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Roots & Causes of Migration Causes, contextual factors and Policy “La migración indocumentada es una forma silenciosa de rebelarse ante una situación adversa,

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Presentation on theme: "Roots & Causes of Migration Causes, contextual factors and Policy “La migración indocumentada es una forma silenciosa de rebelarse ante una situación adversa,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Roots & Causes of Migration Causes, contextual factors and Policy “La migración indocumentada es una forma silenciosa de rebelarse ante una situación adversa, un gesto colectivo de protesta que, ante la imposibilidad de cambiar el entorno social inmediato, se cambia éste por otro que resulta más promisorio en el imaginario colectivo.” “Undocumented migration is a silent form of rebellion to an adverse situation, a collective gesture of protest to the impossibility of changing their immediate social surrounding; it is change for something else that seems more promising in the collective imagination.” Dr. José Luis Soberanes Fernández and Mtro. Juan Artola Una vida discreta, fugaz y anónima. Los Centroamericanos transmigrantes en México

2 Understanding International Migration  Why do people migrate? Causes behind the complex phenomenon  Factors that promote and sustain migration over time  The relation between causes of migration, contextual factors and policy

3 International migrants are:  1 out of every 35 people in the world, or 3% of world’s population  Equivalent to population of Brazil, 5 th largest country in the world  7.7% of Europe’s population  12.9% of North America’s population  75% of population growth in USA ( )  89% of population growth in Europe ( )

4 Why People Migrate Internationally? Understanding the complex causes behind migration

5 International Migration Wage Differential Push and Pull Labor Market Global Inequalities Social Networks Family strategies Natural Persecution Disaster War POLICIES Transportation/ Communication Recruiters Demographics Smugglers Traffickers Migration Culture

6 Why People Migrate Internationally? Understanding the complex causes behind migration 1.Macro economics and Global forces: a)Push and Pull factors: Wage/employment differentials b)Dual Labor markets c)Globalization: commercial relations, agrements, etc. d)World system: global inequalities

7 Why People Migrate Internationally? Understanding the complex causes behind migration 2. Micro process and other factors: a)Localized emigration culture b)Household strategies c)Individual decision making-projects

8 Why People Migrate Internationally? Understanding the complex causes behind migration 3.Persecution, war, violence, etc. a.Refugees b.Asylum seekers c.Internally Displaced People 4. Natural Disasters, climate change

9 Why People Migrate Internationally? Understanding the complex causes behind migration 1.Wage / employment differentials (“neo-classical economics,” “human capital” or “push-pull” model) 2.Direct labor recruitment (migration generated by governments and/or private employers) 3.Migrant networks (family ties with people in destination countries; “cumulative causation” 4.Commercial migration industry ( organized people-moving by government corporations, private labor contractors/brokers illicit smugglers: “coyotes,” “polleros,” “snakeheads”) 5.Localized “cultures of emigration”

10 Factors that promote and sustain migration over time  Social Networks (family ties with people in destination countries; “cumulative causation”)  Policies (migration policies, economic measures, bilateral agreements, etc.)  Direct labor recruitment (migration generated by governments and/or private employers  Commercial migration industries ( organized people-moving by government corporations, private labor contractors/brokers illicit smugglers: “coyotes,” “polleros,” “snakeheads”)  Demographics  Transportation, communication, etc.

11 Policies & Causes of migration  Explain the behavior you expect in your classroom.  Your class rules might include: Be respectful. Be responsible. Follow directions. Be punctual. Be organized. Be a self-starter. Be prepared.

12 Refugees and asylum-seekers (“forced migrants”): 13.0 million (2002) North Korean asylum-seeker struggles with Chinese police, May 2002 Bosnian refugees, 1999

13 Get Involved!  List opportunities for parents to become involved in volunteer programs, advisory councils, and the PTA.  Provide sign-up sheets for parents who are interested in helping to plan parties or special projects for your class.

14 Questions?  Take questions from parents.  Ask parents to fill out a questionnaire about their child. Have them describe areas in which they would like to see their child improve. Have them describe their child's personality, interests, and talents.

15 Handouts  Translate handouts for parents for whom English  is a second language.  Handouts might include: A list of school phone numbers, addresses, and Web site addresses. Copies of classroom and school policies.  A list of materials that children will need for class.


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