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An Overview of Banking. How Bulge Bracket Banks Are Set Up… An Illustrative Example: J.P. Morgan J.P. Morgan Investment Banking Sales & Trading Research.

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Presentation on theme: "An Overview of Banking. How Bulge Bracket Banks Are Set Up… An Illustrative Example: J.P. Morgan J.P. Morgan Investment Banking Sales & Trading Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Overview of Banking

2 How Bulge Bracket Banks Are Set Up… An Illustrative Example: J.P. Morgan J.P. Morgan Investment Banking Sales & Trading Research Asset Management Treasury Security Services Credit Risk Behind all these divisions are accounting and operations functions.

3 Revenue Breakdowns

4 Typical Management Structure Varies depending on the bank, group size and number of senior positions Group Heads / Managing Directors Vice Presidents Associates (2 years) Analysts (2-3 yrs) Most familiar with current u-grad standards

5 Divisions Overview

6 INVESTMENT BANKING Bulge Bracket Bank Investment Banking Sales & Trading Research Asset Management Treasury Security Services Credit Risk

7 Overview of Investment Banking  Who are the major players  How do they make $$  What functions do they perform  Who are their clients  What other divisions do they connect/work with (if any)  How is IB broken up? What kind of teams, groups or subdivision make up this sector of the bank?

8 Sales & Trading Bulge Bracket Bank Investment Banking Sales & Trading Research Asset Management Treasury Security Services Credit Risk

9 Overview of Sales & Trading  Facilitates movement of capital (securities) from those that have it to those that need it  Primary markets: where new securities are issued  Secondary markets: where trading of already issued securities occurs  Market participants: individuals, pension and mutual funds, banks, governments, insurance companies, corporations  Sell-side financial institutions (broker-dealers) add value by making markets in particular securities  Sales  Take orders from clients and communicate them to their trading desks for execution  Introduce new opportunities to customers  Keep clients informed about changing market conditions that might affect the value of securities in their portfolio  Dinners/entertainment with clients  Trading  Does actual buying/selling of securities  Continuously adjust bid/ask to make spread from transactions  Take on proprietary positions (principal investments)  Risk management and securities pricing

10 General Characteristics  Overall  -Interest in the markets  -Good communication and analytical skills  -Thrive in fast-paced environment  Sales  -Good at attracting, building and maintaining relationships  Trading  -Be able to take calculated risk  -Instinctively react to market movements  (-Financial modelling)

11 Research Bulge Bracket Bank Investment Banking Sales & Trading Research Asset Management Treasury Security Services Credit Risk

12 Research  Equity, Credit, Economic…  Sell Side (Banks) and Buy side (Hedge Funds)  Teams of 2-10, not standard across the street  Equity Research  Buy/Sell/Hold  They Serve:  Internal clients: traders, internal funds  External clients: sell side shops, hedge funds

13 Asset Management Bulge Bracket Bank Investment Banking Sales & Trading Research Asset Management Treasury Security Services Credit Risk

14 Overview of Asset Management  Asset management is the professional management of various securities (shares, bonds etc.) and assets (e.g., real estate), to meet specified investment goals for the benefit of the investors. Investors may be institutions (insurance companies, pension funds, corporations etc.) or private investors  Investment managers who specialize in advisory or discretionary (client gives the bank control over what to do and how to invest) management on behalf of (normally wealthy) private investors may often refer to their services as wealth management or portfolio management often within the context of so-called "private banking".  The provision of 'investment management services' includes elements of financial analysis, asset selection, stock selection, plan implementation and ongoing monitoring of investments. Also, brokers and bankers have to be knowledgeable about any issues a client can face: mortgages, planning for college, planning for retirement, transferring assets to children, estate planning, wills etc. Investment management is a large and important global industry in its own right responsible for caretaking of trillions of dollars, euro, pounds and yen.

15 Overview of Asset Management  Coming under the remit of financial services many of the world's largest companies are at least in part investment managers and employ millions of staff and create billions in revenue. All of the big banks have Asset Management divisions. Goldman, JPM, HSBC and Bank of America / Merrill Lynch are particularly well known in this industry  Money is earned by charging a commission on the investments that are sold to clients, by charging trading fees and fees for other services such as estate planning, or by charging a spread on the total yearly return for the portfolio.  Client typically tend to be wealthy individuals and institutions  Asset management relies heavily on other divisions of the bank – the commercial bank for their credit card services which are offered to clients and S&T to help place trades for the wealthy clients.

16 How is Asset Management Set Up? Example in Review: JPMorgan Asset Management JPMorgan Asset Management Private Banking For private clients with $25million+ in liquid assets Issues mainly evolve around protecting wealth and transferring assets to heirs, as well as implementing the best possible tax strategies. Private Wealth Management For private clients with $2- 25million in liquid assets Lower-level issues: this group may still have to worry about paying for college, planning for retirement or growing their portfolio. Investment Management For institutional clients. Includes more quantitative groups and specialized groups in areas such as real estate, mutual funds, pension funds etc. **Different banks use the above titles differently. For example, all clients at Credit Suisse are part of their “Private Bank”, regardless of the amount of money they have. **Liquid Assets does NOT include your house, car, business etc. ONLY cash or investments

17 Types of AM Teams  Banking Teams (also known as Brokers – these are the “face” to the client and direct contact). Have a talking knowledge about a broad range of topics.  Investor teams- make strategy calls specific to certain clients’ portfolios. Know the client well. Market oriented.  Product Teams – Equity Solutions, FICC (Fixed Income / Currencies / Commodities), Mortgages, Hedge Funds, Due Diligence, Global Access Portfolios, Portfolio Construction. “Make the strategy calls for clients to get in or out of investments.” Deep knowledge about 1 specific topic.

18 Commercial Banking and Credit Risk Bulge Bracket Bank Investment Banking Sales & Trading Research Asset Management Treasury Security Services Credit Risk

19 Commercial Banking  Treasury Securities Services-largest cash flows for most of the banks with credit card services  Generate enough cash flows to be their own stand-alone Fortune 500 company  Other Roles of the Commercial Bank  Payment processing  Issuing bank cheques  Accepting deposits  Lending  Providing guarantees  Safety deposit boxes

20 Credit Risk  Credit Risk-Evaluates the risk levels associated with certain deals  Rating companies

21 Investment vs. Commercial Banks  Investment Banks  Clients: Large corporations and high net worth individuals  Financial services and advice  Intermediaries  S&T function  Loans are usually sold (removed from the Balance Sheet)  Higher risk  Make bets with own money  Commercial Banks  Clients: Every day people  Provide basic banking functions  Accept deposits (FDIC)  Make consumer & commercial loans (held on Balance Sheet)  Lower risk

22 What is private equity?  Private equity is a broad term that refers to any type of equity investment in an asset in which the equity is not freely tradable on a public stock market.  Categories of private equity investment include leveraged buyouts, venture capital, growth capital, angel investing, mezzanine capital and others.  PE firms will sometimes pool funds together to take very large public companies private. Many private equity firms conduct what are known as leveraged buyouts (LBOs), where large amounts of debt are issued to fund a large purchase. Private equity firms will then try to improve the financial results and prospects of the company in the hope of reselling the company to another firm or cashing out via an IPO.  Alternative asset class favored by university endowments, insurance companies, corporate pension plans, public employee retirement plans and high net worth individuals

23 Reading List  Reminiscences of a Stock Operator by Edwin Lefevre  Stock Market Wizards: Interviews with Top Traders by Jack D. Schwager  When Genius Failed: The Rise and Fall of Long-Term Capital Management by Roger Lowenstein  Liar’s Poker: Rising Through the Wreckage on Wall Street by Michael Lewis  Monkey Business: Swinging Through the Wall Street Jungle by Peter Troob & John Rolfe  Barbarians at the Gate: The Fall of RJR Nabisco by John Helyar  Den of Thieves by James B. Stewart  The Alchemy of Finance: Reading the Mind of the Market by George Soros & Paul Volcker  Fooled by Randomness: The Hidden Role of Chance in Life and in the Markets by Nassim N. Taleb  Against the Gods by Peter L. Berstein  The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable by Nassim N. Taleb  Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds by Charles MacKay  Ice Age by John Gribbin & Mary Gribbin  Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion by Robert B. Cialdini  Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor by David S. Landes  Poor Charlie’s Almanack: The Wit and Wisdom of Charles T. Munger by Charles T. Munger & Peter D. Kaufman


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