2Humans InteractIf people needpeople, then.…how do peopleneed people,...and to whatdegree?
3HISTORY OF FIRO-BIt became evident for example during the Korean war that different leadership groups onboatd the american naval vessels differed quite a bit in effectiveness. Even though they were composed of persons with identical competence and training. To find the answer to this difference in efficiency and its causes, Will Schutz, an american psychologist, performed a study requested by amongts others the american marine.
4THREE MAIN PHASES:In his research he discovered that a group thathas three different main needs that theindividuals strive to meet.How well these are met determine much of theeffectiveness of the group. Later these were putin a graphic model with three main phases(inclusion,, control and openess) and two restingphases in between.A group that strives for togetherness and effeciencymust go through these phases in the mentionedorder to achieve success.
5A group that through development has reached the third phase – openess – will from time to time go back through the previous phases, for example depending on the fact that new members arrive in the group, or that a new task has fallen outside the previous framework for the group.
6FIRO – B MEASURES ALL HUMAN INTERACTIONS: INTERPERSONAL NEEDS: INCLUSION CONTROL AFFECTION
7FIRO - BWhen you are aware of the behavior patterns you can better decide when to act in your normal way and when it seems more appropriate to act differently.As you change your habits by making different choices in your behavior , your FIRO scores will also change
8FIRO - BYour answers to FIRO - B questions put you somewhere within a range of scores .You may be on the high or the low end of the range or somewhere in-between.Because of this some of the descriptions may fit you to a “ T “ while others may be less accurate.
9FIRO - BYour FIRO _ B scores can change . The scores and descriptions are a guide to how you view interpersonal relationships at this point of time and will help you to think about your strengths and weaknesses
10Benefits of the FIRO-BThe FIRO-B is an ideal tool to use for interpersonal behaviormeasurement and assessment, including:management and supervisor developmentleadership development (used with MBTI as part of theLeadership Report)identifying leadership preferred operating stylesemployee developmentteam building and explaining team rolesimproving team effectivenessadvancing career development
11INCLUSIONCONTROLAFFECTIONEXPRESSEDHow much do I connect to others?How much do I take charge?How much do I share myself with others?WANTEDHow much do I want others to connect with me?How much do I want others to be in “driver’s seat”?How much do I want others to reach out to me?
12Different categories given in the matrix measure how much interaction a person wants in the areas of socializing, leadership and responsibilities, and more intimate personal relations. FIRO-B was created, based on this theory, a measurement instrument with scales that assess the behavioral aspects of the three dimensions. Scores are graded from 0-9 in scales of expressed and wanted behavior, which define how much a person expresses to others, and how much he wants from others.
13FIRO-B InclusionHow much do youconnect with othersor want attention andrecognition from them?
14charge or want others to FIRO-B ControlHow much do you takecharge or want others togive directions?
15FIRO-B Affection / Openness How much do I share aboutmyself and want others toshare with me?
16DIMENSIONS OF BEHAVIOUR FIRO-BDIMENSIONS OF BEHAVIOURExpressedHow we interactwith othersWantedHow we want others tointeract with us
17(significance, contact, involvement) Inclusion(significance, contact, involvement)e :I include othersin my activitiesw :I want to be includedand belong
18Expressed Inclusion Behaviour: Talking and joking with others, Involving others in projects, Intiating contact and showing interest.
19Wanted Inclusion Behaviour Being aroundSeeking recognitionGetting involved in highprofile projects
20Control e: I exert control and influence over people and things w :I want others to control and influence me(competence, influence, authority)
21Expressed Control Behaviour directing peopledecision-makingassuming responsibility
22Wanted Control Behaviour requesting clarification wanting direction and guidance concern for rules
23Affection /Openness e: I make efforts to be close to people w: I want others to try tobecome close to me(Warmth, self-disclosure
24Expressed Affection reassuring and supporting colleagues, giving gifts to show appreciation,coaching and developing others
25Wanted Affection being flexible and accommodating, listening carefully to others,trying to please people.
26For each area of interpersonal need the following three types of behavior would be evident: (1) deficient, (2) excessive, and (3) ideal.Deficient was defined as indicating that an individual was not trying to directly satisfy the need.Excessive was defined as indicating that an individual was constantly trying to satisfy the need.Ideal referred to satisfaction of the need. From this, there were identified the following types:Inclusion types.the undersocial (low EI, low WI)the oversocial (high EI, high WI)the social (moderate EI, moderate WI)Control typesthe abdicrat (low EC, high WC)the autocrat (high EC, low WC)the democrat (moderate EC, moderate WC)Affection typesthe underpersonal (low EA, low WA)the overpersonal (high EA, high WA)the personal (moderate EA moderate WA)
27Temperament by APS (all 3 areas) In 1977, a clinical psychologist who worked with FIRO-B, Dr. Leo Ryan, produced maps of the scores for each area, called "locator charts",and assigned names for all of the score ranges in his Clinical Interpretation of FIRO-B:ScoreInclusionControlAffectionTemperament by APS (all 3 areas)Low e and wThe LonerThe RebelThe PessimistMelancholymoderate e, low w"Now You See Him, Now You Don't" TendenciesSelf-Confident"Image of Intimacy" TendencyPhlegmatic Melancholy / Phlegmatic CholericHigh e, low wNow You See Him, Now You Don'tMission ImpossibleImage/(Mask) of IntimacyCholerichigh e, moderate wThe Conversationalist"Mission Impossible" with Narcissistic TendenciesLiving Up To ExpectationsSanguine Phlegmatic / Choleric Phlegmatichigh e and wPeople Gatherer (formerly, "Where are the People?")Dependent-Independent conflictThe OptimistSanguinemoderate e, high wHidden InhibitionsLet's Take a BreakCautious Lover In DisguisePhlegmatic Supine / Phlegmatic Sanguine
28Individual Cell Scores • 0 to 2 – lowrarely displayed• 3 to 6 – mediumnoticeable some of the time• 7 to 9 highnoticeable in most situationsTotal Need Score0 - 17LowLow/MediumMedium/HighHigh
32I try to be with peopleI let other people decide what to doI join social groupsI try to have close relationship with peopleI tend to join social organisations when I have an opportunityI let other people strongly influence my actionI try to be included in informal social activitiesI try to have close, personal relationship with peopleI try to include other people in my plansI let other people control my actionsI try to have people around me
33I try to get close and personal with people when people are doing things together, I tend to join themI am easily led by peopleI try to avoid being aloneI try to participate in group activitiesI try to be friendly to peopleI let other people decide what to domy personal relations with people are cool and distantI let other people take charge of other thingsI try to have close relationship with peopleI let other people strongly influence my action
34I try to get close and personal with people I let other people control my actionsI act cool and distant with peopleI am easily led by peopleI try to have close and personal relationship with peopleI like people to invite me to thingsI like people to act close and personal with meI try to influence strongly other people's actionsI like people to invite me to join in their activitiesI like people to act close towards meI try to take charge of things when I am with people
35I like people to include me in their activities I like people to act cool and distant towards meI try to have other people do things the way I want them doneI like people to ask me to participate in their discussionsI like people to act friendly towards meI like people to invite me to participate in their activitiesI like people to act distant towards meI try to be the dominant person when I am with othersI like people to invite me to thingsI like people to act close to meI try to have other people do things I want done
36I like people to invite me to join in their activities I like people to act cool and distant towards meI try to influence strongly other people's actionI like people to include me in their activitiesI like people to act close and personal with meI try to take charge of things when I am with peopleI like people to invite me to participate in their activitiesI like people to act distant towards meI try to have other people do things the way I want them doneI take charge of things when I am with people
37least willing to sacrifice. Total Need ScoresThe highest score may be the one you feel the most comfortable pursuing andleast willing to sacrifice.The need with the lowest score may be the one you are the most willing to give up.
38Your FIRO-B Results INCLUSION CONTROL AFFECTION EXPRESSED 7 3 Total expressed behaviour13WANTED45Total wanted behaviour14Total need for Inclusion11Total need for control8Total need for affectionOverall interpersonal needs27
39INTERPRETATION OF YOUR FIRO-B RESULTS 7345CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIORWHAT YOUR RESULTS INDICATE ?Expressed Inclusion (eI)I make an effort to include others in my activities. I try tobelong, to join social groups, and to be with others as much as possible.Your result of 7 suggests that you will usuallyagree with these statements and probably enjoyhaving a steady amount of interpersonalcontact at work.Wanted Inclusion (wI)I want other people to includeme in their activities and toinvite me to belong. I enjoy itwhen others notice me.Your result of 4 suggests that you willsometimes agree with these statements, butyou keep your visibility and involvementappropriate to the situation at hand.
40Expressed Control (eC) I try to exert control andinfluence over things. I enjoyorganizing things anddirecting othersYour result of 3 suggests that you willsometimes agree with these statements; youare comfortable providing structure anddirection in those situations where it is sensibleand expectedWanted Control (wC)I feel most comfortableworking in well-definedsituations. I try to get clearexpectations andinstructions.Your result of 5 suggests that you willsometimes agree with these statements, butyou tolerate influence from others in selectedsituationsExpressed Affection (eA)I make an effort to get closeto people. I am comfortableexpressing personal feelingsand I try to be supportive ofothers.only show your warm and supportive side toparticular people and when the circumstancesare appropriate.Wanted Affection (wA)I want others to act warmlytoward me. I enjoy it whenpeople share their feelingswith me and when theyencourage my efforts.sometimes agree with these statements, andhave a chosen set of circumstances when youare comfortable letting others get close to youand support you.
41The indicator of your Overall Interpersonal Needs is the total of all six individual needs (eI + wI + eC + wC + eA + wA). This result represents the overall strength of your interpersonal needs; it shows how much you believe that other people and human interaction can help you attain your goals and achieve personal satisfaction.Your indicator of Overall Interpersonal Needs is 27, which falls in the medium high range. This suggests that:• Your involvement with others is usually a source of satisfaction, but relationships may become frustrating and interfere with your job.• When interacting with others, you work best with small groups and with regular contacts.
42• You probably consider yourself more extroverted than introverted. You probably enjoy work that involves opportunities to gather input from others, but you do not rely on them for decision making or implementation.• You prefer to work with others, but occasionally need time alone to think and reflect.• You probably consider yourself more extroverted than introverted.13
46Three main phasesIn his research he discovered that a group that has threedifferent main needs that the individuals strive to meet.How well these are met determine much of theeffectiveness of the group. Later these were put in agraphic model with three main phases (inclusion,, controland openess) and two resting phases in between.A group that strives for togetherness and effeciency mustgo through these phases in the mentioned order toachieve success.
47A group that through development has reached the third phase – openess – will from time to time go back through the previous phases, for example depending on the fact that new members arrive in the group, or that a new task has fallen outside the previous framework for the group.
51FIRO -BThe FIRO - B examines the way you typically act with other people .Helps you become more aware of your interpersonal behavior habits
52FIRO - BWhen you are aware of the behavior patterns you can better decide when to act in your normal way and when it seems more appropriate to act differently.As you change your habits by making different choices in your behavior , your FIRO scores will also change
53FIRO - BYour answers to FIRO - B questions put you somewhere within a range of scores .You may be on the high or the low end of the range or somewhere in-between.Because of this some of the descriptions may fit you to a “ T “ while others may be less accurate.
54FIRO - BYour FIRO _ B scores can change . The scores and descriptions are a guide to how you view interpersonal relationships at this point of time and will help you to think about your strengths and weaknesses
55INCLUSIONYour FIRO - B Inclusion results describe how much you want to include other people in your life and how much attention and recognition you want from them - not in your close one to one relationships , but with people in general.
56CONTROLYour FIRO - B Control results describe the way you usually react to taking charge of situations or being directed by others They examine categories like authority , responsibility , decision making and influencing.
57AFFECTIONYour FIRO - B Affection score results describe your interpersonal relationships with people you may be close to - like your mate , a good friend , or someone you that you work with.
58Facade of self sufficiency Under social Over Social Socially Compliant Interpersonal NeedsExpressed BehaviorWanted BehaviorLow(0-3)Low (0 -3)High (6-9)High( )Facade of self sufficiencyUndersocialOver SocialSocially CompliantInclusionAutocratAbdicractSubmissiveRebelliousControlFacade of self sufficiencyUnderpersonalOverpersonalPersonally CompliantAffection
59Social Interaction Index =Activity Level (AL)E=Need Level (NL)WIIIIIIIIAssuming ResponsibilityImportance of peopleSocial Interaction IndexImportance of Affection=
60ACTIVITY LEVEL More than 18.. is more outgoing and active than average Less than 9.. is seldom an initiator, is more passive than average or is getting all the interpersonal contact he needs
61NEED LEVELMore than 20 ..a high desire for people to make contact with himLess than Low desire for people to relate to him possibly because ofIndifference to people orDistaste for the role of a relatively passive receiver orGreater involvement in some other activity like workGetting all the interpersonal contact he needs
62Importance of peopleMore than Being with people is very important to him and worth effort on his partLess than 9.. Being with people is not something he particularly wants or seeks
63Assuming Responsibility More than More than average willingness to be held responsible and hold others responsibleLess than 5 .. Tendency to avoid task responsibility, preferring to “ live and let live” and to value freedom over responsibility
64Importance of Affection More than Regularly prefers and seeks closeness and human warmthLess than 6.. Tends either to avoid close relations in general or he is quite selective about those with whom he becomes intimate
65Social Interaction Index More than 38.. for him people are important he desires and seeks out relations with themLess than Low people needs because he is interested in other things , people make him nervous Being with people is a lower priority than success at work.
66Interchange Compatibility Measures compatibility in involvement in any one areaIC = ( Ae + Aw ) - ( Be + Bw )Scores = Complete Compatibility18 = Extreme IncompatibilityEqual to & greater than 6 = Indicates Incompatibility
67Reciprocal Compatibility Is an index of whether A’s expressed behavior matches what B wants and whether B’s expressed behavior matches what A wantsRC = ( Ae - Bw ) + ( Be - Aw )Scores = Complete Compatibility18 = Extreme IncompatibilityEqual to & greater than 6 = Indicates Incompatibility
68Originator Compatibility The extent to which there may be conflict between two people because both want to initiate in one area , or because neither wants to initiateOC = ( Ae - Aw ) + ( Be - Bw )Scores 0 to 6 = Complete Compatibility-6 to = Apathetic incompatibility+ 6 to = Competitive Incompatibility