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Engine block of a 500 cc motorcycle

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1 Engine block of a 500 cc motorcycle
Process type Direct Shell Production Casting Material used A356 T6 aluminum Product and material requirements and specialties Typical requirements involved in high performance engine manufacture like high strength, strict tolerance etc...

2 Cellular phone keypad and display enclosures

3 Cellular phone keypad and display enclosures
Process type Thixotropic molding Material used AZ-91D magnesium alloy Product and material requirements and specialties The component’s walls are between 0.8 and 1.0 mm thick, with a total casting weight of 105 grams. Process requirements and specialties and specialties Capability of accurately casting the small details involved and economical large scale production Process Details This component was cast by injecting semi-solid state magnesium into a closed die in a similar manner to plastic injection molding. Problems Encountered. NA Process advantages Improved rigidity and impact resistance and impact resistance over previous plastic injection molding manufacture Capability of providing electro-magnetic interference shielding without external coatings or plating.


5 Component: 1.5 meter valve for a municipal water works
Material:No lead brass Process: Green sand

6 Cast Component: Steering column upper bearing assembly for Mitsubishi.
Material:Aluminum Process: Diecasting.

7 Air intake manifold for 4 cylinder engine

8 Ice cutter used in an industrial ice machine.
Process type Investment casting. Material used 316 stainless steel. Product and material requirements and specialties High rigidity and hardness Process requirements and specialties No warping and stress concentrations to be developed. Process Details An investment precoat was applied to increase the surface smoothness of the pattern. The expendable pattern was surrounded by a refractory slurry Machining to specifications Solution annealing

9 Infrared Microscope Frame Process type Vacuum molding Material used A356-T6 aluminum alloy Product and material requirements and specialties The weight of the product is to be minimum. The product should be sufficiently rigid to avoid any errors. Process requirements and specialties and specialties Wall thickness should not be greater than 0.2 in anywhere in the casting. So draft should be minimum. Machining of the various small parts that are present should be minimum to reduce cost. Tolerance of the order of ± in. Process Details A heater softens a thin plastic that drapes over a pattern on a hollow carrier plate. A vacuum then draws the film tightly around the pattern and a flask is placed on the pattern to prepare it for the back fill of sand. The sand is compacted, the back of the mold is covered with a plastic film and a vacuum is applied to the flask Atmospheric pressure hardens the mold, preparing it for the pouring of metal.

10 Pistol frame for Smith & Wesson.
Process type Die-casting. Material used A380 aluminum alloy. Product and material requirements and specialties Process requirements and specialties and specialties First instance of manufacturing of the gun frame by die casting. Capability of economically producing large quantities.

11 Rocker arm for BMW engines
Process type Counter gravity investment casting Material used Carbon steel. Product and material requirements and specialties As the camshaft rpm increases, the rocker arms run faster and hotter. These components must withstand the temperatures and pressure of engine operation. Process requirements and specialties Zero surface defects Ability to handle extremely large production volume. Process Details Ceramic molds are manufactured from wax patterns The molds are inverted and then filled with molten metal (via pressure) from the bottom to the top.

12 V6 cylinder block for a 3.9 liter automobile engine
Process type Cosworth precision sand casting. Material used. 319 aluminum alloy. Product and material requirements and specialties Usual requirements of cylinder block like exact tolerance, rigidity etc. Process Details A cast-in cylinder liner process is used. Cores for the molding process are made of zircon sand (which has superior thermal characteristics) to minimize machine stock and required wall thickness. Core oil galleries are as-cast, requiring no internal machining and minimal wall thickness. The Cosworth casting process utilizes a rollover casting technique that improves casting yield for the block to 72%, reducing component cost for the customer.

13 Internal Interface Frame for LCD Digital Projector
Process type Plaster mold with rapid prototyping Material used Magnesium Product and material requirements and specialties Low weight ; High structural stiffness and low thermal expansion to maintain component alignment ; High thermal conductivity and high heat tolerance (Local temperatures as high as 250C.) Process requirements and specialties and specialties Ability to achieve complex thin wall shape and precision features with typical post-machine tolerances of +/-0.1 mm. ; Near-net shape forming to minimize machining operations and cost. ; Capability of production rates up to 80,000 units per year Process Details An SLA resin model is made from the CAD file. A silicon master mold is made from this resin model. A reusable urethane model is made from the above mold. Individual cope and drag molds are made. Metal is poured into the mold and allowed to solidify Sprue and riser is cut off(Due to near net casting no major machining operation is necessary) Inspection and shipping Process Advantages Improved rigidity Reduced component cost

14 Bull gear for rotating large platforms in the oil industry
Process type Material used Product and material requirements and specialties A high-strength alloy steel per ASTM-A-148, Grade 115/95 with minimum 115,000-psi ultimate tensile strength 95,000-psi yield strength 4% elongation 30% reduction of area diameter of 62 ft. 558 teeth, 0.75 DP stub teeth.

15 GOLF CLUBS Process type Solid imaging Material used. NA
Product and material requirements and specialties “Radical design over conventional golf clubs” Process requirements and specialties Manufacture of two sets of irons from design in 1 week Continued…..

16 GOLF CLUBS- Process Details
Actua 2100 from 3D Systems was chosen as the solid imaging device. The printer transforms CAD ideas—like the golf clubs—into physical reality using solid imaging technology. . It uses an approach similar to ink jet printing, but the jets dispense a plastic-like material to create the solid model. It uses this plastic-like material to create wax patterns with very thin walls and intricate undercut geometry. In addition, the speed of the printer makes it possible to produce designs in one day, allowing timely product development, testing and creation. The printer also can generate wax prototypes that help to match the prototyping system to the production process. 50 wax patterns were created on the printer and sent them to the investment foundry for casting and finishing. In investment casting, a ceramic shell is built around a wax pattern, which is burned out of the mold before molten metal is poured in. Problems Encountered Extremely small time frame gave no scope for process iterations and refinements. Process advantages The player who used the golf clubs produced won the tournament!!

17 ATM Counter Process type Gravity permanent mold casting
Material used A360 aluminum Product and material requirements and specialties Tamper proof assembly; Good aesthetic appearance Process requirements and specialties Production figures of up to 100 components/week, The parting plane on the casting had to be horizontal The metal feeding system into the mold could not use side feeders Process Details Redesign of the product from earlier manufacturing process (plastic injection) ; Modeling of the casting using a software named “magma soft” ; Pouring of the molten metal into the permanent mold ; The casting needed to be filled in less than 10 sec (to eliminate the possibility of pouring defects) with the aid of gravity only ; Solidification of the casting within s. Problems Encountered Mold filling and solidification has to be quick to avoid the porosity.; In a flat area of the casting, porosity could be only minimized and not completely avoided. Process advantages Reduced cost over previous manufacturing method (plastic molding); Improved surface appearance. Improved functionality (tamper proof) ATM Counter

18 Heat exchanger used for a steam-generation application.
Material:Class 35 gray iron.Process: Nobake sand molding.Casting Supplier: Wellsville Foundry, Inc., Wellsville, Ohio. The 115-lb, 23-in.-long casting contains seven rings of 31 fins each. The component originally consisted of seven fabrications welded together to form a continuous ring tube welded to an end cap and flange. The new one-piece casting design (with in.-wide fins) features uniform wall thickness and is non-leaking because it has no weld joints. The casting offers a significant lead time reduction compared to the previous fabrication/assembly, lasts longer and improves the efficiency of the final product while providing a significant cost savings to the customer.

19 Axle housing for Goodman Equipment Corp
.Material:Steel.Process: Chemically bonded sand.Casting Supplier: Columbiana Foundry Co., Columbiana, Ohio. This 36 x 11 x 24-in. casting was originally designed as a machined weldment. By converting the component to casting, a 33% cost savings was realized by the customer due to the elimination of the assembly time for the component.

20 Investment Casting Reduces Sub-Assembly Time by 87%, Cost by 51%
The tab ring liner, originally designed as 16 separate machined tabs that were welded together, was converted to a single investment casting, reducing sub-assembly cost by $44.00 and time by 26 min. Pictured counter-clockwise from top are the ring welded onto the sheet metal tube, the cast double ring, the single ring and the completed assembly.

21 Manifold for fire-fighting equipment
Material: ductile iron. Process: Green sand casting. Casting Supplier: Versa Iron and Machine, St. Paul, Minnesota. This 90-lb manifold was converted from a stainless steel weldment at a per piece cost savings of $ (annual savings of $220,180 with 400 part volume). The tooling payback for the pattern, coreboxes and machine fixtures was realized within the first 6 weeks of production

22 Chassis for joy stick tensioning in an aircraft flight simulator for S
Chassis for joy stick tensioning in an aircraft flight simulator for S.C.T., Inc .Material:A356-T6 aluminum alloy. Process: Nobake sand casting. Casting Supplier: Danko Arlington, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland. This 14-lb component was converted from an aluminum weldment at a cost (due to reduced welding and fabrication man-hours) and weight savings. Measuring 16 x 9 x 14 in., the casting is a simpler design than the weldment with improved rigidity.

23 Fabrication (Left) Casting (Right)
Cast Component: Annealing furnace pedestal for a steel mill. Material:ASTM A-297 grade HH heat resistant stainless steel. Process: Nobake sand casting. Casting Supplier: Wellsville Foundry, Wellsville, Ohio. This one-piece, 25-lb casting replaced a stainless steel fabrication at a 67% cost savings. The cost reduction is due to the elimination of fabrication and assembly man-hours.

24 Air-ride suspension arm for buses that suspends the bus frame on the front and rear axles
.Material: ductile iron. Process: Green sand casting. Casting Supplier: Donsco, Inc., Mt. Joy, Pennsylvania. Converted from a steel stamping/fabrication, the 120-lb casting provided the customer a 50% total cost savings (including assembly time). The foundry casts paints and machines the component, and assembles a sub-system for the customer. The assemblies are shipped directly to the customer’s manufacturing line

25 Bracket for a piston cooling system on a railroad locomotive
.Material:953 aluminum bronze. Process: Permanent mold casting. Casting Supplier: Aurora Metals, L.L.C. (Hiler Industries), Montgomery, Illinois. This 0.8-lb component was converted to permanent mold casting to eliminate the leaks inherent in the previous manufacturing method. In addition, the conversion realized a cost savings by reducing man-hours and eliminating heat treatment as permanent mold casting achieves the required mechanical properties. Permanent mold casting allows a stainless steel tube insert to be cast directly into the bracket. The casting design and gating system were engineered using solidification modeling, ensuring a quality casting from the first shot.

26 Fuel rail housing for four-cylinder, 2. 0- and 2
Fuel rail housing for four-cylinder, 2.0- and 2.2-L passenger car models .Material:Aluminum .Process: Semi-solid casting. Casting Supplier: Madison-Kipp Corp., Madison, Wisconsin. An engine configuration required a fuel rail housing capable of withstanding high levels of impact without failure. The customer decided that traditional fabricated brazed steel tube and plastic designs would not meet the stringent impact requirements and opted for a cast component. The customer, first-tier supplier and casting and machining component supplier worked together to develop a casting that met the 7000-lb crash test load while keeping costs to a minimum. Increased dimensional accuracy of critical features produced close tolerance machining for special features and resulted in leak-free performance without impregnation (this was aided by semi-solid’s inherent low porosity characteristic).

27 Gearbox for Daytona Prototypes
Material:356 aluminum Process: Nobake sandCasting Supplier: Olson Aluminum Castings, Rockford, Illinois. The 44-lb gearbox requires extensive machining after casting and therefore is produced void, porosity, oxide and shrink free. 356 aluminum allowed the foundry to achieve the high strength-to-weight ratio necessary of components for competitive motor sports. Sand casting and its low-cost tooling requirement allowed for engineering changes and quick tool modifications as well as eleven different components in the program to be produced in record time.

28 Tensioner pulley for tire manufacturing
Material:Gray iron Process: No bake sandCasting Supplier: Wellsville Foundry, Wellsville, Ohio This 175-lb component is used as a brake that puts tension on a 4 ft. wide roll of rubber feeding into a tire press. Converted from a steel fabrication (two ring burn-outs with spokes), the foundry provided the end-user with a 50% cost savings.

29 Oil pump cover Material:Ductile iron Process: Green sandCasting
Supplier: Cambridge Brass, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. This 70-lb component, which holds oil for a gear drive sump pump, was converted from a six-piece weldment at a 40% cost reduction. The conversion to casting eliminated seven manufacturing steps for the end-user, reducing material handling. In addition, the elimination of weld joints eliminated oil leakage problems the fabrication was experiencing.

30 Prototyping for Direct Metal Casting: Data to Castings in 12 hours
Pictured is a prototype sand mold and the resultant aluminum pipe casting produced from it.One of the hurdles facing today’s foundries as they try to grow market share is lead time. Customers want sample cast parts today to fit into their product designs for form, fit and function. If the foundry can’t deliver, then the customer will turn to a fabricator for a quick solution.

31 A bearing bracket used in the drive system on a self-propelled lawn mower
.Material:8620 steel alloy.Process: Investment (lost wax) casting.Casting Supplier: Signicast Corp., Hartford, Wisconsin. This 0.91-lb bearing bracket casting, which was previously formed from the assembly of a laser-cut plate that was welded to a hub machined from bar stock, has the added ability to adjust the alignment and tension of the belts within the drive system. The casting design provided an 83% cost reduction, which equals $12.65/component. Part of this cost savings is due to the simplified end-product assembly that results from the hex shapes being cast for adjustment purposes. The finished cast component is supplied by the foundry after undergoing tapping, boring and plating. Agricultural component

32 Knotter frame for a hay-baling machine for New Holland
.Material:ASTM grade 350 compacted graphite iron (CGI).Process: Green sand casting.Casting Supplier: R.H. Sheppard Co., Inc., Hanover, Pennsylvania. In the previous design, the end-user was experiencing failure (breakage) in the component’s thin sections during use. As a result, it was converted to a CGI casting to improve strength to 50,000 psi and durability of these sections. The conversion to CGI and its improved strength also provided the foundry with an opportunity to reduce the weight of the component to 8.75 lb. Agricultural component

33 Lawnmower gear and axle
.Material:ASTM 897 grade austempered ductile iron.Process: Green sand casting.Casting Supplier: Applied Process, Inc., Livonia, Michigan. Previously manufactured as a three-piece carburized steel assembly, the gear and axle casting was converted to austempered ductile iron at a cost savings. After austempering at the heat treat facility, the casting is machined complete before shipment to the customer. Agricultural component

34 Mower bracket. Agricultural component
Material:Ductile iron.Process: Green sand casting.Casting Supplier: Dotson Co., Inc., Mankato, Minnesota. The customer experienced tolerance inconsistencies between fabricated parts on the original steel weldment, prompting the switch to a single component casting. The original weldment cost the customer $12/piece to manufacture. By converting to ductile iron casting, the customer saves $60,000 annually. In addition to casting, the foundry is machining the part, providing the customer with a finished appearance. Agricultural component

35 Shifter fork assembly for a combine transmission
.Material:953 aluminum bronze.Process: Permanent mold casting.Casting Supplier: Aurora Metals, LLC, Montgomery, Illinois. This component previously was manufactured as a multi-part iron assembly. The pictured assembly consists of two components riveted together and pinned onto a finished shaft. The stronger, redesigned cast component pictured is created from a stainless steel shaft that is pre-heated and locked in place in the permanent mold casting die as liquid aluminum bronze is poured around it. The 1.5-lb finished cast component has a tensile strength of 65,000-75,000 psi and a yield strength of 25,000-27,000 psi. It also reduces necessary secondary operations and handling. Agricultural component

36 CAD solid model (top), SLS polycarbonate pattern (left),
A356 aluminum casting (right). CASTING PRODUCTS CONTINUED--

37 Cam clamp used to secure ambulance gurnees.
Material: Stainless steel. Process: Investment casting. Casting Supplier: Independent Steel Castings Co., Inc., New Buffalo, Michigan.

38 Mounting bracket for medical centrifuge.
Material: CF3M stainless steel. Process: Investment casting. Casting Supplier: Vestshell, Inc., Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

39 Duck bill for White Cap, L.L.C. to seal caps on food jars.
Material:316L stainless steel. Process: Investment casting. Casting Supplier: Northern Precision Casting Co., Lake Geneva, Wisconsin.

40 Fan frame hub for General Electric’s CF-6-80C engine for Boeing’s aircraft.
Process type Investment casting. Material used Titanium. Product and material requirements and specialties Large dimensions(52-in.dia) Process requirements and specialties Capability of handling the problems encountered in large castings

41 Racing car upright Material: Titanium 6246.
Process: Investment casting. Casting Supplier: Coastcast Corp., Rancho Dominguez, California.

42 Housing actuator for an engine for Hamilton Sundstrand.
Material: A203 aluminum alloy. Process: Investment casting. Casting Supplier: Cabiran, Ltd., Kibbutz Cabri, Israel.

43 AAW 5-M handheld missile-launching system
Process type Investment casting Material used A357-T6 aluminum Product and material requirements and specialties Maximum weight reduction to reduce operator fatigue Process requirements and specialties Reduction of wall thickness as much as possible(less than 0.04 in with the overall dimensions15 x 14 x 7.5 in)

44 Cast Component: Vacuum Vessel for the power generation industry
Material:Inconel 625 Process: Investment Casting Supplier: Bescast, Inc., Willoughby, Ohio The 5-lb casting is one-tenth scale of the vacuum vessel for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) being developed by the Princeton Plasma Laboratory and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as the next generation of fusion experiment. The scale model was investment cast to determine the feasibility of using a casting for a vacuum vessel with complex geometry. To meet the rush timeline (with the help of, SLS rapid prototyping techniques were employed to make the complicated wax patterns from a CAD/STL file in 2 weeks. Solidification modeling predicted the potential “hot spots” and ways to optimize the pour parameters. The foundry employed a vacuum-assist casting method to cast the Inconel 625 air melt alloy with a consistent wall thickness of 0.1 in. The entire vessel is assembled by welding three equal segments cast by the foundry.

Semi-permanent mold is a casting process - producing Aluminum alloy castings - using re-usable metal molds and sand cores to form internal passages within the casting. Molds are typically arranged in two halves - the sand cores being put into place before the two halves are placed together. The molten metal flows into the mold cavity and surrounds the sand core while filling the mold cavity. When the casting is removed from the mold the sand core is removed from the casting leaving an internal passage in the casting.

46 The re-usable metal molds are used time and again, but the sand cores have to be replaced each time the product is cast, hence the term semi-permanent molding. Semi-permanent molding affords a very high precision quality to the casting at a reduced price compared to the sand casting processes. PRODUCTS

47 Aluminum composite alloy
Material: 359/SiC/20p aluminum composite alloy. Process:Semi-permanentmold casting. Casting Supplier: Eck Industries,Inc., Manitowoc, Wisconsin.

48 The brake rotor was converted to an aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy casting at a 50% weight reduction, with the same casting yield and without a loss in performance. In terms of mechanical properties, the aluminum MMC brake rotor’s modulus and its wear rate in application are the same as cast iron.

49 Bucket chain link for a conveyor system
Material:C95410 nickel aluminum bronze. Process:Permanent mold casting. Casting Supplier: Piad Precision Casting Corp., Greensburg, Pennsylvania.

50 Previously made from two steel stampings welded together with two tube sections and subsequently tin-plated for corrosion resistance (r), this bronze cast component (l) now is a one-piece permanent mold casting. The cast component (l) exhibits good corrosion resistance (without plating or

51 Manual Trip Material:Copper aluminum bronze alloy.
Process: Permanent mold casting. CastingSupplier: Piad Precision Casting Corp., Greensburg, Pennsylvannia.

52 Brake drum for commercial highway Class 8 trucks and trailers.
Material:Gray iron. Process: Centrifugal casting.

53 Felsted Division/Furon’s foot pedal control lever.
Material: Zamak 3. Process: Diecasting. Casting Supplier: CrecoCast, Seville, Ohio.

54 Cast Component: Monocoque Scooter Chassis for Honda’s Super Sport Scooter.
Material:JIS ADC12 (a 383 aluminum alloy equivalent). Process: Diecasting.

55 Instrument panel frame for the Cadillac DeVille.
Material: AZ91 magnesium alloy. Process: Diecasting. Casting Supplier: Intermet Corp’s Hannibal Plant, Hannibal, Missouri.

56 Cast Component: Valve spacers for Warren Rupp’s Sandpiper II
air-actuated pumps. Material:ZA-8 zinc alloy Process: Die casting.

57 Valve spacers for Warren Rupp’s Sandpiper II air-actuated pumps.
Material: ZA-8 zinc alloy. Process: Diecasting. Casting Supplier: CrecoCast, Seville, Ohio.

58 Allen-Bradley housing
Process type Die casting Material used A380 aluminum alloy Product and material requirements and specialties The component needed to be sturdy enough to withstand the outside elements and provide easy access to the inner drive it encased. Portions of the part are visible after assembly, making cosmetics a consideration.

59 Filling a wood mold with sand
NO BAKE CASTING The No-Bake Sand Casting process consists of sand molds created using a wood, metal or plastic pattern. Sand is mixed with a urethane binder and deposited into a box containing the pattern (and all necessary formers and inserts) for pouring. Filling a wood mold with sand

Material: Gray iron Process: Nobake sand Casting Supplier: Wellsville Foundry, Wellsville, Ohio

Material:C95410 nickel aluminum bronze. Process: Permanent mold casting. Casting Supplier: Piad Precision Casting Corp., Greensburg, Pennsylvania. BUCKET CHAIN

62 Suspension crossmember
Material:B356 aluminum alloy. Process: Permanent mold casting. Casting Supplier: CMI-Precision Mold, Inc., Bristol, Indiana.

63 This 26-lb safety-critical component was redesigned to an aluminum casting from a steel weldment, resulting in a 14-lb weight reduction. The casting’s dimensional tolerances are held to 0.5 mm across the length of the part, a threefold reduction over the previous design. The casting’s mechanical properties include 44 ksi ultimate strength, 32 ksi yield strength and 10.4 x 106 psi Young’s modulus.

64 Bracket for a piston cooling system
Material:953 aluminum bronze. Process:Permanentmold casting. Casting Supplier: Aurora Metals, L.L.C. (Hiler Industries), Montgomery, Illinois.

65 Manual trip used in the electrical industry
Material:Copper aluminum bronze alloy. Process: Permanent mold casting. Casting Supplier: Piad Precision Casting Corp., Greensburg, Pennsylvannia.

66 Three-bladed adapter for a cleaning brush on industrial floor cleaning equipment
.Material: ductile iron. Process: Green sand casting. Casting Supplier: Smith Foundry Co., Minneapolis. Previously manufactured as a four-piece weldment, this component was redesigned as a single casting at a $3/casting, $72,000/year savings to the customer. The weldment experienced failure and breakage under heavy shock loading. The conversion to cast ductile iron eliminated the field failure and also incorporated the three holes in each blade as-cast to eliminate post-process drilling.

67 Cast Component: Carrier component
Material:Steel Process: Green sand Casting

68 Powerhead for a pallet truck.
Material: A356-T6 aluminum. Process:Green sand molding. Casting Supplier: Wisconsin Aluminum Foundry Co., Inc., Manitowoc, Wis.

69 Middle support for a bike rack on public trains.
Material:535 aluminum Process: Sand casting

70 Torque arm bracket for the after-market automotive industry.
Material: ductile iron. Process: Sand casting.

71 Center ring for a fall protection system
Material: Manganese bronze. Process: Lost foam casting. Casting Supplier: Irish Foundry and Manufacturing, Inc., Seattle, Washington.

72 Lifeline horizontal slide for safety equipment.
Material: Manganese bronze. Process: Lost foam casting. Casting Supplier: Irish Foundry & Manufacturing, Inc., Seattle.

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