EEpic – a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation. EEpitaph – writing in praise of a deceased person PPersonification - giving human qualities to animals or objects FFlashback – action that interrupts to show an event that happened at an earlier time which is necessary to better understanding SSimile - the comparison of two unlike things using like or as MMetaphor- comparison of two unlike things using the verb "to be" and not using like or as
Hyperbole – exaggeration or overstatement Satire – a literary tone used to ridicule or make fun of human vice or weakness, often with the intent of correcting, or changing, the subject of the satiric attack Imagery – language that evokes one or all of the five senses: seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, touching Foreshadowing – the use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in literature Irony - an implied discrepancy between what is said and what is meant 1. verbal irony is when an author says one thing and means something else. 2. dramatic irony is when an audience perceives something that a character in the literature does not know. 3. irony of situation is a discrepancy between the expected result and actual results.
ElementExample The main character is a hero, who is often possessed of supernatural abilities or qualities. The hero is charged with a quest. The hero is tested, often to prove the worthiness of himself and his quest. The presence of numerous mythical beings, magical and helpful animals, and human helpers and companions.
ElementExample The hero’s travels take him to a supernatural world, often one that normal human beings are barred from entering. The cycle must reach a low point where the hero nearly gives up his quest or appears defeated. A resurrection. Restitution. Often this takes the form of the hero regaining his rightful place on the throne.
1. Where does Odysseus land and relate the story of his adventures? 2. How does Odysseus identify himself? 3. Where is his home? 4. Even though he says he has been held captive by a goddess and an enchantress, what matters most to him? 5. How did Odysseus and his men behave on Ismarus? 6. What happens because of their behavior? 7. What was the outcome of the battle?
1. Who are the Lotus Eaters? 2. Why do Odysseus and his men stop at their land? 3. Why does Odysseus send three men among the Lotus Eaters? 4. What do the Lotus Eaters do? 5. What effect does the lotus have on the men? 6. How does Odysseus handle the men? 7. What is his warning to his crew?
1. Who are the Cyclops and how is their lifestyle described? 2. Why do Odysseus and his men go to visit the land of the Cyclopes? 3. How is the Cyclops described? 4. Odysseus takes how many men with him? 5. What do they find in Cyclops’ cave? 6. What do the men want to do? 7. Why does Odysseus wish to remain there? 8. What does the Cyclops do when he returns to the cave that creates a problem for Odysseus and his men?
9.What are his nightly activities? 10.What does Cyclops think Odysseus and his men might be? 11.How does Odysseus ask for help from Cyclops? What argument does he use? 12.How does the Cyclops respond to him? 13.Why does Odysseus lie about the location of his ship? 14.What does the Cyclops have for supper? 15.What holds Odysseus back from killing the Cyclops? 16.What happens the next morning?
17. How does Odysseus plan revenge on the Cyclops? 18.After supper what does Odysseus offer the Cyclops? 19.What does Odysseus tell the Cyclops his name is? 20. What will the Cyclops’ gift to Odysseus be? 21.What do Odysseus and his men do while the Cyclops is drunk and asleep? 22.Why don’t the other Cyclops come to help? 23.What is Odysseus’ plan for escaping the cave? 24.Why does Odysseus call back to the Cyclops as he is leaving?
25.What do his men say? 26.What does the Cyclops say when he learns of Odysseus’ true identity? 27.What is the Cyclops’ relationship with Poseidon? What is his prayer to him? 28.What does Zeus have in store for Odysseus?
1. What must Odysseus do to travel through the underworld safely? 2. Who does Odysseus see and call out to? 3. What happened to him? 4. What does Odysseus promise him? 5. Who does Odysseus see next? 6. What does Tiresias warn Odysseus about when he gets to Thrinacia? 7. What does Tiresias say Odysseus will find when he returns home?
1. What things does Circe warn Odysseus about when he returns to her island? 2. Which of Circe’s warnings does Odysseus tell his men about? 3. When Odysseus hears the Sirens, what does he tell his men to do? How do they respond? 4. What does the Siren song offer the men?
1. How does Odysseus try to encourage and give strength to his men? 2. What does he tell them to do? 3. Why does he not tell them about Scylla? Describe Scylla. 4. How are the actions of Charybdis described? 5. How many men are lost to Scylla?
6. What was the worst sight Odysseus suffered? 7. What happens when they land at Thrinacia? 8. How is the disobedience punished?
1. What does Odysseus warn his men about? 2. How long are the men there? 3. What happens when Odysseus is sleeping? 4. Why does Eurylochus say they should kill the cattle? 5. What does Zeus do to punish them? 6. What happens to Odysseus next? 7. Where does he land?
Terms to Know Epic Simile – an elaborate comparison between 2 things that may extend for several lines. Ex. From part 1 lines 268 – 271 “And it was like a mast / a lugger of twenty oars, broad in the beam - / a deep sea going craft – might carry: / so long, so big around, it seemed.” Historical Context – the time and place in which a story was set in or was written Cultural Context – the events, beliefs and customs of a specific culture and time.
Dissemble – conceal under a false appearance; disguise Incredulity – unwillingness or inability to believe Bemusing – stupefying or muddling Equity – fairness; justice Maudlin – tearfully and foolishly sentimental Contempt – disdain or scorn
In The Odyssey, who is Eumaeus? What is Telemachus ordered to do when Odysseus gives him the signal? What does Odysseus disguise himself as? Why?
Who or what is Argus? What is the purpose of this section? How does it end?
1. What challenge does Penelope give the suitors? 2. Which suitors complete the challenge? What is theiir response? 3. Who wins the challenge?
1. What do Odysseus and Telemachus do after Odysseus wins the challenge? How? 2. What reasons does Odysseus give the suitors for their murder? Do you agree or not, and why?
1. How does Odysseus say Penelope is treating him? 2. What is his reaction to her treatment? 3. What is her reasoning? 4. How does Penelope know it is him? 5. How long was Odysseus gone?
List each character in the poem under the appropriate heading and give a brief description of them. GodsGoddesses Humans Monsters & Unusual Creatures