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Published byQuincy Hillson Modified about 1 year ago

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Implementation of VoIP at Broadway Suites 2/9/2005

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Broadway Suites Service Provider for downtown Boulder office buildings, including Executive Suites –Multiple, diverse businesses in one space –Fortune 500 services on a small company budget

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Broadway Suites

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Broadway Suites VoIP Broadway Suites was the first Avaya VoIP implementation in Colorado. Network Assessments didn’t exist! We ‘learned by doing’ As my spell checker says, it was VoID!

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VoIP Bedrock –IP Numbers are one of the most basic building blocks of current networks –Without really understanding IP numbers, Telecom Administrators can’t deploy VoIP –If the Telecom Administrator cannot deploy VoIP, it will be turned over to the IT department

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Avaya Certification Communications Networking test: Given the IP number , with a subnet mask of , find: a)The number of hosts in the subnet b)The network address c)The broadcast address

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What is an IP Number? –An IP Number identifies a host (computer or phone) on a subnet, just like an extension identifies a phone on a cabinet –IP configuration has 3 parts: IP Number – Subnet Mask – Gateway – –What? Why 3 parts?

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Phone Talk Telephones talk to each other on dedicated wires Ports are connected dedicated physical ports How do computers find each other to talk?

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Computer Talk Computers talk to other computers in two ways. Broadcast Routing

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Inside Subnet - Broadcast –Recipient is determined as inside –Message is sent to all computers –The intended recipient listens –Other computers ignore the message

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Outside Subnet - Routed –Recipient determined as outside –Message broadcast to local Gateway (router) –Gateway forwards message to destination subnet –Message is broadcast to final destination

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IP Configuration – 3 Parts IP Configuration includes the host identifier (computer, phone, router, etc) IP Configuration includes a ‘subnet mask’ to show which destinations are inside and which are outside their subnet (broadcast vs routing) IP Configuration includes a gateway to reach all destinations outside the subnet

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Dwight’s College Diploma The blank space above is an accurate depiction of what was inside Dwight’s diploma case at graduation time.

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Bits and Bytes –Computers store things in binary, either a zero or a one. –A single zero or one is a bit. 8 zeros or ones are a byte.

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IP Numbers –An IP number is made up of 32 bits, divided into four groups of 8 (four bytes)

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IP Numbers for Humans –Since humans don’t usually speak binary, we use the decimal system –Each byte (or octect) is written as a decimal number ranging from 0 to 255 –The decimal numbers are separated by periods, or dots

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Binary Math – Really Easy Binary math is based on powers of 2, as opposed to powers of 10 for decimal math. –Decimal math has a 1s place, 10s place, 100s place, etc… –Binary math has a 1s place, 2s place, 4s place, 8s place, etc… bit 1 bit 2 bit 3 bit 4 bit 5 bit 6 bit 7 bit 8 Most significant bitLeast significant bit

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Binary Math to Decimal When a bit is 0 its value is zero When a bit is 1, its value is its place value The total is the decimal value (the one we use) – = = 192 – = = 168 – = = bit 1 bit 2 bit 3 bit 4 bit 5 bit 6 bit 7 bit 8 Most significant bitLeast significant bit

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Binary-Decimal Translation bit 1 bit 2 bit 3 bit 4 bit 5 bit 6 bit 7 bit 8 Most significant bitLeast significant bit = = = = = 1

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Birthday Bytes Dwight is years old

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Broadcast vs Routing All computers reside in a subnet – ie, a portion of the larger network Computers choose broadcast or routing by deciding whether their destination is inside their subnet or outside of their subnet The subnet mask defines which is which, but how?

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Subnet Masks (ie, Area Codes) An IP Address is divided into two components –The Network bits, or ‘outside part’ –The Host bits, or ‘inside part’ –This is kind of like area codes / DID blocks Host BitsNetwork bits 32-bit IP Address

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Subnet Mask mask [mæsk], Noun -a covering to disguise or conceal the face -cover with a sauce; "mask the meat“ -Block out, divide into parts

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Subnet Mask Secrets –The subnet mask overlays the IP number –ones are network bits, zeros are host bits IP Number Subnet Mask

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Again, with Numbers –The subnet mask overlays the IP number –ones are network bits, zeros are host bits (this is a 24 bit subnet) IP Number Subnet Mask

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Bigger Subnets –The subnet mask overlays the IP number –ones are network bits, zeros are host bits (this is a 16 bit subnet) IP Number Subnet Mask

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The Network Remains –The network bits of an IP number are the same for all hosts within a subnet. –The host bits change for each host –Host bits range from all zeros to all ones

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Hosts in a 24 bit Subnet –The network bits stay the same –The host bits change for each host First Host IP Subnet Mask Last Host IP

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Questions Note to self – stop here to see if you have totally confused people, because the really hard part is coming next

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Subnet Size Subnet masks that match to octets are easy to work with – Class C – Class B – Class A Subnet masks that match to octets are not very efficient (256 hosts jumps to 65534!)

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Variable Length Subnet Masks What about making things more efficient by allowing subnets to be defined at any point in the 32 bit IP number? Aka Classless Inter Domain Routing or C I D R!

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Valid Subnet Masks Subnet masks use zeros and ones to divide the IP number into network bits and host bits OK! OK! NO!

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Dividing at Octects is Easy –The subnet mask overlays the IP number –Each decimal number is either part of the network, or part of the host IP Number Subnet Mask

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VLSM can divide Anywhere! –The subnet mask overlays the IP number –A decimal number can be a combination of network and host bits! IP Number Subnet Mask

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VLSM can divide Anywhere! –The subnet mask overlays the IP number –A decimal number can be a combination of network and host bits! IP Number Subnet Mask (64+1)

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VLSM Subnets The network bits remain the same for all hosts in the subnet Subnets are not required to start at the decimal number zero A single decimal range (0-255) can be split into multiple subnets

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VLSM – 25 bit Subnet –The last decimal number is split into two subnets –This is because the 25 th bit can be a zero or a one Subnet A Subnet Mask Subnet B

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VLSM – 26 bit Subnet –The last decimal number is split into four subnets –This is because the 25 th and 26 th bit can form four combinations of zeros and ones Subnet A Subnet Mask Subnet B Subnet C Subnet D

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VLSM / CIDR Notation –Network administrators sometimes save time by including the subnet mask as a slash (/) and then the number of network bits / 26

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Subnet - Reserved Hosts –The lowest number in a subnet (host bits all zeros) is called the network address –The highest number in a subnet (host bits all ones) is called the broadcast address –The available host addresses are all the remaining combinations of the host bits.

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Subnet Network Address Network bitsHost bits First Host Address Last Host Address Broadcast Address

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Questions Note to self, stop here to let the smoke from the blown up brains disperse a little

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Broadway Suites - Current 1942 Broadway Randolph 1800 Broadway1301 Canyon 1300 Walnut th (Vectra Bank) th LEGEND SM Fiber (LX) MM Fiber (50 micron SX)

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VoIP Value Adds Ease of deployment Future ready technology Low up front deployment cost

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Broadway Suites - Future Migrate analog devices (fax, modem) to IP Converged networks Unified Communications Extreme Networks

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Binary Math Joke There are only 10 kinds of people in this world – those who understand binary math and those who don’t

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