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BiNus International Referencing Workshop English Language Services 20 April 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "BiNus International Referencing Workshop English Language Services 20 April 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 BiNus International Referencing Workshop English Language Services 20 April 2006

2 Aim of Workshop To teach students referencing styles and bibliography construction while providing students with useful reference guides for their future academic writing

3 English Language Services John Honeyben – Ext 137 Amanda Patrick – Ext 138 English Clinic – 3.15pm – 4.15pm, Mon-Fri, by appointment

4 Scope of Workshop 2 x 1 hour sessions What is Referencing? Why do we Reference? When do we Reference? Methods of Referencing In Text Citation Full Reference List E-Sources Bibliography Footnotes / Endnotes Common Abbreviations – Latin & English Paraphrasing If time permits

5 What is Referencing? Standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that are used in an assignment in a way that uniquely identifies its source

6 What is Referencing? Standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that are used in an assignment in a way that uniquely identifies its source

7 Why do we Reference? Acknowledge the source of others work Avoid plagiarism accusations Display a knowledge of current literature Demonstrate support for your ideas, opinions and point of view Provide examples or evidence to support own research Allow readers to follow-up and read cited author’s argument

8 When do we Reference? Within & at the end of the assignment when using: Direct Quotations Facts, Figures, Ideas & Theories – Not common knowledge Information rewritten in your own words (paraphrase) From books, journals, Internet, videos, radio, TV, lecture notes

9 Methods of Referencing Harvard – aka Author-Date system Oxford APA MLA Chicago Vancouver Turabian Differs between Universities/Faculties/Lecturer’s

10 APA / Harvard System 1. In Text Citation Short & Long Quotations 2. Reference List Complete list of all references at the end of the document

11 In-Text Citation (Short < 3 lines) Short Quotations Harvard / APA Inverted commas around authors actual words Author’s words incorporated in text Academic writers need to be cautious in their claims. In this respect, vague language is important as it ‘allows claims to be made with due caution, modesty and humility’ (Hyland, 1994 : 241).

12 Example – Short Quotation Academic writers need to be cautious in their claims. In this respect, vague language is important as it ‘allows claims to be made with due caution, modesty and humility’ (Hyland, 1994 : 241). Author’s Surname Brackets surrounding reference Year of Publication Page No. Full stop after bracket Inverted commas

13 In-Text Citation (Long > 3 lines) Long Quotations Harvard / APA Indented from the margin Different type size or style Quotation marks omitted Jordan (1977 : 240) also draws attention to the necessity for being careful: A feature of academic writing is the need to be cautious in one’s claims and statements. In other words, you may indicated your certainty and commitment in varying degrees.

14 Example – Long Quotation Jordan (1977:240) also draws attention to the necessity for being careful: A feature of academic writing is the need to be cautious in one’s claims and statements. In other words, you may indicated your certainty and commitment in varying degrees. Intro Sentence IndentedFont Size Smaller No inverted commas

15 Handout Flag A Writer’s Block and Getting Started Read and Identify Short / Long Quotations

16 Handout Flag B Pg 102 – Activity A (Good Example) Pg 102 – Activity B (Read / Identify)

17 Bibliography / Reference List List of sources at the end of the essay Reference List – Only those resources referenced in your assignment Bibliography – All materials used to write the assignment Alphabetical Order Surnames, First Names or initials Mc = Mac I.e before Madison

18 Handout Flag C MU – Sample Reference List

19 Reference List 1. Books 2. Journals 3. Electronic Sources

20 Referencing - Books Second line of reference indented to highlight alphabetical order Author’s surname Author’s initials Date (in brackets) Title (underlined or in italics) Place of publication Publisher Wallace, M.J. (1980). Study Skills in English. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press

21 Referencing - Journals Author’s surname Author’s initials Date (in brackets) Title of Article Name of Journal (underlined or in italics) Volume Number / Issue Number If known: season, month or page number West, R. (1994). Needs Analysis in Language Teaching. Language Teaching, 27(1) : 1-19

22 Handout Flag D References and Bibliographies Identify Referencing – Book / Journal Practical Activity – p. 99

23 5 Min Break In the Classroom!!

24

25 Referencing – E- Sources www Dawson, J.(2002), Referencing : Not Plagiarism. Retrieved October 31, 2002 from www (no author) Referencing : Not Plagiarism, (2002). Retrieved November 13, 2002 from www (no author/date) Referencing : Not Plagiarism Retrieved November 13, 2002 from

26 Handout Flag E Curtin University Reference Guide – Pg 4

27 Footnotes Oxford Referencing Style At the foot of each page (Vs in-text citation) Numbered sequentially Explains a word or an item Adds special information / reference Small number above the word

28 Handout Flag F Sample Footnotes

29 Endnotes Appear at the end of the essay / chapter Continuous numbering throughout the essay 1. Beard, R.M. and J, Hartley (1984 : 4 th ed.). Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. London : Harper and Row. 2. Hartley, J. and C.K. Knapper (1984). Academics and their Writing. Studies in Higher Education, 9 (2). 3. Jordan, R.R. (1983). Study Skills : Experience and Expectations. In G.M. Blue (Ed.) Language, Learning and Success : Studying through English. Developments in ELT. London : McMillan, Modern English Teacher and the British Council. 4. Northedge, A. (1990). The God Study Guide. Milton Keynes : The Open University.

30 Common Abbreviations Latin

31 e.g.exempli gratiaFor example… et alet aliiAnd others… etc.et ceteraAnd so on… i.e.id estWhich is to say… or That is… ibidibidemSame as last entry, when two references in a row are from the same source. Loc. Cit. loco citatoIn the place already cited op. cit.opere citatoIn the work already mentioned N.B.note beneNote well… q.v.Quod videRefer to…

32 Common Abbreviations English

33 para. / paras.paragraph(s) ref. / refs.reference(s) vol. / vols.volume(s) p. / pp.page(s) no. / nos.number(s) ms. / mss.manuscript(s) l. / ll.line(s) Ed. / Eds.Editor(s); edited by; edition

34 Is the same as = Causes, leads to Is greater than> Because Is not the same as Is caused by In addition Changes according to Grows, increases Is smaller than< Decreases, falls Doubtful point ? Therefore

35 Paraphrasing Using your own words, to report someone else’s writing, while maintaining an academic style Replication of topic sentences and keywords in the original text Must be referenced 4 skills Changing Vocabulary Changing Verb Form Changing Word Class Synthesis

36 Handout Flag G Reading – Paraphrase p. 93 Activity 1,2 & 3

37 Suggested Solution Acty 1 – Smith and Jones (1991) discovered that the situation had …

38 Suggested Solution Acty 2 – The problems caused by seminars were observed by Brown and White (1994)

39 Suggested Solution Acty 3 – The conclusion of James and Harris (1984), that there was a need for note-taking practice, led to the development of appropriate exercise

40 You Should Have Copies of These ! Synonym Book Antonym Book Thesaurus

41 Final Activity In Text Citation Paraphrasing Reference List

42 Conclusion What is Referencing? Why do we Reference? When do we Reference? Methods of Referencing? In Text Citation Full Reference List E-Sources Bibliography Footnotes / Endnotes Common Abbreviation’s – Latin & English Paraphrasing


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