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Ethics – Day 1 Marie Vendettuoli July 1, 2011. Exercise 1.Indicate any group with which you self- identify using a tick mark 2.Write one (1) new group.

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Presentation on theme: "Ethics – Day 1 Marie Vendettuoli July 1, 2011. Exercise 1.Indicate any group with which you self- identify using a tick mark 2.Write one (1) new group."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ethics – Day 1 Marie Vendettuoli July 1, 2011

2 Exercise 1.Indicate any group with which you self- identify using a tick mark 2.Write one (1) new group that isn’t already on the board that you self-identify with. Mark it with a tick 3.Add ticks to the groups that others post, if applicable

3 Discussion How many groups did you identify with? Are all of these by choice? Are you happy that you are part of all these groups? Are there any groups you would not like to be part of?

4 Discussion How many people do you think self-identify with the same set of groups? How many groups exist with more than one member? Do all members agree? Always?

5 Diversity What does diversity mean to you? Yoon & Souza (2009) Different Visual Cognitive Styles, Different Problem-Solving Styles? Proceedings of the International Association of Society of Design Research.

6 Even though a campus may become more diverse in terms of the numbers of underrepresented groups present, the level of engagement can still be inconsequential if those representing different viewpoints are not encouraged and supported to express them.... And if the wariness about discomfort is stronger than the desire to hear different viewpoints because engaging difference is uncomfortable, then the quest for diversity is hollow, no matter what the demographic statistics on a campus reflect. Ronald D. Liebowitz, President, Middlebury College Diversity Salas, Goodwin and Burke (2008) Team effectiveness in complex organizations

7 Exercise: Rate each on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) 1.World hunger is a serious problem that needs attention. 2.Our country needs to address the growing number of homeless. 3.The right to vote is one of the most valuable rights of American citizens. 4.Our government should spend less money on nuclear weapons and more on helping citizens better their lives. Carkenord, D. M., & Bullington, J. (1993). Bringing cognitive dissonance to the classroom. Teaching of Psychology, 20,

8 1. Do you personally do anything to lessen world hunger (e.g., donate money or food or write your representative)? 2.Do you personally do anything to help the homeless (e.g., volunteer at a homeless shelter or donate money)? 3.Did you vote in the last election for which you were eligible? 4.Do you personally convey your feelings to the government (e.g., by writing your representative or by participating in protests/marches)? Exercise : Indicate ‘yes’ if you perform a behavior on a regular basis Carkenord, D. M., & Bullington, J. (1993). Bringing cognitive dissonance to the classroom. Teaching of Psychology, 20,

9 In how many cases did your answers on the first slide agree with the second? How does it feel when answers align? Don’t align? Are those feelings positive or negative? How will you resolve any negative feelings? Carkenord, D. M., & Bullington, J. (1993). Bringing cognitive dissonance to the classroom. Teaching of Psychology, 20,

10 Cognitive dissonance: uncomfortable feeling of holding conflicting ideas simultaneously Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: People are motivated to reduce dissonance Change ….Or … beliefjustify attitudeblame actiondeny Carkenord, D. M., & Bullington, J. (1993). Bringing cognitive dissonance to the classroom. Teaching of Psychology, 20,

11 How does your response to cognitive dissonance affect team psychological safety?

12 Repulsion and diversity post Do you think that the author intended for her argument to appear weak and contradictory? Do you think that the author intended to insult her people who have positive relationships with their pets? Why or why not? How could the argument be reframed from a perspective of cognitive dissonance? Can your own responses be reframed after considering the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance?

13 When different priorities exist, how do you know who is right?

14 Guidelines for ethical decision-making Winer, E. Ethics in Engineering Design Find a balance between all stakeholders. How easy is this?

15 Case Study: The Ford Pinto Late 1960’s, demand for subcompact cars was rising “The Pinto was not to weigh an ounce over 2,000 pounds and not cost a cent over $2,000”. - L. Iacocca Crash test revealed a serious defect in the gas tank What to do? Winer, E. Ethics in Engineering Design Image: wikipedia

16 Case Study: The Ford Pinto Other pressures -- Design timeline was accelerated from 43 months to about 25 months The company culture did not want engineers warranting safety as a concern “Safety doesn’t sell” - L. Iacocca Winer, E. Ethics in Engineering Design

17 Case Study: The Ford Pinto When deciding whether to fix the problem, Ford performed a cost-benefit analysis. Number of vehicles affected12.5 million Modification cost per vehicle$11.00 Total cost to fix:$137.5 million Number of Deaths180 Settlement per death$200, Number of Serious Injury180 Settlement per serious injury$67, Number of burned out vehicles2100 Settlement per vehicle$700 Total cost to not fix:$49.53 million Winer, E. Ethics in Engineering Design

18 Case Study: The Ford Pinto There was a solution that would have cost $5.08 per vehicle. It was not implemented. A California jury awarded $128 million from an accident involving a Pinto (1979) Ford Motor Company became the first American corporation indicted and prosecuted on criminal homicide charges (1979) Ford Crown Victoria was found to have a similar fuel tank problem (2002) Winer, E. Ethics in Engineering Design

19 Case Study: The Ford Pinto Was Ford wrong to do a cost benefit analysis? Why or why not?

20 Other opinions (technical / non-tech) What happens when one stakeholder’s perspective is weighed more heavily?

21 Case Study: Edward Wegman

22 In 2005, Wegman was asked by Congress to investigate the validity of the “hockey stick” graph, which presents research findings supporting global warming Image: Wikipedia

23 Case Study: Edward Wegman Overall, our committee believes that Mann’s assessments that the decade of the 1990s was the hottest decade of the millennium and that 1998 was the hottest year of the millennium cannot be supported by his analysis. … tree ring proxies are typically calibrated to remove low frequency variations. The cycle of Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age that was widely recognized in 1990 has disappeared from the MBH98/99 analyses, thus making possible the hottest decade/hottest year claim. However, the methodology of MBH98/99 suppresses this low frequency information. The paucity of data in the more remote past makes the hottest-in-a-millennium claims essentially unverifiable Wegman, Scott, Said AD HOC COMMITTEE REPORT ON THE HOCKEY STICK’ GLOBAL CLIMATE RECONSTRUCTION

24 A cross section of most temperate forest trees will show an alternation of lighter and darker bands, each of which is usually continuous around the tree circumference. These are seasonal growth increments produced by meristematic tissues in the tree's cambium. When view in detail (Fig. 10.1), it is clear that they are made up of sequences of large, thin- walled cells (earlywood) and more densely packed, thick-walled cells (latewood). Collectively, each couplet of earlywood and latewood comprises an annual growth increment, more commonly called a tree ring. The mean width of a ring in any one tree is a function of many variables, including the tree species, tree age, availability of stored food within the tree and of important nutrients in the soil, and a whole complex of climatic factors (sunshine, precipitation, temperature, wind speed, humidity, and their distribution throughout the year). The problem facing dendroclimatologists is to extract whatever climatic signal is available in the tree ring data and to distinguish from the background noise. A cross section of a temperate forest tree shows variation of lighter and darker bands that are usually continuous around the circumference of the tree. These bands are the so- called tree rings and are due to seasonal effects. Each tree ring is composed of large thin-walled cells called early wood and smaller more densely packed thick walled cells called late wood. The average width of a tree ring is a function of many variables including the tree species, tree age, stored carbohydrates in the tree, nutrients in the soil, and climatic factors including sunlight, precipitation, temperature, wind speed, humidity, and even carbon dioxide availability in the atmosphere. Obviously there are many confounding factors so the problem is to extract the temperature signal and to distinguish the temperature signal from the noise caused by the many confounding factors. Original text:Wegman Report (p12):

25 Case Study: Edward Wegman tasked a Ph.D. student, Denise Reeves, to prepare the boilerplate. Reeves was no expert: her knowledge of social networks came from having taken a short course on the topic. Reeves writes the boilerplate "within a few days" and Wegman writes "of course, I took that to be her original work.” Wegman gave this boilerplate to a second student, Walid Sharabati, who included it in his Ph.D. dissertation "with only minor amendments.” Sharabati was a coauthor of the Computational Statistics and Data Analysis article. He took the material he'd copied from Reeves's report and stuck it in to the CSDA article

26 Case Study: Edward Wegman Wegman, Scott and Said. Ad Hoc Committee Report on the ‘Hockey Stick’ Global Climate Reconstruction Congressional Report Said, Wegman, Sharabati, and Rigsby. Social networks of author–coauthor relationships Computational Statistics and Data Analysis Said, Wegman. Color Theory and Design WIREs Computational Statistics Said, Sharabati, Rezazad. Dissertations

27 What is plagiarism? How does knowing the literature reduce plagiarism?

28 Describe the role of each party in the Wegman case. What could they have done differently? Describe the purpose of peer review. What choices did reviewers make that contributed to the severity of the Wegman case? How likely is this scenario to repeat? Individual elements? What does it mean to be a ‘good citizen’ of the academic community?

29 Exercise: Alpha Motor Company Describe the ethical dilemma. Was it handled well? Why or why not? What are the options for future action? Consequences of each option?

30 Case Study: Elizabeth Goodwin Research hypothesis: gene laf-1 in C. elegans affects sexual determination by encoding small RNA Problem: Preliminary research showed inconclusive results and weak correlation.

31 Case Study: Elizabeth Goodwin Grant: 2R01GM Falsified Figures 5A and 5B by reusing figures from two of her earlier published papers and falsely labeling them to claim results that had not been achieved in her laboratory. Falsified Figure 7B by reusing a figure from one of her published papers and both relabeling it to claim she had detected the STAR-2 protein rather than the TRA-l protein actually detected and modifying the image in the application to disguise its origin. Falsified Figure 8C by using a figure produced by one of her students and relabeled it to show that RNAi treatment of C. elegans led to increased expression of the TRA-2 protein when this result had not been obtained by the student. Falsified the table on Page 20 of the application showing phenotypic frequencies of worms expressing star-2 (ok483) mutants by significantly overstating the level of aberrant phenotypes and fabricating certain categories of phenotypes not seen by the student conducting the research.

32 Case Study: Elizabeth Goodwin Grant: 1R01GM Falsified Figure 5 because she used the same two lanes in both Figure 5 and Figure 7, although they were flipped horizontally in one of the figures to disguise their reuse. In Figure 7, the lanes illustrated an effect on laf-1 during developmental stages of C. elegans, and in Figure 5, the same lanes purportedly illustrated an effect on laf-1 noncoding RNA. A witness testified that the result in Figure 5 had not been observed, while that in Figure 7 had, indicating that the claims for Figure 5 were falsified. Falsified Figure 8 by reusing photographs prepared by a student that identified the location of rRas-l expression in adult worms and claiming instead that the images illustrated the location of laf-1 mRNA. The images had been enlarged and cropped to disguise their location.

33 Case Study: Elizabeth Goodwin Graduate Student saw incorrect figures and claims of experiments not performed on a grant application Grad students as a group decided to ask Dr Goodwin for clarification Notified department chair Formal investigation, UW-M Investigation, FBI

34 Case Study: Elizabeth Goodwin Fine: $500 Restitution $50,000 Dept of Health and Human Services $50,000 University of Wisconsin, Madison Scholarship Programs Exclusion from contracting or subcontracting with U.S. Government for three years Exclusion from peer review, board or advisory committee associated with U.S. Public Health Services Two years probation Resigned

35 Case Study: Elizabeth Goodwin Graduate Student, Chantal Ly Completed 7 years of PhD at time of misconduct Was told that her work was not usable and had to find a new research topic Left graduate school

36 Case Study: Elizabeth Goodwin 2 students quit graduate school, found lab jobs 1 student transferred to another school 1 student switched to a law program 2 are finishing PhDs at UW-M

37 Case Study: Elizabeth Goodwin Grad students still at UW-M: Jacqueline Baca, in early stage of degree, was transferred to another lab Amy Hubert, an advanced student defended 2 years later – Dissertation based on research she did after disagreeing with Goodwin

38 Case Study: Elizabeth Goodwin Describe various actions to take upon discovery of falsification. What are the consequences? What are the pressures that whistleblowers face? Is it better to keep quiet or have high standards? What is falsification of data? How much editing is okay?

39 Privacy How do you manage your online presence? Why is this important?

40 In our daily lives Music/movie downloading – is it okay? Why or why not? What is net neutrality? Why is this an important issue?

41 Social Justice Why should we care? What does ‘social justice’ mean in terms of HCI? What is the digital divide? How does new technology encourage or reduce this gap? What does it mean to design for accessibility? When is it too expensive to do so?

42 Homework due Thurs, July 7 Research and respond to the following two cases: 1.Mattel Toy Corp. 2.Space Shuttle Challenger For each, provide: (a) your opinion of whether it was handled correctly or not correctly (b) defend your position with data (c) identify what should have been done (supported with data) Find a case that seems interesting at: (a) summarize the case (b) provide your opinion of whether it was handled correctly or not correctly (c) respond to two other interns’ case descriptions Watch and respond to this video: Note: this CBC News clip is contains language that has been bleeped out; this occurs in the last 9 seconds of the video only. Categorize posts as ‘Ethics’


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