Presentation on theme: "Ascomycota (Sac Fungi) Basidiomycota (Club Fungi) Victoria Willis Quyen Mac."— Presentation transcript:
Ascomycota (Sac Fungi) Basidiomycota (Club Fungi) Victoria Willis Quyen Mac
Structure Densely interwoven hyphae (microscopic walled tubes or filaments that are lined with plasma membrane and contain cytoplasm) which form the fungal body Hyphae branch into mycelium which are the feeding network of the fungus Cell walls made of chitin (a nitrogen containing polysaccharide) Hyphae may have septa (cross walls used for more strength) They have the ability to change their form according to environmental conditions…this trait is called dimorphism They are haploid, but some can be diploid
Structure The basidium is the sexual reproductive structure. Club-shaped. (a). Some basidia are transversely divided into 4 cells (b). Some are longitudinally divided into 4 cells (c), and others are shaped like a tuning fork (d). Basidiospores are the four haploid products of meiosis. 4 basidiospores are borne on one sterigma. Spore germinates forming homokaryotic hyphae. No other group of fungi has septal structures called clamp connections.
Diversity of Ascomycota Kingdom Fungi Other phyla groups include: Basidiomycota and Zygomycota Produce spores in a distinctive type of microscopic sporangium called an ascus. Examples of Sac Fungi: yeast, morels, truffles and Penicillium
Diversity Kingdom Fungi Three classes: Basidiomycetes, Teliomycetes (rusts), and Ustomycetes (smuts) Four artificial classes: Hymenomycetes, Gasteromycetes, Urediniomycetes/Pucciniomycetes, and Ustilaginomycetes. Hymenomycetes contains fruiting bodies of basidia. Ex: crust fungi Gasteromycetes- the hymenium is enclosed until spores have matured. Ex: puffballs. Urediniomycetes causes plant rust. Ex: Cronartium (rust) Ustilaginomycetes are smut fungi. Some are luminescent, hallucinogenic, lichenized, nematophagous, or aquatic.
Mode of Nutrition Heterotrophic Acquire all nutrients by absorption and secrete hydrolytic enzymes to decompose complex molecules Fungi act in 1 of 3 niches: saprobe, parasite, or mutualistic. -Saprophytic fungi tend to decompose nonliving organic material. -Parasitic fungi obtain nutrients from their living host's cells. -Mutualistic fungi absorb materials from a living organisms but provide beneficial services for their host.
Mycorrhizae is the result from a symbiosis between a plant root and a funvus. The fungus would supply nitrogen-containing compounds to the plant. The plant would supply carbohydrates and other organic compounds to the fungus. Mode of Nutrition
Reproduction Asexual (through budding) 1.Small portion of the cell membrane and cytoplasm receive a nucleus. 2.They pinch off from the parent cell. 3.Spore formation takes place on conidiophores. 4. Septae of terminal cells become fully defined. 5.Then divide a random number of nuclei into individual cells. 6.The cell walls thicken into a protective coat. 7.Spores then break off and disperse. Sexual 1.Have male and female gametangia in haploid stage. 2.These structures form the mycelia. 3. Plasmogamy then takes place when the trichogyne fuses with the antheridium and produce the binucleate. 4.Series of dikaryotic cells called an ascogonius hypha is produced. 5.At the tip of this hyphae, nuclear fusion takes place to form diploid asci. 6.Diploid nucleus undergoes meiosis producing four haploid nuclei. 7.Nuclei undergo mitosis to form eight haploid ascopores.
Reproduction (basidiomycota) Life cycle continues with the production of homokaryotic hyphae after spore germination. Asexual reproduction is rare. Basidiospores are produced on basidia. Basidiospores germinate to produce monokaryotic hyphae. Hyphae fuse to form dikaryotic hyphae. Mushrooms re composed of this. Dikaryotic nuclei fuse to produce a zygote and meiosis would produce basidiospores.
Ecological Significance Digests resistant materials such as cellulose (in plant cells), lignin (found in wood) and collagen (connective tissue found in animals) Half of the species of Ascomycota form lichens (a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic cell)
Ecological Significance They are the most important decayers of living and dead wood in forests and buildings. Primary fungal partners in symbiotic ectomycorrhizal associations with tree root.
What makes it different? A unique factor present in Ascomycota are Woronin bodies (separate the hyphal segments which control these septal pores). If an adjoining hypha is ruptured, the Woronin bodies block the pores to prevent loss of cytoplasm
Uniqueness Distinguished from other fungi by their production of basidiospores. There are named species. Cause severe plant diseases, mushrooms (edible and poisonous), boletes, puffballs, stinkhorns, chanterelles, false truffles, jelly fungi, bird's-nest fungi, and conk or bracket fungi
Examples Saccharomyces cerevisiae : the yeast used for the baking and brewing industries Penicillium chrysogenum : producer of penicillin Cryphonectria parasitica : a parasitic fungi responsible for the demise of 4 billion chestnut trees in the eastern USA Morchella esculentum: the edible morel (mushroom)
Examples of club fungus: Poria cocos- touch or woody but edible. Tilletia tritici- permeate healthy grain with a fishy odor Puccinia graminis- black stern rust of wheat and other grains Hemileia vastatrix- coffee rust
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