Presentation on theme: "Personality Psychodynamic theory"— Presentation transcript:
1Personality Psychodynamic theory Freud’s model of the mind and personality structurePsychosexual stagesDefense mechanismsNeo-FreudiansProjective tests
2Psychodynamic Perspective In his clinical practice, Freud encountered patients suffering from nervous disorders whose complaints could not be explained in terms of purely physical causes.OBJECTIVE 44-2| Explain how Freud’s experiences in private practice led to his theory of psychoanalysis.Culver PicturesSigmund Freud( )Psychology 7e in Modules
3Psychodynamic Perspective Freud’s clinical experience led him to develop the first comprehensive theory of personality which included, the unconscious mind, psychosexual stages and defense mechanisms.Culver PicturesSigmund Freud( )Psychology 7e in Modules
4Exploring the Unconscious A reservoir (unconscious mind) of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their mind (free association) to tap the unconscious.OBJECTIVE 44-3| Discuss Freud’s view of the mind as an iceberg, and explain how he used this image to represent conscious and unconscious regions of the mind.Psychology 7e in Modules
5Dream AnalysisAnother method to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting the manifest and latent contents of dreams.The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli (1791)
6(psychoanalysis) the patient felt better. The process of free association (chain of thoughts) led to painful, embarrassing unconscious memories. Once these memories were retrieved and released(psychoanalysis) the patient felt better.
7Freud’s model of the mind and personality structure Psychosexual stages of developmentDefense mechanisms
8Model of MindThe mind is like an iceberg. Mostly hidden and below the surface lies the unconscious mind. The preconscious, stores temporary memories.
9Personality Structure Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses (id) and social restraints (superego).OBJECTIVE 44-4| Describe Freud’s view of personality structure, and discuss the interactions of the id, ego and the superego.Psychology 7e in Modules
10Works on the “reality principle” Id, Ego and SuperegoId unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives operating on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.Largely conscious, ego functions as the “executive” and mediates the demands of id and superego.Works on the “reality principle”Superego provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations. The last one to develop in a person. “Your mother’s voice”Id – basic drives, pleasure principleEgo – develops in children, reality principleSuperego – continues to develop in early childhood, moral principlePsychology 7e in Modules
11Personality Development Freud believed that personality formed during life’s first few years divided into psychosexual stages. During these stages the id’s pleasure seeking energies focus on pleasure sensitive body areas called erogenous zones.OBJECTIVE 44-5| Identify Freud’s psychosexual stages of development, and describe the effects of fixation on behavior.Psychology 7e in Modules
12Psychosexual StagesFreud divided development of personality through five psychosexual stages.Oral Stage – first year of life (smokers, nail biters)Anal Stage – ages 1 ½ - 2 ½ (perfectionism, careless)Phallic Stage – age 3 – 4 (strong attachment to opposite sex parent, rival same sex parent)Latency Stage – age 5 – puberty (retreat from conflict)Genital Stage – puberty (aware of gender identity)Psychology 7e in Modules
13Oedipus ComplexA boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. Also Electra complex for the girl’s desire for the father.
14IdentificationChildren cope with threatening feelings by repressing them and by identifying with the rival parent. Through this process of identification their superego gains strength incorporating parents’ values.From the K. Vandervelde private collection
15Defense MechanismsEgo’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.1. Repression banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. This is at the root of all defense mechanisms2. Regression leads an individual faced with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage.OBJECTIVE 44-6| Describe the function of defense mechanisms, and identify six of them.Psychology 7e in Modules
16Defense Mechanisms3. Reaction Formation causes the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites. People may express feelings of purity when they may be suffering anxiety from unconscious feelings about sex.4. Projection leads people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
17Defense Mechanisms5. Rationalization offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.6. Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or persons… redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.
18Defense MechanismsDenial Refusal to accept reality or fact, acting as if a painful event, thought or feeling did not exist.Sublimation Channel impulses into acceptable behavior.Compensation process of psychologically counterbalancing perceived weaknesses by emphasizing strength in other arenas.For instance, a person who is a functioning alcoholic will often simply deny they have a drinking problem, pointing to how well they function in their job and relationships.Sublimation can also be done with humor or fantasy. Humor, when used as a defense mechanism, is the channeling of unacceptable impulses or thoughts into a light-hearted story or joke. Humor reduces the intensity of a situation, and places a cushion of laughter between the person and the impulsesPsychology 7e in Modules
20The Neo-FreudiansJung believed in the collective unconscious which contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. That is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother as a symbol of nurture (archetypes). Also, we all have Persona vs Shadow, the persona is what we share with others and the shadow we keep to ourselvesArchive of the History of American Psychology/ University of AkronOBJECTIVE 44-7| Contrast the views of the neo-Freudians and psychodynamic theorists with those of Freud’s original theory.Similar to FreudAnalytic Psychology – greater influence on mysticism and religionCollective unconscious – shared by a common cultureIn addition to a personal unconsciousArchetypes – ideas and images of the accumulated experiences of humansSense of self – gives people directionThinking, feeling, intuition, sensationIndividuation - combination of sense of self and collective unconsciousCarl Jung ( )Psychology 7e in Modules
21Archetypes Situational Archetypes Character Archetypes The Quest, The Journey, Battle between Good and EvilCharacter ArchetypesThe Hero, Group of Companions, The Devil Figure, The Scapegoat, The Star Crossed LoversSymbolic ArchetypeHeaven vs. Hell, Water vs. Desert, Colors, Nature, ObjectsArchetypes – image, story pattern, or character which recurs frequently and evokes strong associations in the reader.Psychology 7e in Modules
22The Neo-FreudiansLike Freud, Adler believed in childhood tensions, however these tensions were social in nature and not sexual. A child struggles with the inferiority complex during growth and strives for superiority and power. Also studied birth-order.National Library of MedicineAlfred Adler ( )Motivated by inferiorityInferiority ComplexSibling RivalrySelf awareness – creative self strives to overcome obstaclesPsychology 7e in Modules
23The Neo-FreudiansLike Adler, Horney believed in the social and cultural aspects of childhood growth and development. She countered Freud’s assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer “penis envy” with the idea that men have “womb envy”Social relationships are greatest influence on personalityParent-child – paramountBasic anxietyAngerIntroduces psychology of women and womb envyChallenge to Freud’s theoriesGenuine and consistent love – temper the effects of a painful childhoodThe Bettmann Archive/ CorbisKaren Horney ( )Psychology 7e in Modules
24Assessing Your Personality Visit at least two sites and take a test to see if it provides an accurate assessment of some aspect of your personality. Here are a couple of links:Queendom.comsimilarminds.comAnswer the following questions about the test:How accurate are your results? Are they true?Is there any evidence of the author’s validity or reliability?Are norms provided, and if so, on whom are they based?Was the test empirically derived?
25Assessing Unconscious Processes Evaluating personality from an unconscious mind perspective would require a psychological instrument (projective tests) that would reveal the hidden unconscious mind.OBJECTIVE 44-8| Describe two projective tests used to assess personality, and discuss some criticisms of them.Psychology 7e in Modules
26Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Developed by Henry Murray, TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.
29Rorschach Inkblot Test The most widely used projective test with a set of 10 inkblots was designed by Hermann Rorschach. It seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.
33Projective Tests: Criticisms Critics argue that projective test lack both reliability (consistency of results) and validity (testing/predicting what it is supposed to).Even trained raters evaluating the same patient come up with different interpretations (reliability).2. And projective tests may misdiagnose a normal individual as pathological (validity).
34Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Modern ResearchPersonality develops throughout life and is not fixed in childhood.Freud underemphasize peer influence on the individual which may be as powerful as parental influence.Gender identity may develop before 5-6 years of age.OBJECTIVE 44-9| Summarize psychology’s current assessment of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis.Psychology 7e in Modules
35Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Modern ResearchThere may be other reasons for dreams to arise than wish fulfillment.Verbal slips can be explained on basis of cognitive processing of verbal choices.Suppressed sexuality leads to psychological disorders. Sexual inhibition has decreased, but psychological disorders have not.Psychology 7e in Modules
36Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Freud's psychoanalytic theory rests on repression of painful experiences into the unconscious mind.Majority of children, death camp survivors, battle-scared veterans are unable to repress painful experiences into their unconscious mind.Psychology 7e in Modules
37Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Freud’s theory has been criticized on scientific merits. Psychoanalysis meagerly testable. Most of its concepts arise out of clinical practice which are after-the-fact explanations.Psychology 7e in Modules
38Contemporary Research on Personality Trait theoryBIG 5
39Personality TypePersonality types, assessed by measures like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, consist of a number of traits, e.g., Feeling type personality is sympathetic, appreciative and tactful.SympatheticAppreciativeTactfulAdapted from Carl Jung – broke away from psychoanalytic and looked at genetic reasons for traits – temperaments.Feeling Type PersonalityPsychology 7e in Modules
40The Trait PerspectiveAn individual’s unique constellation of durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving (traits) constitutes his personality. This is different than “states”Genetic predispositions – temperamentsExamples of TraitsHonestDependableMoodyImpulsiveOBJECTIVE 46-1| Describe the trait and perspective’s contribution to personality research.Allport & Odbert (1936), identified 18,000 words representing traits.Psychology 7e in Modules
41Gordon AllportFirst person to describe fundamental personality characteristicsCardinal trait (single most dominant and consistent trait)Central traits (a small number of significant tendencies)Secondary traits (present but not nearly as defining)Cardinal Traits: These are traits that dominate an individual’s whole life, often to the point that the person becomes known specifically for these traits. People with such personalities often become so known for these traits that their names are often synonymous with these qualities. Consider the origin and meaning of the following descriptive terms: Freudian, Machiavellian, narcissistic, Don Juan, Christ-like, etc. Allport suggested that cardinal traits are rare and tend to develop later in life.Central Traits: These are the general characteristics that form the basic foundations of personality. These central traits, while not as dominating as cardinal traits, are the major characteristics you might use to describe another person. Terms such as intelligent, honest, shy and anxious are considered central traits.Secondary Traits: These are the traits that are sometimes related to attitudes or preferences and often appear only in certain situations or under specific circumstances. Some examples would be getting anxious when speaking to a group or impatient while waiting in line.Psychology 7e in Modules
42Exploring TraitsFactor analysis is a statistical approach used to describe and relate personality traits. Cattell used this approach to develop the 16 Personality Factor (16PF) inventory.OBJECTIVE 46-2| Describe some of the ways psychologists have attempted to compile a list of basic personality traits.Raymond Cattell( )Psychology 7e in Modules
43Factor AnalysisCattell found that large groups of traits could be reduced down to 16 core personalitytraits based on statisticalcorrelations.All people aresomewhere on thiscontinuumExcitementImpatientIrritableBoisterousBasictraitSuperficialtraitsImpulsive
44Factor AnalysisCattell found that large groups of traits could be reduced down to 16 core personalitytraits based on statisticalcorrelations.All people aresomewhere on thiscontinuumPsychology 7e in Modules
45Personality Dimensions Hans and Sybil Eysenck suggested that personality could be reduced down to two polar dimensions, extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability.
46Type A and Type B personalities Tend to be driven, highly competitive, easy to become angryMore likely to suffer from health-related illnesses due to stress(Friedman and Roseman study on heart attacks)Type BMore laid-back, easy-goingTend to live longer
47Assessing TraitsPersonality inventories are questionnaires (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once.OBJECTIVE 46-3| Explain how psychologists use personality inventories to assess traits, and discuss the most widely used of these inventories.Psychology 7e in Modules
48MMPIMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests originally developed to identify emotional disorders.MMPI was developed by empirically testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminated between diagnostic groups.
50The Big Five FactorsToday’s trait researchers believe that Eysencks’ personality dimensions are too narrow and Cattell’s 16PF too large. So a middle range (five factors) of traits does a better job of assessment.ConscientiousnessAgreeablenessNeuroticismOpennessExtraversionOBJECTIVE 46-4| Identify the Big Five personality factors, and discuss some of the strengths of this approach to studying personality.Psychology 7e in Modules
52Questions about the Big Five 1. How stable are these traits?Quite stable in adulthood. Though change over development.2. How heritable are they?Fifty percent or so for each trait.3. How about other cultures?These traits are common across cultures.Controversy regarding the Big Five… Should there be more? Like the Big Eight? Researchers are looking into adding positive and negative emotion, masculinity and femininity, and religiosity.4. Predict other personal attributes?Yes. Conscientious people are morning types, and extraverted evening types.Psychology 7e in Modules
53Evaluating the Trait Perspective The Person-Situation Controversy Walter Mischel (1968, 1984, 2004) points that traits may be enduring but the resulting behavior in different situations is different. Thus traits are not good predictors of behaviors. You don’t always behave according to your traits. Must take into account the situation.OBJECTIVE 46-5| Summarize the person-situation controversy, and explain its importance as a commentary on the trait perspective.Psychology 7e in Modules
54The Person-Situation Controversy Trait theorists argue that behaviors may be different from situation to situation, but average behavior remains the same, thus traits matter.Psychology 7e in Modules
56Humanistic Perspective By 1960s psychologists had become discontented with Freud’s negativity and the rigidity of the trait psychologists. Believed that people are basically good and they have the freedom to choose. Emphasis on subjective experiencesAbraham Maslow( )Carl Rogers( )
57Self-Actualizing Person Maslow proposed that we as individuals are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. Starting with physiological needs we try to reach the state of self-actualization fulfilling our potential.OBJECTIVE 45-1| Summarize Abraham Maslow’s concept of self-actualization, and explain how his ideas illustrate the humanistic perspective.Ted Polumbaum/ Time Pix/ Getty ImagesPsychology 7e in Modules
60Unconditional Positive Regard According to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another personGenuineness-freely expressing one’s feelings and not being afraid to disclose details about oneselfEmpathy-Sharing thoughts and understanding, listening and reflecting the other person’s feelings (active listening)
61Exploring the SelfResearch on the self has a long history, because the self organizes thinking, feelings and actions and is a critical part of our personality.Research has focused on the different selves we possess – some we dream and others we dread.Research on how we overestimate our concern that others evaluate our appearance, performance and blunders (spot-light effect).The Self-reference effect in memory.OBJECTIVE 46-12| Explain why psychology has generated so much research on the self, and give three examples of current research on the self.The self-reference effect is a tendency for people to encode information differently depending on the level on which the self is implicated in the information. When people are asked to remember information when it is related in some way to the self, the recall rate can be improvedPsychology 7e in Modules
62Benefits of Self-Esteem Maslow and Rogers argued that a successful life results from a healthy self-image (self-esteem). There are two reasons why low self-esteem results in personal problems.When self-esteem is deflated, we view our self and others critically.Low self esteem reflects reality – our failure in meeting challenges or surmounting difficulties.OBJECTIVE 46-13| Give two alternative explanations for the positive correlation between low self-esteem and personal problems.Psychology 7e in Modules
63Self-Serving BiasWe more readily accept responsibility for good deeds and successes than for bad deeds and failures. Defensive self-esteem is fragile and egotistic whereas secure self-esteem is less fragile and less dependent on external evaluation.OBJECTIVE 46-15| Discuss some evidence for self-serving bias, and contrast defensive and secure self-esteem.Psychology 7e in Modules
64Assessing the SelfIn an effort to assess personality, Rogers asked people to describe themselves as they would like to be (ideal) and as they actually are (real). If the two descriptions were close the individual had a positive self-concept.All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, “Who am I?” refers to Self-Concept. Ideal Self vs Real SelfOBJECTIVE 45-3| Explain how humanistic psychologists assessed personality.Psychology 7e in Modules
65Humanism todayHumanism has influenced therapy, child-rearing, and the workplaceLaid the foundation for positive psychologyApplications in education
67Social-Cognitive and Behavioral Perspective Bandura (1986, 2001, 2005) believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and his social context.Believed in reciprocal determinism, we make choices in our environment which influence future choices and our experiences, and so on and so on…Albert Bandura
68Reciprocal Influences Stephen Wade/ Allsport/ Getty ImagesPsychology 7e in Modules
69Individuals & Environments Specific ways how individuals and environments interact.Different people choose different environments.The school you attend, the music you listen to, are partly based on your dispositions.Our personalities shape how we react to events.Anxious people react to situations differently than calm people.Our personalities shape situations.How we view and treat people influences how they treat us.
70Social-cognitive psychologists , such as Julian Rotter emphasize our sense of personal control – whether we control the environment or the environment controls us.External locus of control refers to the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate.Internal locus of control refers to the perception that we can control our own fate.OBJECTIVE 46-8| Discuss the effects of a perception of internal or external control, and describe the concept of learned helplessness.Psychology 7e in Modules
71Positive Psychology and Humanistic Psychology Positive psychology like humanistic psychology attempts to foster human fulfillment. Positive psychology in addition seeks positive subjective well-being, positive character and positive social groups.Positive psychology aims to discover and promote conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive.Martin Seligman
72This can lead to a lower sense of self-efficacy Learned HelplessnessWhen unable to avoid repeated aversive events an animal or human learns hopelessness.This can lead to a lower sense of self-efficacyThis can lead people to doubt their ability to affect their environment and accomplish what they try
73Optimism vs. PessimismAccording to Martin Seligman, an optimistic or pessimistic explanatory style – is your way of explaining positive or negative events.OBJECTIVE 46-9| Discuss the link between performance and optimistic or pessimistic attributional styles, and contrast positive psychology with humanistic psychology.Psychology 7e in Modules
74Assessing Behavior in Situations Social-cognitive psychologists observe people in realistic and simulated situations because they have found that the best way to predict behavior of others is in similar situations.OBJECTIVE 46-10| Explain why social-cognitive researchers assess behavior in realistic situations.Psychology 7e in Modules
75Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective Critics say that social-cognitive psychologists pay a lot of attention to the situation and pay less attention to the individual, his unconscious mind, his emotions and his genetics.OBJECTIVE 46-11| Summarize the criticisms of the social-cognitive perspective.Psychology 7e in Modules
76BehaviorBehavior emerges from an interplay of external and internal influences.