16 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

17  Level 2 – Primitive Motion Languages VAL AL RAIL T3 RoboTalk RPL ArmBASIC 17 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

18  Level 3 – Structured Programming Languages - Offers major improvements over primitive motion languages. - Has become the standard for major vendors of robots. - Provides a structured control format. - Supports complex data structures, branching, and subroutines. - Communication capability with local area network is available. - Supports off-line programming. 18 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

19  Level 4 – Task-Oriented Languages - Conceals from the user the commands and program structure that normally must be written by the programmer. - User is only concerned with solving the manufacturing problem. - Permits programming in natural language. For example, “Put bracket A on top of bracket B.” - A plan generation feature allows re-planning of robot motion to avoid undesirable situations. - A world modeling systems permits the robot to keep track of objects. - The inclusion of collision avoidance permits accident-free- motion. 19 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

20 Programming Languages by Level 20 Level 2Level 3Level 4 RAPID V V+ T3 KARL AMLAUTOPASS AML/E AS MCL PARL-1 RoboTalk Sankyo language DARL II VALVAL II Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

21 What is On-line and Off-line Programming?  On-line and Off-line Programming is the location where the robot program is developed.  On-line Programming – the production operation is stopped and the programmer puts the robot into the programming mode.  Off-line Programming – is performed away from the robot and the production area. 21 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

22  Robot Programmers use 8 steps to develop a robot program. Step 1 – Basic Program Structure Step 2 – Process Analysis Step 3 – Tasks and Subtasks Step 4 – Task Point Graph Step 5 – System Variables Step 6 – Write and Enter the Program Step 7 – Teach the Translation Points Step 8 – Test and Debug the Program 22 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

23  Step 1 – Basic Program Structure 1. CYCLE START - All programs start at the robot’s HOME position and move out to a start point in the cycle. 2. END OF CYCLE - The final point in the program. 23 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

24  Step 2 – Process Analysis 1. The development of the program starts with the Process Analysis step. 2. The robot programmer must have complete knowledge of the manufacturing process for the robot functions. 3. The robot programmer identifies the required motion and commands; divide the motion into tasks and subtasks. 24 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

25  Step 3 – Tasks and Subtasks 1. The programmer divides the required robot motion into tasks and subtasks. 2. After the tasks and subtasks, the structure of the total robot program is established. 25 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

26  Step 4 – Task Point Graph 26 1.Robot Programmers use the task point graph (TPG). 2.The TPG is a visual tool to illustrate the program flow and arm motion required for a manufacturing problem. Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

27  Step 5 – System Variables 1. The System Variables are usually included on the task point graph as part of the program development. 2. The variables may include the velocity, tool center dimensions, Cartesian Coordinate Values, language functions, and commands. 27 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

28  Step 6 – Write and Enter the Program 1. After the translation points are identified and the task point graph has been developed, the robot programmer’s final step is to write the robot program code using the command structure and syntax for the controller. 28 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

29 Step 7 – Teach the Translation Points 1. The translation points listed in Step 5 System Variables are taught or created using one of the methods: a. Method 1 – Apply On-line programming techniques b. Methods 2 and 5 – Apply Off-line programming techniques 29 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

30  Step 8 – Test and Debug the Program 1. The final step in the development of a robot program is to test the program and correct any problems. 30 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

31 31 FIRST was founded in 1989 to inspire young people's interest and participation in science and technology. Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

32 32 BEST was founded in 1993 for the purpose of Boosting Engineering, Science, and Technology. Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

33 How your grade will be calculated. 33 Graded ElementsTotal Points One Page Essay50 Response to Questions20 Proofreading, Grammar and Spelling20 Reflection10 Total Points100 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

34 Instructions: Students will prepare a slide or internet presentation on the EasyC and ROBOTC robot programming languages. These robot programming languages are used by robot programmers of the FIRST Robotics Competition and the BEST Robotics Competition. 1. Research internet for free software to create an internet cloud- based presentation. 2. Use the EasyC website to learn more about the EasyC programming language. 34 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

35 3. Use the ROBOTC website to learn more about the ROBOTC programming language. You will need to include the following information in your presentation.  An explanation of what is the EasyC robot programming language.  An explanation of what is the ROBOTC robot programming language.  What are the similarities between the EasyC and ROBOTC robot programming languages?  What are the differences between the EasyC and ROBOTC robot programming languages?  What robot programming language would you prefer to learn and why?  Find a video of the robot programming language (EasyC or ROBOTC) for your presentation. 35 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

36 Reflection: O*NET Online has detailed descriptions of the world of work for use by job seekers, workforce development and HR professionals, students, researchers, and more! Visit the O*NET Online website (http://www.onetonline.org/). Do you think that this website may help you locate career opportunities in Programming? What types of Programming career opportunities are listed? 36 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

37  Introduction to Robotics in CIM Systems – Fifth Edition by James A. Rehg.  The McGraw-Hill Illustrated Encyclopedia of Robotics Artificial Intelligence by Stan Gibilisco Editor in Chief.  O-NET Online -  ClipArt –  Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.

38  FIRST Robotics  BEST (Boosting Engineering, Science, and Technology) 38 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved.


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