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REVIEW FOR THE FALL SEMESTER FINAL EXAM INSTRUCTIONS: Go through the slides and answer each question in the packet; the slide numbers are listed for.

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Presentation on theme: "REVIEW FOR THE FALL SEMESTER FINAL EXAM INSTRUCTIONS: Go through the slides and answer each question in the packet; the slide numbers are listed for."— Presentation transcript:



3 INSTRUCTIONS: Go through the slides and answer each question in the packet; the slide numbers are listed for each question REVIEW FOR THE FALL SEMESTER FINAL EXAM

4 Neolithic Revolution The Neolithic Revolution is when humans learned how to farm; farming changed the way humans lived: People no longer had to be roaming nomads and became farmers People domesticated animals and established villages Farming villages became established along river valleys; the rivers offered good soil, irrigation, and sources of drinking water

5 In Mesopotamia (and other civilizations, like Egypt) being located in a river valley provided rich soil ideal for farming

6 LASTING CONTRIBUTIONS GOVERNMENT: Babylonian King Hammurabi created the first written code of law Hammurabi’s Code had 282 laws based on justice and retaliation (for example: “an eye for an eye”)

7 LASTING CONTRIBUTIONS Government: If it was decided a Chinese leader lost the Mandate of Heaven, overthrowing him and starting a new dynasty could be justified

8 Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha) taught that people can achieve Nirvana by following the “Four Noble Truths”; this is the most significant teaching of Buddhism

9 LASTING CONTRIBUTIONS Ancient Egypt had a hierarchy of specialized workers; the “pharaoh” is the Egyptian king

10 LASTING CONTRIBUTIONS In Han China, the teachings of the philosopher Confucius had great influence on their society Confucianism focused on filial piety (respect for elders) For a bureaucrat to get a government job, he would have to pass a civil service exam based on Confucius’ teachings

11 When ruling their empire, the Persians were tolerant of conquered people’s cultures, built an extensive road system, and used standardized coins to promote business and trade PERSIA’S ORGANIZED EMPIRE

12 Mountains covered about 75% of Greece; these barriers divided the Greek people into separate mountain valleys; this led to the development of independent city-states

13 The Hindu religion used the “caste system”, which ranked people according to social status

14 The society of Sparta focused on military strength, not freedom, art, and learning (like Athens)

15 Ancient Greece is considered a “classical civilization” because Greek culture contributed to philosophy, art, entertainment, literature, architecture, science, education, and democracy

16 Alexander the Great’s main legacy was not his empire- building; the most significant effect of his conquests was spreading Hellenistic civilization (a blend of Greek, Persian, and Egyptian culture) throughout his empire

17 ROME: AN EMPIRE OF INNOVATION Rome’s location on the Mediterranean Sea allowed for trade and cultural diffusion (blending of cultures) with other people, especially the Greeks Through the cultural diffusion, the Romans were able to borrow the best ideas from other civilizations (especially the Greeks) and improve upon them

18 The Government of Ancient Rome A republic is a form of government in which citizens have the right to elect their leaders (Senators)

19 THE PAX ROMANA Pax Romana Pax Romana Julius’ assassination led to the end of the Roman Republic and the start of the Roman Empire Julius Caesar was assassinated by senators who feared his power; Julius’ death led to Augustus Caesar taking revenge, then becoming Rome’s first emperor

20 CHRISTIANITY BECOMES RECOGNIZED Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire and gained popularity Emperor Constantine made Christianity legal, which shifted Rome away from its polytheistic religion

21 Attempts To Reform The Roman Empire EMPEROR DIOCLETIAN Diocletian’s most important reform was dividing the Roman Empire into two parts: the Eastern Empire and the Western Empire; he did this to make controlling the enormous empire easier

22 BELIEFS OF ISLAM Islam is monotheistic, worshipping only one God (the same God of Judaism and Christianity)

23 Muslims believe in the Five Pillars of Islam: Faith: belief in one God, Allah, and the Prophet Muhammad Prayer: 5 times per day towards Mecca Alms: 2.5% to charity Fasting: During the month of Ramadan Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca FIVE PILLARS

24 The Sunni-Shi’a Split Before the Umayyads, caliphs were elected members of Muhammad’s family Shi’a Muslims rejected the rule of the Umayyads The Shi’a believe that caliphs must come directly from Muhammad’s bloodline Sunni Muslims accepted the rule of the Umayyads The Sunni believe that caliphs should follow Muhammad’s example, but do not have to be relatives

25 Medicine Muslims of the Islamic Empire established the world’s first hospitals and based their medical knowledge on that of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Greece Ibn Sina created and developed medical encyclopedias

26 Islamic Empire and Gupta Empire Wealth from trade led to “golden ages” for the Islamic and Gupta Empires, a time of great achievements in science, mathematics, medicine, and architecture

27 EAST AFRICA Muslim merchants brought their religion with them to East Africa Islam was introduced to the East African trade cities

28 AFRICAN RELIGION CHANGES When Islam was introduced, the Animist religions and Islam were blended; however, many Africans chose to keep their traditional Animistic beliefs

29 WEST AFRICA: GHANA The gold-salt trade led to increased wealth in West Africa and the formation of empires A West African kingdom, Ghana, amassed vast wealth by taxing merchants

30 WEST AFRICA: MALI A kingdom neighboring Ghana, Mali, eventually overthrew Ghana and absorbed its territory into the new Mali Empire The gold-salt trade led to increased wealth in West Africa and the formation of empires

31 University in Timbuktu For example, Timbuktu became a trade city that attracted scholars, religious leaders, and doctors Because of his pilgrimage to Mecca, Mansa Musa expanded Islamic learning and culture in Mali

32 The Eastern Roman Empire, now known as the Byzantine Empire, not only remained together but survived for nearly a thousand more years When the Roman Empire split in two, the Western side was taken over by the Germanic tribes, while the Eastern side stayed strong

33 The Justinian Code To oversee his empire, Justinian ordered legal experts to consolidate Roman laws into a single law code It was called the “Justinian Code” and served as the legal basis for criminal justice, marriage, property, slavery, and women’s rights The Code would serve as the model for Europe’s legal systems

34 Culture of the Byzantine Empire The Hagia Sophia (which means “Holy Wisdom” in Greek) was originally a Christian church; it remains the greatest example of Byzantine architecture, which was influenced by Roman-style domes and arches

35 Disagreements over the use of religious icons during prayer and who should hold authority over the Church led to a division in Christianity The Great Schism (split) occurred in 1054 CE

36 The Byzantines From contact with the Byzantine Empire, the early Russians gained the Cyrillic alphabet, the Orthodox religion, and different styles of art and architecture BYZANTINES RUSSIA

37 Feudalism is a system in which land is given to knights by lords in exchange for military service and loyalty After the fall of the Roman Empire, a new political and social system called feudalism developed

38 The Role of the Medieval Church Roman Catholicism was the dominant religion in Western Europe during the Middle Ages The Catholic Church gave people a sense of security and the goal of reaching Heaven; the Catholic Church provided unity and stability in Western Europe during the Middle Ages

39 Charlemagne was the greatest Medieval king because he did something no other Medieval king was able to do: create an organized empire One of Charlemagne’s greatest legacies was spreading Christianity throughout Western Europe

40 Effects of the Crusades A long-term result of the Crusades was the growth of cultural exchanges between Europe and the Middle East They increased desires for luxury goods like silk, cotton, sugar, and spices They introduced technologies like compass, astrolabe, ship designs, and gunpowder They introduced ideas like Arabic numbers, chemistry, algebra, and telescopes

41 Aztecs worshipped many gods, especially the sun god; they made thousands of human sacrifices each year to the sun god

42 The demise of the Aztecs and Incas came when the Spanish conquistadors arrived in America and conquered the two empires

43 This era of stability was called “Pax Mongolica”, which means “Mongol Peace” Because of the safety of Pax Mongolica, there was enormous increase in trade between Asia and Europe through the Silk Road

44 Equally intelligent and vicious, Genghis Khan would lead the creation of the Mongol Empire, the largest land empire in human history From 1200 to 1206, Genghis Khan (“Universal Ruler”) united all of the Mongol clans under his rule

45 MARCO POLO’S TRAVELS Marco Polo traveled throughout Asia and Europe, making a written record that would later increase Europe’s interest in Asian luxury goods

46 The voyages led by Chinese admiral Zheng He led to the Chinese coming into contact with people from numerous other cultures

47 CHINESE INNOVATIONS 1. Mechanical clock6. Chinese writing 2. Magnetic compass7. Ship building 3. Gunpowder8. Vaccinations 4. Printing press9. Silk weaving 5. Paper money10 Porcelain CHINESE INNOVATIONS DURING THE TANG AND SONG DYNASTIES

48 During the Renaissance, humanists emphasized the importance of human potential and achievement

49 Michelangelo’s sculpture,“David”, is considered a masterpiece; he is perhaps most well- known for the painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Michelangelo


51 Greek Renaissance Ancient Greek art and Renaissance art both emphasized realism and perfecting the human form

52 Italian city-states became centers of learning and trade The most important Italian city-state was Florence; in this wealthy trade city, the Renaissance began

53 Dismayed at the corruption of the Catholic Church he served, Erasmus wrote “In Praise of Folly”, which sharply criticized the abuses of Church leaders and called for reform of the Catholic Church Erasmus’ writings paved the way for the Protestant Reformation

54 Martin Luther strongly disagreed with the Church’s selling of indulgences, which he saw as false salvation Martin Luther

55 Martin Luther’s actions led to the Protestant Reformation, which was a movement to reform the practices of the Catholic Church; this led to new versions of Christianity The Catholic Church and the Protestant Churches still shared the basic ideas of Christianity, though (such as belief in Jesus and the Bible)

56 THE COUNCIL OF TRENT In 1545, Pope Paul III created a committee of Catholic leaders called the Council of Trent; its purpose was to review Church practices, make reforms, and emphasize core Catholic beliefs

57 The Protestant Reformation led to a decline in the power of the Roman Catholic Church, but it still remained the largest religion in Europe (especially in Italy, Portugal, France, and Spain)

58 The Effect of the Printing Press This invention revolutionized the way ideas were spread around Europe

59 From the 1400s to the 1700s, Europe experienced an “Age of Exploration” The Renaissance helped lead to the Age of Exploration because it encouraged a desire for new things and new trade routes

60 Vasco da Gama of Portugal was the first explorer to find a direct trade route to Asia by going around Africa to get to India

61 Vasco da Gama’s route took him along the west coast of Africa, around the southern tip of Africa, and up to India

62 In Portugal, Prince Henry (A.K.A. “Henry the Navigator”) started a school of navigation to train sailors He brought in Europe’s best map-makers, ship-builders, and sailing instructors

63 The introduction of American potatoes and corn helped improve the diets and life expectancy of people throughout the world The introduction of European grains, horses, and cattle transformed many Indian cultures

64 A negative effect of the Columbian Exchange: the introduction of European diseases like smallpox and influenza killed millions of Native Americans

65 Czar Peter the Great wanted to modernize and “Westernize” Russia to catch up with Europe In disguise, Peter toured Western Europe to learn new ways to modernize Russia

66 Together, the Magna Carta and Bill of Rights created a “constitutional monarchy” in England by serving as written limits on the monarchy’s power

67 Polish scientist Nicolaus Copernicus proposed that the Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun, an idea known as the “heliocentric theory”

68 Johannes Kepler, a German astronomer and mathematician, proved Copernicus’ theory to be true; he also proved that the planets move in elliptical orbits

69 GALILEO GALILEI Galileo was one of the most influential scientists of all time Some of Galileo’s accomplishments: (1) he improved the telescope (2) He made observations about the Moon and our Solar system (3) He created the Law of Inertia and (4) he perfected the scientific method

70 ISAAC NEWTON Newton discovered and explained the theory of gravity


72 Originally created by Christopher Jaskowiak


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