# Contemporary Mathematics for Business and Consumers

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Contemporary Mathematics for Business and Consumers

Chapter 9 Payroll Copyright © 2003 by South-Western

Chapter 9, Payroll Outline
Section I Employee’s Gross Earnings and Incentive Pay Plans 9-1 Prorating annual salary on the basis of weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, and monthly pay periods. 9-2 Calculating gross pay by hourly wages, including regular and overtime rates. 9-3 Calculating gross pay by straight and differential piecework schedules. 9-4 Calculating gross pay by straight and incremental commission, salary plus commission, and drawing account.

Chapter 9, Payroll (Cont.)
Outline Section II Employee’s Payroll Deductions 9-5 Computing FCIA taxes, both social security and Medicare, withheld from an employee’s paycheck. 9-6 Calculating an employee’s federal income tax withholding (FIT) by percentage method. 9-7 Determining an employee’s total withholding for federal income tax, social security, and Medicare using the combined wage bracket tables.

Chapter 9, Payroll (Cont.)
Outline Section III Employee’s Payroll Expenses and Record Keeping Responsibilities 9-8 Computing FICA tax for employers and self-employment tax for self-employed persons. 9-9 Computing the amount of state unemployment taxes (SUTA) and federal unemployment tax (FUTA). 9-10 Calculating employer’s fringe benefit expense. 9-11 Understanding Internal Revenue Service payroll forms.

Chapter 9, Payroll Key Terms Gross pay, or gross earnings Overtime
Net pay Time-and-a-half or net earnings or take-home pay Wages Hourly wag, or hourly rate Salary Double time piecework Straight piecework plan Differential piece work Commission Straight commission Incremental Commission Salary plus commission Drawing account or draw against commission

Chapter 9, Payroll (Cont.)
Key Terms Chapter 9, Payroll (Cont.) Commission Straight commission Incremental Commission Salary plus commission Drawing account, Mandatory deductions or draw against commission Voluntary deductions Deductions, or withholdings Wage base Federal Insurance Contributions Act Federal income tax or (FICA) Percentage method Social security tax Fringe benefits or (QASD) Medicare tax Combined wage bracket tables Perquisites, or perks Federal Unemployment Tax Act or (FUTA) Cafeteria-style or State Unemployment Tax Act or (SUTA) Flexible benefit program

Section I, Employee’s Gross Earnings and Incentive Pay Plans
9-2 Calculating Gross Pay by Hourly Wages, Including Regular and Overtime Rates Steps to Calculate an Employee’s Gross Pay by Hourly Wages: Step 1. Calculate an employee’s regular gross pay for working 40 hours or less: Regular pay = Hourly rate x Regular hours worked

9-2 Calculating Gross Pay by Hourly Wages, Including Regular and Overtime Rates
Steps to Calculate an Employee’s Gross Pay by Hourly Wages: Step 1. Calculate an employee’s regular gross pay for working 40 hours of less: Step 2. Calculate an employee’s overtime pay by chain multiplying the hourly rate by the overtime factor by the number of overtime hours. Regular pay = Hourly rate X Regular hours worked Overtime pay = Hourly rate X Overtime factor X Overtime hours worked

9-2 Calculating Gross Pay by Hourly Wages, Including Regular and Overtime Rates (Cont.)
Steps to Calculate an Employee’s Gross Pay by Hourly Wages: Step 3. Calculate total gross pay: Total gross pay = Regular pay + Overtime pay

Everybody’s Business Real World Connection Payroll is a very important business responsibility. Employees must be paid on a regular basis, and accurate records must be kept for government reporting. Payroll is usually one of the largest “expense” categories of a company. The department responsible for the payroll functions may be called Payroll, Personnel, or Human Resources. In recent years, companies have evolved that specialized in doing payroll. When a business hires an outside firm to perform a function such as payroll, this is known as outsourcing.

Total gross pay = Output quantity X Rate per unit
9-3 Calculating Gross Pay by Straight and Differential Piecework Schedules Steps to Calculate Gross Pay by Piecework: Straight Piecework: Step 1. Total gross pay under a straight piecework schedule is calculated by multiplying the number of pieces or output units by the rate per unit. Differential Piecework: Step 1. Multiply the number of output units at each level by the rate per unit at that level. Step 2. Find the total gross pay by adding the total form each level. Total gross pay = Output quantity X Rate per unit

Total gross pay = Total sales X commission rate
9-4 Calculating Gross Pay by Straight and Incremental Commission, Salary Plus Commission, and Drawing Accounts Steps to Calculate Gross Pay by Commission: Straight Commission: Step 1. Total gross pay under a straight commission schedule is calculated by multiplying the total sales or output units by the commission rate. Incremental Commission: Step 1. Multiply the total sales at each level by the rate for that level. Step 2. Find the total gross pay by adding the total form each level. Total gross pay = Total sales X commission rate

Section II, Employee’s Payroll Deductions
9-6 Calculating an Employee;s Federal Income Tax Withholding (FIT) by the Percentage Method. Steps to Calculate the Income Tax Withheld Using the Percentage Method: Step 1. Using the proper payroll period, multiply one withholding allowance, Exhibit 9-2, by the number of allowance claimed by the employee. Step 2. Subtract that amount from the employee’s gross earnings to find the wages subject to federal income tax. Step 3. From Exhibit 9-3, locate the proper segment (Table1, 2, 3, or 4) corresponding to the employee’s payroll period. Within that segment, use the left side (a) for single employees and the right side (b) for married.

Section II, Employee’s Payroll Deductions (Cont.)
9-6 Calculating an Employee;s Federal Income Tax Withholding (FIT) by the Percentage Method. Steps to Calculate the Income Tax Withheld Using the Percentage Method: Step 4. Locate the “Over-” and “But not over-” brackets containing the employee’s taxable wage from Step 2. The tax is listed to the right as a percent or a dollar amount and a percent.

9-7 Determining to Find Total Income Tax, Social Security, and Medicare Withheld by Using the Combined Wage bracket method 9-7 Steps to Find Total Income Tax, Social Security, and Medicare Withheld by Using the combined Wage Bracket Method. Step 1. Based on the employee’s martial status and period of payment, find the corresponding table (Exhibit 9-4 or 9-5). Step 2. Note that the two left columns, labeled “At least” and “But less than” are the wage brackets. Scan down these columns until you find the bracket containing the gross pay of the employee. Step 3. Scan across the row of that wage bracket to the intersection of the column containing the number of withholding allowances claimed by the employee. Step 4. The number in that column, on the wage bracket row, is the amount of combined tax withheld.

Everybody’s Business Real World Connection
All employees must have a Social Security number. Applications are available at all U. S. post offices. Social Security numbers are used by the IRS as a taxpayer identification number as well as by banks, credit unions, and other financial institutions for reporting income from savings and other investments. Information about an individual’s Social Security account can be obtained by filing a Form 7004-SM-Request for Earnings and Benefit Estimate Statement. These can be obtained by calling the Social Security Administration ar

Fringe benefit percent = Total fringe benefit
Section III, Employer’s Payroll Expense and Record Keeping Responsibilities 9-10 Calculating Employer’s Fringe Benefit Expense Steps to Calculate an Employer’s Fringe Benefits Expense: Step 1. If the fringe benefit is a percent of gross payroll, multiply that percent by the amount of the gross payroll. If the fringe benefit is a dollar amount per employee, multiply that amount by the number of employees. Step 2. Find the total fringe benefits by adding all individual fringe benefit amounts. Step 3. Calculate the fringe benefit percent by using the percentage formula. Rate = Portion / Base, with total fringe benefits as the portion and gross payroll as the base (remember to convert your answer to a percentage). Fringe benefit percent = Total fringe benefit Gross payroll

9-11 Understanding Internal Revenue Service Payroll forms
Form 1040 – ES, Estimated Quarterly Tax Voucher for Self Employed Persons Quarterly earnings = Estimated annual earnings 4 (quarters)

Everybody’s Business Real World Connection
Penalties apply if you do not make required deposits on time, make deposits for less than the required amount, or if you do not use EFTPS when required, for amounts not deposited properly or in a timely manner, the penalty rates are: Penalty Reason for Penalty 2% Deposit made 1 to 5 days late 5% Deposit made 6 to 15 days late 10% Deposit made 16 or more days late 10% Not using EFTPS when required 15% Amounts still unpaid more than 10 days after IRS notice

Hourly rate x Overtime factor x Overtime hours worked
Chapter 9 Hourly Wages Regular pay = Hourly rate x Regular hours worked Overtime pay = Hourly rate x Overtime factor x Overtime hours worked Total gross pay = Regular pay + Overtime pay Piecework Total gross pay = Output quantity x Rate per unit Copyright © 2003 by South-Western

Chapter 9 Commission Total gross pay = Total sales x Commission rate
Payroll Deductions Total deductions = Social Medicare Income Voluntary security Tax deductions Net pay = Gross pay - Total deductions + + + Copyright © 2003 by South-Western

Chapter 9 Fringe Benefits Total fringe benefits Gross payroll
Estimated Quarterly Tax Estimated annual earnings 4(quarters) Fringe benefits percent = Quarterly earnings = Copyright © 2003 by South-Western