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© Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 46 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page Accompanying worksheet Flash activity. These activities.

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Presentation on theme: "© Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 46 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page Accompanying worksheet Flash activity. These activities."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 1 of 46 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page Accompanying worksheet Flash activity. These activities are not editable. Web addressesExtension activities Icons key: For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation Punctuation Year 7 Sentence Starters

2 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 2 of 46 Contents © Boardworks Ltd 20062 of 46 Apostrophes to show contractions Apostrophes to show possession Possessive pronouns Apostrophes to show unusual plurals Apostrophes activities Colons Semicolons Punctuation which adds information Brackets Dashes Commas Speech Marks Punctuation activities

3 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 3 of 46 Megan and Tom can improve their writing by varying their punctuation to write clearly and stylishly. I really want to be a novelist when I’m older. My teacher said that I need to improve my ‘clarity of expression’ to become a good writer. Well, I might become a sports journalist when I’m older. My teacher told me that I need to use different types of punctuation for style but I find it very difficult. The importance of good punctuation

4 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 4 of 46 Apostrophes to show contractions © Boardworks Ltd 20064 of 46 Apostrophes to show contractions

5 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 5 of 46 Apostrophes Apostrophes (’) are the most commonly misused punctuation mark. They have three main uses. They show: 1.contractions 2.possession 3.unusual plurals Contractions are shortened forms of words which have letters missing. The apostrophe is used in place of the missing letters, e.g. It’s is short for It is. We’ll is short for we will or we shall. Can’t is short for cannot.

6 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 6 of 46 Contractions We use contractions a lot when we are speaking aloud because they save time and sound informal. Fill in the grid below with as many contractions as you can. contractionoriginal words It’s It is Contractions should be avoided in formal writing though, such as in essays and letters, as they sound too chatty. However, some writers use them when they write down the direct speech of a character or person. Why do you think some writers use contractions in direct speeches?

7 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 7 of 46 Apostrophes to show possession © Boardworks Ltd 20067 of 46 Apostrophes to show possession

8 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 8 of 46 Possession Apostrophes are also used to show possession: who or what owns something, e.g. This is Max’s book means This book belongs to Max. Adding an apostrophe and an s after a person, place or thing shows that he/she/it are the owner of the other noun in the sentence. Here are some more examples: 1. Megan’s pet tarantula is called Mogg. 2. Mogg’s owner is called Megan. 3. All of the bus’s seats are full. Now write down five of your own sentences using apostrophes to show possession.

9 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 9 of 46 Possession To show possession we normally add an apostrophe and an s after the word. We don’t add the extra s, however, if the word is a plural noun because it already ends in an s, and it would become too difficult to pronounce, e.g. 1. The toilets’ hand-driers are broken. 2. You only have two weeks’ holiday. 3. Those plants’ leaves are brown. Try to write five sentences using apostrophes to show possession for plural nouns.

10 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 10 of 46 Possessive pronouns © Boardworks Ltd 200610 of 46 Possessive pronouns

11 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 11 of 46 Possessive pronouns The exception to the apostrophe rule are these possessive pronouns which show possession without apostrophes: yours not you’s his not he’s hers not she’s its not it’s ours not our’s theirs not their’s whose not who’s Why do you think possessive plurals are written differently? What could they be confused with?

12 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 12 of 46 Possessive pronouns Here are some examples of the possessive pronouns which do not need apostrophes. 1. His new car is better than mine. 2.The bird flapped its wings. 3.Is my drawing better than hers? 4.Are these books the same as yours? 5.Shall we use your plates or ours? 6.Ben prefers our home to theirs. 7. Whose chocolate bar is this? Now try to write your own example for each one.

13 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 13 of 46 Apostrophes to show unusual plurals © Boardworks Ltd 200613 of 46 Apostrophes to show unusual plurals

14 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 14 of 46 Unusual plurals The final use of apostrophes is to show unusual plurals, such as number, letters and symbols, which would be unreadable otherwise, e.g. 1.There is one c and two s’s in the word necessary. 2.Continental 7’s are scored with horizontal lines. 3.You must mind your p’s and q’s around strangers. 4.Your mobile phone number is easy to remember because there are three 0’s in it. 5.My postcode has two B’s in it. Write five sentences which include numbers and letters that are pluralized with apostrophes.

15 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 15 of 46 Apostrophe activities © Boardworks Ltd 200615 of 46 Apostrophe activities

16 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 16 of 46 Its/it’s quiz

17 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 17 of 46 Apostrophes activity

18 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 18 of 46 Colons © Boardworks Ltd 200618 of 46 Colons

19 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 19 of 46 Colons A colon (:) shows that the words which follow it are an explanation or an example of what is written before it, e.g. A hamburger is made up of three layers: the bottom half of the bun, the burger and the top half of the bun. A colon is usually placed after a complete sentence but it can be followed by many or few words, e.g. The environment is facing a huge threat: global warming. Colons are placed directly after the last word of the main idea and they are followed by one space only. They are never followed by either a hyphen (-) or a dash (–).

20 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 20 of 46 Colons Write down five sentences using colons to either explain points, add details or give examples. Here are some more examples of sentences with colons: 1.Tom watched a football match on Saturday: Chelsea versus Arsenal. 2.The fire destroyed many things in the house: the furniture, the carpets and the curtains. 3.I just bought a new car: a Land Rover. 4.There are seven colours in the rainbow: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. 5.Megan went shopping and bought some fruit: two apples, some cherries and a melon.

21 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 21 of 46 Semicolons © Boardworks Ltd 200621 of 46 Semicolons

22 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 22 of 46 Semicolons A semicolon (;) joins two complete sentences into one. This is because some sentences are too closely related to be separated by a full stop but they are missing a connecting word, such as and or but, e.g. Eating chocolate in moderation is fine; eating chocolate to excess is bad. The semicolon joins the separate statements about chocolate into one sentence which acts like a warning: eating a little chocolate is fine but beware of eating a lot because it is bad. It suggests that the first event is related to the second event.

23 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 23 of 46 Semicolons Here are some more examples of sentences with semicolons: 1.Megan was angry; Tom was not listening. 2.It was the best year; it was the worst year. 3.Max felt hot; the sun was blazing. 4.I don’t like cabbage; I don’t like carrots. 5.I found the film long; Tim found the film short. What does the semicolon imply in each sentence? What would happen if the semicolons were replaced with colons or full stops?

24 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 24 of 46 Colons and semicolons Colons and semicolons are good to use in your writing as they are stylish. They can change the meanings of the same set of words, e.g. Lei is happy. Max is sad. 1. Using a full stop separates the events into unrelated events: Lei happens to be happy and Max happens to be sad. 3. The semicolon links the two events. Lei, therefore, may be happy that Max is sad, or Max may be sad that Lei is happy. Lei is happy: Max is sad.Lei is happy; Max is sad. 2. Using a colon changes the two events into one event with an explanation: Lei is (quite cruelly) happy because Max is sad. Try to write five sentences using semicolons to link two sentences together.

25 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 25 of 46 Apostrophes, colons and semicolons

26 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 26 of 46 Punctuation which adds information © Boardworks Ltd 200626 of 46 Punctuation which adds information

27 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 27 of 46 Sentences with extra information

28 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 28 of 46 Brackets © Boardworks Ltd 200628 of 46 Brackets

29 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 29 of 46 I want to be able to mildly distract my readers with extra information about the sports players… Brackets allow you to add extra information to a sentence, which is useful but not necessary or to add your opinion, e.g. ‘Charlie Johnson (aged 21 years) has (unfortunately) played for Charlton for three seasons.’ The sentence still makes sense without the information in the brackets, e.g. ‘Charlie Johnson has played for Charlton for three years.’ TIP: Brackets add extra details to a sentence and are only a mild distraction. Round brackets

30 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 30 of 46 Try to work out where to use brackets in these examples: 1.Tom went to watch a football match Liverpool versus Chelsea on Saturday. 2.Speaking foreign languages I believe is a useful skill. 3.Watching too much TV over two hours per day is bad for your eyesight. 4.Megan went to the hairdresser’s on Tuesday to have her hair cut. 5.My parents Jack and Linda are very strict. Did you draw your brackets in these places? ( ) () () () () Using round brackets

31 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 31 of 46 Dashes © Boardworks Ltd 200631 of 46 Dashes

32 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 32 of 46 I want to be able to distract my readers with dramatic background information on my characters… Pairs of dashes allow writers to strongly interrupt the flow of a sentence to provide their readers with useful information, e.g. The extra information is placed between the dashes for emphasis, but the sentence should also make sense alone. ‘The countess glared at the maid – who had stolen the heart of her husband – and threw a silver hairbrush at her.’ TIP: Dashes add extra details to a sentence, deliberately causing a major distraction and disrupting the flow. Pairs of dashes

33 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 33 of 46 Try to work out where to use dashes in these examples: 1.Lei glared at Max who had beaten her in a quiz and then childishly stuck her tongue out at him. 2.The lions stalked the antelope deliberately terrifying it before killing and eating it. 3.The farmer’s sheepdog, Rusty clearly his most loyal friend followed the farmer wherever he went. 4.Pesticides are used to help crops grow regardless of their negative effects large and quickly. 5.Peter and Sue had a beautiful baby weighing 11 pounds last week. Did you put your dashes in these places? Using pairs of dashes

34 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 34 of 46 Commas © Boardworks Ltd 200634 of 46 Commas

35 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 35 of 46 Sometimes, we want to add information to make our writing clearer, without distracting the reader from the sentence, e.g. Megan, do you know how to use punctuation to add some information that won’t disrupt the flow? Oh yes, I remember, you need to use pairs of commas… John, who hated cola, bought a lemonade in the café. TIP: Pairs of commas add extra details to a sentence without ruining the flow. Pairs of commas

36 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 36 of 46 Try to work out where to use pairs of commas in these examples: 1.Mexico assumed by many to be a South American country is in North America. 2.Saint Patrick also patron saint of excluded people is the patron saint of Ireland. 3.The Moon although it floats in space like the Earth is not a planet. 4.Bulls despite the fact that they will attack a red cloak are colour-blind. 5.A tomato although a fruit is usually eaten on a salad. Did you put your commas in these places?,,,,,,,,,, Using pairs of commas

37 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 37 of 46 Punctuation game

38 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 38 of 46 Speech marks © Boardworks Ltd 200638 of 46 Speech marks

39 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 39 of 46 Direct speech Before writing my novel, I need to know how to write down the speeches of my characters. And I need to know how to report the speeches of sportsmen and women after I interview them. To report direct speech (the exact words that a person or character has spoken aloud) you must use speech marks. Speech marks look like “ ” or ‘ ’. Speech marks surround the words of direct speech to show that those words are different from the rest of the writing.

40 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 40 of 46 Speech marks To add some direct speech in a larger sentence, introduce it with a comma and enclose it in speech marks, e.g. John turned to Jane and said, “You love me.” If the direct speech forms a complete sentence, it must start with a capital letter and finish with a full stop – inside of the speech marks. However, if the speech is only part of a sentence, it must start in lower case and finish with a comma – inside of the speech marks, e.g. John turned to Jane and said, “sorry,” looking uncomfortable.

41 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 41 of 46 Speech marks It is also possible to interrupt a speech so that you can add a description about the speech or speaker, e.g. John turned to Jane and said, “You love me,” looking uncomfortable, “but I can’t marry you.” Commas are used to introduce each part of the direct speech. The full stop only comes at the very end once the sentence is complete. Direct speeches only begin with capital letters if they form complete sentences, if they begin with proper nouns or the pronoun ‘I’, or they start a sentence, e.g. “I think,” said Jane looking murderous, “you are a pig.”

42 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 42 of 46 Speech marks activity

43 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 43 of 46 Using speech marks Try to work out where to put speech marks in the sentences: 1.Tom said to Megan, May I borrow your CD please? 2.Megan said, yes, smiling at Tom. 3.I turned to Amy and said, Amy, as I gazed at her new dress, you look pretty. 4.Jack, you smell, said Jill, take a shower. 5.Paul said to Dan, Do I, looking smug, annoy you? Did you put your speech marks in these places? “ ”

44 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 44 of 46 Punctuation activities © Boardworks Ltd 200644 of 46 Punctuation activity and summary

45 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 45 of 46 Include some apostrophes, colons, semicolons, brackets, dashes, pairs of commas and some direct speech in speech marks. Now rewrite the sentences without punctuation! Swap your sentences with a partner and ask them to add the correct punctuation. If they used different punctuation to you, discuss why each choice was made (you might both be right!). Write down some sentences which Tom could use in a sports article and Megan could use in a novel. Follow on activity

46 © Boardworks Ltd 2006 46 of 46 To sum up how these forms of use punctuation: apostrophes are used to represent the missing letters in contractions (can’t) and to show possession colons help you to provide and explanation or example in one sentence semicolons link two complete sentences to imply cause and effect brackets, dashes and pairs of commas all add extra information to sentences; their content is handy to know but is not vital wrap speech marks around direct speech. Punctuation summary

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