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Personality Psychodynamic theory

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1 Personality Psychodynamic theory
Freud’s model of the mind and personality structure Psychosexual stages Defense mechanisms Neo-Freudians Projective tests

2 Psychodynamic Perspective
In his clinical practice, Freud encountered patients suffering from nervous disorders whose complaints could not be explained in terms of purely physical causes. OBJECTIVE 44-2| Explain how Freud’s experiences in private practice led to his theory of psychoanalysis. Culver Pictures Sigmund Freud ( ) Psychology 7e in Modules

3 Psychodynamic Perspective
Freud’s clinical experience led him to develop the first comprehensive theory of personality which included, the unconscious mind, psychosexual stages and defense mechanisms. Culver Pictures Sigmund Freud ( ) Psychology 7e in Modules

4 Exploring the Unconscious
A reservoir (unconscious mind) of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their mind (free association) to tap the unconscious. OBJECTIVE 44-3| Discuss Freud’s view of the mind as an iceberg, and explain how he used this image to represent conscious and unconscious regions of the mind. Psychology 7e in Modules

5 Dream Analysis Another method to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting the manifest and latent contents of dreams. The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli (1791)

6 (psychoanalysis) the patient felt better.
The process of free association (chain of thoughts) led to painful, embarrassing unconscious memories. Once these memories were retrieved and released (psychoanalysis) the patient felt better.

7 Freud’s model of the mind and personality structure
Psychosexual stages of development Defense mechanisms

8 Model of Mind The mind is like an iceberg. Mostly hidden and below the surface lies the unconscious mind. The preconscious, stores temporary memories.

9 Personality Structure
Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses (id) and social restraints (superego). OBJECTIVE 44-4| Describe Freud’s view of personality structure, and discuss the interactions of the id, ego and the superego. Psychology 7e in Modules

10 Works on the “reality principle”
Id, Ego and Superego Id unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives operating on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification. Largely conscious, ego functions as the “executive” and mediates the demands of id and superego. Works on the “reality principle” Superego provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations. The last one to develop in a person. “Your mother’s voice” Id – basic drives, pleasure principle Ego – develops in children, reality principle Superego – continues to develop in early childhood, moral principle Psychology 7e in Modules

11 Personality Development
Freud believed that personality formed during life’s first few years divided into psychosexual stages. During these stages the id’s pleasure seeking energies focus on pleasure sensitive body areas called erogenous zones. OBJECTIVE 44-5| Identify Freud’s psychosexual stages of development, and describe the effects of fixation on behavior. Psychology 7e in Modules

12 Psychosexual Stages Freud divided development of personality through five psychosexual stages. Oral Stage – first year of life (smokers, nail biters) Anal Stage – ages 1 ½ - 2 ½ (perfectionism, careless) Phallic Stage – age 3 – 4 (strong attachment to opposite sex parent, rival same sex parent) Latency Stage – age 5 – puberty (retreat from conflict) Genital Stage – puberty (aware of gender identity) Psychology 7e in Modules

13 Oedipus Complex A boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. Also Electra complex for the girl’s desire for the father.

14 Identification Children cope with threatening feelings by repressing them and by identifying with the rival parent. Through this process of identification their superego gains strength incorporating parents’ values. From the K. Vandervelde private collection

15 Defense Mechanisms Ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. 1. Repression banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. This is at the root of all defense mechanisms 2. Regression leads an individual faced with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage. OBJECTIVE 44-6| Describe the function of defense mechanisms, and identify six of them. Psychology 7e in Modules

16 Defense Mechanisms 3. Reaction Formation causes the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites. People may express feelings of purity when they may be suffering anxiety from unconscious feelings about sex. 4. Projection leads people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.

17 Defense Mechanisms 5. Rationalization offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions. 6. Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or persons… redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.

18 Defense Mechanisms Denial Refusal to accept reality or fact, acting as if a painful event, thought or feeling did not exist. Sublimation Channel impulses into acceptable behavior. Compensation process of psychologically counterbalancing perceived weaknesses by emphasizing strength in other arenas. For instance, a person who is a functioning alcoholic will often simply deny they have a drinking problem, pointing to how well they function in their job and relationships. Sublimation can also be done with humor or fantasy. Humor, when used as a defense mechanism, is the channeling of unacceptable impulses or thoughts into a light-hearted story or joke. Humor reduces the intensity of a situation, and places a cushion of laughter between the person and the impulses Psychology 7e in Modules

19 Neo-Freudians Projective tests

20 The Neo-Freudians Jung believed in the collective unconscious which contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. That is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother as a symbol of nurture (archetypes). Also, we all have Persona vs Shadow, the persona is what we share with others and the shadow we keep to ourselves Archive of the History of American Psychology/ University of Akron OBJECTIVE 44-7| Contrast the views of the neo-Freudians and psychodynamic theorists with those of Freud’s original theory. Similar to Freud Analytic Psychology – greater influence on mysticism and religion Collective unconscious – shared by a common culture In addition to a personal unconscious Archetypes – ideas and images of the accumulated experiences of humans Sense of self – gives people direction Thinking, feeling, intuition, sensation Individuation - combination of sense of self and collective unconscious Carl Jung ( ) Psychology 7e in Modules

21 Archetypes Situational Archetypes Character Archetypes
The Quest, The Journey, Battle between Good and Evil Character Archetypes The Hero, Group of Companions, The Devil Figure, The Scapegoat, The Star Crossed Lovers Symbolic Archetype Heaven vs. Hell, Water vs. Desert, Colors, Nature, Objects Archetypes – image, story pattern, or character which recurs frequently and evokes strong associations in the reader. Psychology 7e in Modules

22 The Neo-Freudians Like Freud, Adler believed in childhood tensions, however these tensions were social in nature and not sexual. A child struggles with the inferiority complex during growth and strives for superiority and power. Also studied birth-order. National Library of Medicine Alfred Adler ( ) Motivated by inferiority Inferiority Complex Sibling Rivalry Self awareness – creative self strives to overcome obstacles Psychology 7e in Modules

23 The Neo-Freudians Like Adler, Horney believed in the social and cultural aspects of childhood growth and development. She countered Freud’s assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer “penis envy” with the idea that men have “womb envy” Social relationships are greatest influence on personality Parent-child – paramount Basic anxiety Anger Introduces psychology of women and womb envy Challenge to Freud’s theories Genuine and consistent love – temper the effects of a painful childhood The Bettmann Archive/ Corbis Karen Horney ( ) Psychology 7e in Modules

24 Assessing Your Personality
Visit at least two sites and take a test to see if it provides an accurate assessment of some aspect of your personality. Here are a couple of links: Answer the following questions about the test: How accurate are your results? Are they true? Is there any evidence of the author’s validity or reliability? Are norms provided, and if so, on whom are they based? Was the test empirically derived?

25 Assessing Unconscious Processes
Evaluating personality from an unconscious mind perspective would require a psychological instrument (projective tests) that would reveal the hidden unconscious mind. OBJECTIVE 44-8| Describe two projective tests used to assess personality, and discuss some criticisms of them. Psychology 7e in Modules

26 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Developed by Henry Murray, TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes. Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.



29 Rorschach Inkblot Test
The most widely used projective test with a set of 10 inkblots was designed by Hermann Rorschach. It seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots. Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.




33 Projective Tests: Criticisms
Critics argue that projective test lack both reliability (consistency of results) and validity (testing/predicting what it is supposed to). Even trained raters evaluating the same patient come up with different interpretations (reliability). 2. And projective tests may misdiagnose a normal individual as pathological (validity).

34 Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective
Modern Research Personality develops throughout life and is not fixed in childhood. Freud underemphasize peer influence on the individual which may be as powerful as parental influence. Gender identity may develop before 5-6 years of age. OBJECTIVE 44-9| Summarize psychology’s current assessment of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis. Psychology 7e in Modules

35 Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective
Modern Research There may be other reasons for dreams to arise than wish fulfillment. Verbal slips can be explained on basis of cognitive processing of verbal choices. Suppressed sexuality leads to psychological disorders. Sexual inhibition has decreased, but psychological disorders have not. Psychology 7e in Modules

36 Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective
Freud's psychoanalytic theory rests on repression of painful experiences into the unconscious mind. Majority of children, death camp survivors, battle-scared veterans are unable to repress painful experiences into their unconscious mind. Psychology 7e in Modules

37 Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective
Freud’s theory has been criticized on scientific merits. Psychoanalysis meagerly testable. Most of its concepts arise out of clinical practice which are after-the-fact explanations. Psychology 7e in Modules

38 Contemporary Research on Personality
Trait theory BIG 5

39 Personality Type Personality types, assessed by measures like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, consist of a number of traits, e.g., Feeling type personality is sympathetic, appreciative and tactful. Sympathetic Appreciative Tactful Adapted from Carl Jung – broke away from psychoanalytic and looked at genetic reasons for traits – temperaments. Feeling Type Personality Psychology 7e in Modules

40 The Trait Perspective An individual’s unique constellation of durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving (traits) constitutes his personality. This is different than “states” Genetic predispositions – temperaments Examples of Traits Honest Dependable Moody Impulsive OBJECTIVE 46-1| Describe the trait and perspective’s contribution to personality research. Allport & Odbert (1936), identified 18,000 words representing traits. Psychology 7e in Modules

41 Gordon Allport First person to describe fundamental personality characteristics Cardinal trait (single most dominant and consistent trait) Central traits (a small number of significant tendencies) Secondary traits (present but not nearly as defining) Cardinal Traits: These are traits that dominate an individual’s whole life, often to the point that the person becomes known specifically for these traits. People with such personalities often become so known for these traits that their names are often synonymous with these qualities. Consider the origin and meaning of the following descriptive terms: Freudian, Machiavellian, narcissistic, Don Juan, Christ-like, etc. Allport suggested that cardinal traits are rare and tend to develop later in life. Central Traits: These are the general characteristics that form the basic foundations of personality. These central traits, while not as dominating as cardinal traits, are the major characteristics you might use to describe another person. Terms such as intelligent, honest, shy and anxious are considered central traits. Secondary Traits: These are the traits that are sometimes related to attitudes or preferences and often appear only in certain situations or under specific circumstances. Some examples would be getting anxious when speaking to a group or impatient while waiting in line. Psychology 7e in Modules

42 Exploring Traits Factor analysis is a statistical approach used to describe and relate personality traits. Cattell used this approach to develop the 16 Personality Factor (16PF) inventory. OBJECTIVE 46-2| Describe some of the ways psychologists have attempted to compile a list of basic personality traits. Raymond Cattell ( ) Psychology 7e in Modules

43 Factor Analysis Cattell found that large groups of traits could be reduced down to 16 core personality traits based on statistical correlations. All people are somewhere on this continuum Excitement Impatient Irritable Boisterous Basic trait Superficial traits Impulsive

44 Factor Analysis Cattell found that large groups of traits could be reduced down to 16 core personality traits based on statistical correlations. All people are somewhere on this continuum Psychology 7e in Modules

45 Personality Dimensions
Hans and Sybil Eysenck suggested that personality could be reduced down to two polar dimensions, extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability.

46 Type A and Type B personalities
Tend to be driven, highly competitive, easy to become angry More likely to suffer from health-related illnesses due to stress (Friedman and Roseman study on heart attacks) Type B More laid-back, easy-going Tend to live longer

47 Assessing Traits Personality inventories are questionnaires (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once. OBJECTIVE 46-3| Explain how psychologists use personality inventories to assess traits, and discuss the most widely used of these inventories. Psychology 7e in Modules

48 MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests originally developed to identify emotional disorders. MMPI was developed by empirically testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminated between diagnostic groups.

49 MMPI Test Profile

50 The Big Five Factors Today’s trait researchers believe that Eysencks’ personality dimensions are too narrow and Cattell’s 16PF too large. So a middle range (five factors) of traits does a better job of assessment. Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness Extraversion OBJECTIVE 46-4| Identify the Big Five personality factors, and discuss some of the strengths of this approach to studying personality. Psychology 7e in Modules

51 Endpoints

52 Questions about the Big Five
1. How stable are these traits? Quite stable in adulthood. Though change over development. 2. How heritable are they? Fifty percent or so for each trait. 3. How about other cultures? These traits are common across cultures. Controversy regarding the Big Five… Should there be more? Like the Big Eight? Researchers are looking into adding positive and negative emotion, masculinity and femininity, and religiosity. 4. Predict other personal attributes? Yes. Conscientious people are morning types, and extraverted evening types. Psychology 7e in Modules

53 Evaluating the Trait Perspective
The Person-Situation Controversy Walter Mischel (1968, 1984, 2004) points that traits may be enduring but the resulting behavior in different situations is different. Thus traits are not good predictors of behaviors. You don’t always behave according to your traits. Must take into account the situation. OBJECTIVE 46-5| Summarize the person-situation controversy, and explain its importance as a commentary on the trait perspective. Psychology 7e in Modules

54 The Person-Situation Controversy
Trait theorists argue that behaviors may be different from situation to situation, but average behavior remains the same, thus traits matter. Psychology 7e in Modules

55 The Humanistic Perspective
Humanistic theory Rogerian terms

56 Humanistic Perspective
By 1960s psychologists had become discontented with Freud’s negativity and the rigidity of the trait psychologists. Believed that people are basically good and they have the freedom to choose. Emphasis on subjective experiences Abraham Maslow ( ) Carl Rogers ( )

57 Self-Actualizing Person
Maslow proposed that we as individuals are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. Starting with physiological needs we try to reach the state of self-actualization fulfilling our potential. OBJECTIVE 45-1| Summarize Abraham Maslow’s concept of self-actualization, and explain how his ideas illustrate the humanistic perspective. Ted Polumbaum/ Time Pix/ Getty Images Psychology 7e in Modules


59 Growth and Fulfillment
Carl Rogers also believed in individual's self-actualization tendencies. Unconditional Positive Regard, he said, was an attitude of acceptance of others amidst their failings. OBJECTIVE 45-2| Discuss Carl Roger’s person-centered perspective, and explain the importance of unconditional positive regard. Self Theory – people’s sense of self Self-concept – a view of oneself Congruence – consistency between self-concept and one’s experience Self-esteem – a belief in oneself Positive regard – unconditional vs. conditional Michael Rougier/ Life Magazine © Time Warner, Inc. Psychology 7e in Modules

60 Unconditional Positive Regard
According to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person Genuineness-freely expressing one’s feelings and not being afraid to disclose details about oneself Empathy-Sharing thoughts and understanding, listening and reflecting the other person’s feelings (active listening)

61 Exploring the Self Research on the self has a long history, because the self organizes thinking, feelings and actions and is a critical part of our personality. Research has focused on the different selves we possess – some we dream and others we dread. Research on how we overestimate our concern that others evaluate our appearance, performance and blunders (spot-light effect). The Self-reference effect in memory. OBJECTIVE 46-12| Explain why psychology has generated so much research on the self, and give three examples of current research on the self. The self-reference effect is a tendency for people to encode information differently depending on the level on which the self is implicated in the information. When people are asked to remember information when it is related in some way to the self, the recall rate can be improved Psychology 7e in Modules

62 Benefits of Self-Esteem
Maslow and Rogers argued that a successful life results from a healthy self-image (self-esteem). There are two reasons why low self-esteem results in personal problems. When self-esteem is deflated, we view our self and others critically. Low self esteem reflects reality – our failure in meeting challenges or surmounting difficulties. OBJECTIVE 46-13| Give two alternative explanations for the positive correlation between low self-esteem and personal problems. Psychology 7e in Modules

63 Self-Serving Bias We more readily accept responsibility for good deeds and successes than for bad deeds and failures. Defensive self-esteem is fragile and egotistic whereas secure self-esteem is less fragile and less dependent on external evaluation. OBJECTIVE 46-15| Discuss some evidence for self-serving bias, and contrast defensive and secure self-esteem. Psychology 7e in Modules

64 Assessing the Self In an effort to assess personality, Rogers asked people to describe themselves as they would like to be (ideal) and as they actually are (real). If the two descriptions were close the individual had a positive self-concept. All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, “Who am I?” refers to Self-Concept. Ideal Self vs Real Self OBJECTIVE 45-3| Explain how humanistic psychologists assessed personality. Psychology 7e in Modules

65 Humanism today Humanism has influenced therapy, child-rearing, and the workplace Laid the foundation for positive psychology Applications in education


67 Social-Cognitive and Behavioral Perspective
Bandura (1986, 2001, 2005) believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and his social context. Believed in reciprocal determinism, we make choices in our environment which influence future choices and our experiences, and so on and so on… Albert Bandura

68 Reciprocal Influences
Stephen Wade/ Allsport/ Getty Images Psychology 7e in Modules

69 Individuals & Environments
Specific ways how individuals and environments interact. Different people choose different environments. The school you attend, the music you listen to, are partly based on your dispositions. Our personalities shape how we react to events. Anxious people react to situations differently than calm people. Our personalities shape situations. How we view and treat people influences how they treat us.

70 Social-cognitive psychologists , such as Julian Rotter emphasize our sense of personal control – whether we control the environment or the environment controls us. External locus of control refers to the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate. Internal locus of control refers to the perception that we can control our own fate. OBJECTIVE 46-8| Discuss the effects of a perception of internal or external control, and describe the concept of learned helplessness. Psychology 7e in Modules

71 Positive Psychology and Humanistic Psychology
Positive psychology like humanistic psychology attempts to foster human fulfillment. Positive psychology in addition seeks positive subjective well-being, positive character and positive social groups. Positive psychology aims to discover and promote conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive. Martin Seligman

72 This can lead to a lower sense of self-efficacy
Learned Helplessness When unable to avoid repeated aversive events an animal or human learns hopelessness. This can lead to a lower sense of self-efficacy This can lead people to doubt their ability to affect their environment and accomplish what they try

73 Optimism vs. Pessimism According to Martin Seligman, an optimistic or pessimistic explanatory style – is your way of explaining positive or negative events. OBJECTIVE 46-9| Discuss the link between performance and optimistic or pessimistic attributional styles, and contrast positive psychology with humanistic psychology. Psychology 7e in Modules

74 Assessing Behavior in Situations
Social-cognitive psychologists observe people in realistic and simulated situations because they have found that the best way to predict behavior of others is in similar situations. OBJECTIVE 46-10| Explain why social-cognitive researchers assess behavior in realistic situations. Psychology 7e in Modules

75 Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective
Critics say that social-cognitive psychologists pay a lot of attention to the situation and pay less attention to the individual, his unconscious mind, his emotions and his genetics. OBJECTIVE 46-11| Summarize the criticisms of the social-cognitive perspective. Psychology 7e in Modules

76 Behavior Behavior emerges from an interplay of external and internal influences.

77 Charles Manson Biological – Psychological – Socio-cultural –

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