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Presentation on theme: "REVIEW FOR THE FALL SEMESTER FINAL EXAM"— Presentation transcript:


INSTRUCTIONS: Go through the slides and answer each question in the packet; the slide numbers are listed for each question

3 Neolithic Revolution The Neolithic Revolution is when humans learned how to farm; farming changed the way humans lived: People no longer had to be roaming nomads and became farmers People domesticated animals and established villages Farming villages became established along river valleys; the rivers offered good soil, irrigation, and sources of drinking water

4 In Mesopotamia (and other civilizations, like Egypt) being located in a river valley provided rich soil ideal for farming

GOVERNMENT: Babylonian King Hammurabi created the first written code of law Hammurabi’s Code had 282 laws based on justice and retaliation (for example: “an eye for an eye”)

Government: If it was decided a Chinese leader lost the Mandate of Heaven, overthrowing him and starting a new dynasty could be justified To justify their conquest, the Zhou leaders declared that the final Shang king had been such a poor ruler that the gods had taken away the Shang’s rule and given it to the Zhou. This justification developed over time into a broader view that royal authority came from heaven. A just ruler had divine approval, known as the Mandate of Heaven. A wicked or foolish king could lose the Mandate of Heaven and so lose the right to rule. The Mandate of Heaven became central to the Chinese view of government. Floods, riots, and other calamities might be signs that the ancestral spirits were displeased with a king’s rule. In that case, the Mandate of Heaven might pass to another noble family. This was the Chinese explanation for rebellion, civil war, and the rise of a new dynasty. Historians describe the pattern of rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties as the dynastic cycle, shown above.

7 Siddhartha Gautama (the Buddha) taught that people can achieve Nirvana by following the “Four Noble Truths”; this is the most significant teaching of Buddhism

Ancient Egypt had a hierarchy of specialized workers; the “pharaoh” is the Egyptian king

In Han China, the teachings of the philosopher Confucius had great influence on their society Confucianism focused on filial piety (respect for elders) For a bureaucrat to get a government job, he would have to pass a civil service exam based on Confucius’ teachings Confucius and the Social Order Toward the end of the Zhou Dynasty, China moved away from its ancient values of social order, harmony, and respect for authority. Chinese scholars and philosophers developed different solutions to restore these values. Confucius Urges Harmony China’s most influential scholar was Confucius (kuhn•FYOO•shuhs). Born in 551 B.C., Confucius lived in a time when the Zhou Dynasty was in decline. He led a scholarly life, studying and teaching history, music, and moral character. Confucius was born at a time of crisis and violence in China. He had a deep desire to restore the order and moral living of earlier times to his society. Confucius believed that social order, harmony, and good government could be restored in China if society were organized around five basic relationships. These were the relationships between: 1) ruler and subject, 2) father and son, 3) husband and wife, 4) older brother and younger brother, and 5) friend and friend. A code of proper conduct regulated each of these relationships. For example, rulers should practice kindness and virtuous living. In return, subjects should be loyal and law-abiding. Three of Confucius’s five relationships were based upon the family. Confucius stressed that children should practice filial piety, or respect for their parents and ancestors. Filial piety, according to Confucius, meant devoting oneself to one’s parents during their lifetime. It also required honoring their memory after death through the performance of certain rituals. Confucius wanted to reform Chinese society by showing rulers how to govern wisely. Impressed by Confucius’s wisdom, the duke of Lu appointed him minister of justice. According to legend, Confucius so overwhelmed people by his kindness and courtesy that almost overnight, crime vanished from Lu. When the duke’s ways changed, however, Confucius became disillusioned and resigned. Confucius spent the remainder of his life teaching. His students later collected his words in a book called the Analects. A disciple named Mencius (MEHN•shee•uhs) also spread Confucius’s ideas. Confucian Ideas About Government Confucius said that education could transform a humbly born person into a gentleman. In saying this, he laid the groundwork for the creation of a bureaucracy, a trained civil service, or those who run the government. According to Confucius, a gentleman had four virtues: “In his private conduct he was courteous, in serving his master he was punctilious [precise], in providing for the needs of the people he gave them even more than their due; in exacting service from the people, he was just.” Education became critically important to career advancement in the bureaucracy. Confucianism was never a religion, but it was an ethical system, a system based on accepted principles of right and wrong. It became the foundation for Chinese government and social order. In addition, the ideas of Confucius spread beyond China and influenced civilizations throughout East Asia. Other Ethical Systems In addition to Confucius, other Chinese scholars and philosophers developed ethical systems with very different philosophies. Some stressed the importance of nature, others, the power of government. Daoists Seek Harmony For a Chinese thinker named Laozi (low•dzuh), who may have lived during the sixth century B.C., only the natural order was important. The natural order involves relations among all living things. His book Dao De Jing (The Way of Virtue) expressed Laozi’s belief. He said that a universal force called the Dao (dow), meaning “the Way,” guides all things. Of all the creatures of nature, according to Laozi, only humans fail to follow the Dao. They argue about questions of right and wrong, good manners or bad. According to Laozi, such arguments are pointless. The philosophy of Laozi came to be known as Daoism. Its search for knowledge and understanding of nature led Daoism’s followers to pursue scientific studies. Daoists made many important contributions to the sciences of alchemy, astronomy, and medicine. Legalists Urge Harsh Rule In sharp contrast to the followers of Confucius and Laozi was a group of practical political thinkers called the Legalists. They believed that a highly efficient and powerful government was the key to restoring order in society. They got their name from their belief that government should use the law to end civil disorder and restore harmony. Hanfeizi and Li Si were among the founders of Legalism. The Legalists taught that a ruler should provide rich rewards for people who carried out their duties well. Likewise, the disobedient should be harshly punished. In practice, the Legalists stressed punishment more than rewards. For example, anyone caught outside his own village without a travel permit should have his ears or nose chopped off. The Legalists believed in controlling ideas as well as actions. They suggested that a ruler burn all writings that might encourage people to criticize government. After all, it was for the prince to govern and the people to obey. Eventually, Legalist ideas gained favor with a prince of a new dynasty that replaced the Zhou. That powerful ruler soon brought order to China. I Ching and Yin and Yang People with little interest in the philosophical debates of the Confucians, Daoists, and Legalists found answers to life’s questions elsewhere. Some consulted a book of oracles called I Ching (also spelled Yi Jing) to solve ethical or practical problems. Readers used the book by throwing a set of coins, interpreting the results, and then reading the appropriate oracle, or prediction. The I Ching (The Book of Changes) helped people to lead a happy life by offering good advice and simple common sense. Other people turned to the ideas of ancient thinkers, such as the concept of yin and yang—two powers that together represented the natural rhythms of life. Yin represents all that is cold, dark, soft, and mysterious. Yang is the opposite—warm, bright, hard, and clear. The symbol of yin and yang is a circle divided into halves, as shown in the emblem to the upper right. The circle represents the harmony of yin and yang. Both forces represent the rhythm of the universe and complement each other. Both the I Ching and yin and yang helped Chinese people understand how they fit into the world.

When ruling their empire, the Persians were tolerant of conquered people’s cultures, built an extensive road system, and used standardized coins to promote business and trade Metal coins with standardized values helped promote trade

11 Mountains covered about 75% of Greece; these barriers divided the Greek people into separate mountain valleys; this led to the development of independent city-states Geography Shapes Greek Life The Land Rugged mountains covered about three-fourths of ancient Greece. The mountain chains ran mainly from northwest to southeast along the Balkan Peninsula. Mountains divided the land into a number of different regions. This significantly influenced Greek political life. Instead of a single government, the Greeks developed small, independent communities within each little valley and its surrounding mountains. Most Greeks gave their loyalty to these local communities. In ancient times, the uneven terrain also made land transportation difficult. Of the few roads that existed, most were little more than dirt paths. It often took travelers several days to complete a journey that might take a few hours today. Much of the land itself was stony, and only a small part of it was arable, or suitable for farming. Tiny but fertile valleys covered about one-fourth of Greece. The small streams that watered these valleys were not suitable for large-scale irrigation projects. With so little fertile farmland or fresh water for irrigation, Greece was never able to support a large population. Historians estimate that no more than a few million people lived in ancient Greece at any given time. Even this small population could not expect the land to support a life of luxury. A desire for more living space, grassland for raising livestock, and adequate farmland may have been factors that motivated the Greeks to seek new sites for colonies

12 The Hindu religion used the “caste system”, which ranked people according to social status

13 The society of Sparta focused on military strength, not freedom, art, and learning (like Athens)
Spartan Daily Life From around 600 until 371 B.C., Sparta had the most powerful army in Greece. However, the Spartan people paid a high price for their military supremacy. All forms of individual expression were discouraged. As a result, Spartans did not value the arts, literature, or other artistic and intellectual pursuits. Spartans valued duty, strength, and discipline over freedom, individuality, beauty, and learning. Since men were expected to serve in the army until the age of 60, their daily life centered on military training. Boys left home when they were 7 and moved into army barracks, where they stayed until they reached the age of 30. They spent their days marching, exercising, and fighting. They undertook these activities in all weathers, wearing only light tunics and no shoes. At night, they slept without blankets on hard benches. Their daily diet consisted of little more than a bowl of coarse black porridge. Those who were not satisfied were encouraged to steal food. Such training produced tough, resourceful soldiers. Spartan girls also led hardy lives. They received some military training, and they also ran, wrestled, and played sports. Like boys, girls were taught to put service to Sparta above everything—even love of family. A legend says that Spartan women told husbands and sons going to war to “come back with your shield or on it.” As adults, Spartan women had considerable freedom, especially in running the family estates when their husbands were on active military service. Such freedom surprised men from other Greek city-states. This was particularly true of Athens, where women were expected to remain out of sight and quietly raise children.

14 Ancient Greece is considered a “classical civilization” because Greek culture contributed to philosophy, art, entertainment, literature, architecture, science, education, and democracy

15 Alexander the Great’s main legacy was not his empire-building; the most significant effect of his conquests was spreading Hellenistic civilization (a blend of Greek, Persian, and Egyptian culture) throughout his empire

Rome’s location on the Mediterranean Sea allowed for trade and cultural diffusion (blending of cultures) with other people, especially the Greeks Through the cultural diffusion, the Romans were able to borrow the best ideas from other civilizations (especially the Greeks) and improve upon them

17 The Government of Ancient Rome
A republic is a form of government in which citizens have the right to elect their leaders (Senators)

18 THE PAX ROMANA Pax Romana
Julius Caesar was assassinated by senators who feared his power; Julius’ death led to Augustus Caesar taking revenge, then becoming Rome’s first emperor Julius’ assassination led to the end of the Roman Republic and the start of the Roman Empire Pax Romana

Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire and gained popularity Emperor Constantine made Christianity legal, which shifted Rome away from its polytheistic religion

20 Attempts To Reform The Roman Empire
EMPEROR DIOCLETIAN Diocletian’s most important reform was dividing the Roman Empire into two parts: the Eastern Empire and the Western Empire; he did this to make controlling the enormous empire easier

21 BELIEFS OF ISLAM Islam is monotheistic, worshipping only one God (the same God of Judaism and Christianity)

22 Muslims believe in the Five Pillars of Islam:
Faith: belief in one God, Allah, and the Prophet Muhammad Prayer: 5 times per day towards Mecca Alms: 2.5% to charity Fasting: During the month of Ramadan Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca FIVE PILLARS

23 The Sunni-Shi’a Split Before the Umayyads, caliphs were elected members of Muhammad’s family Shi’a Muslims rejected the rule of the Umayyads Sunni Muslims accepted the rule of the Umayyads The Shi’a believe that caliphs must come directly from Muhammad’s bloodline The Sunni believe that caliphs should follow Muhammad’s example, but do not have to be relatives

24 Ibn Sina created and developed medical encyclopedias
Medicine Muslims of the Islamic Empire established the world’s first hospitals and based their medical knowledge on that of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Greece Ibn Sina created and developed medical encyclopedias

25 Islamic Empire and Gupta Empire
Wealth from trade led to “golden ages” for the Islamic and Gupta Empires, a time of great achievements in science, mathematics, medicine, and architecture

26 EAST AFRICA Muslim merchants brought their religion with them to East Africa Islam was introduced to the East African trade cities

When Islam was introduced, the Animist religions and Islam were blended; however, many Africans chose to keep their traditional Animistic beliefs

28 A West African kingdom, Ghana, amassed vast wealth by taxing merchants
WEST AFRICA: GHANA The gold-salt trade led to increased wealth in West Africa and the formation of empires A West African kingdom, Ghana, amassed vast wealth by taxing merchants

29 WEST AFRICA: MALI The gold-salt trade led to increased wealth in West Africa and the formation of empires A kingdom neighboring Ghana, Mali, eventually overthrew Ghana and absorbed its territory into the new Mali Empire

30 University in Timbuktu
For example, Timbuktu became a trade city that attracted scholars, religious leaders, and doctors Because of his pilgrimage to Mecca, Mansa Musa expanded Islamic learning and culture in Mali

31 When the Roman Empire split in two, the Western side was taken over by the Germanic tribes, while the Eastern side stayed strong The mixing of elements of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman culture produced a new culture, called Greco-Roman culture. This is also often called classical civilization. Roman artists, philosophers, and writers did not merely copy their Greek and Hellenistic models. They adapted them for their own purposes and created a style of their own. Roman art and literature came to convey the Roman ideals of strength, permanence, and solidity. Rome’s Enduring Influence By preserving and adding to Greek civilization, Rome strengthened the Western cultural tradition. The world would be a very different place had Rome not existed. Historian R. H. Barrow has stated that Rome never fell because it turned into something even greater—an idea—and achieved immortality. As mighty as the Roman Empire had been, however, it was not the only great civilization of its time. Around the same period that Rome was developing its enduring culture, different but equally complex empires were emerging farther east. In India, the Mauryan and Gupta empires dominated the land, while the Han Empire ruled over China. Be sure to mention other Classical Civilzations: Gupta India & Han China in the conclusions The Eastern Roman Empire, now known as the Byzantine Empire, not only remained together but survived for nearly a thousand more years

32 The Code would serve as the model for Europe’s legal systems
The Justinian Code To oversee his empire, Justinian ordered legal experts to consolidate Roman laws into a single law code It was called the “Justinian Code” and served as the legal basis for criminal justice, marriage, property, slavery, and women’s rights The Code would serve as the model for Europe’s legal systems

33 Culture of the Byzantine Empire
The Hagia Sophia (which means “Holy Wisdom” in Greek) was originally a Christian church; it remains the greatest example of Byzantine architecture, which was influenced by Roman-style domes and arches

34 The Great Schism (split) occurred in 1054 CE
Disagreements over the use of religious icons during prayer and who should hold authority over the Church led to a division in Christianity

35 The Byzantines From contact with the Byzantine Empire, the early Russians gained the Cyrillic alphabet, the Orthodox religion, and different styles of art and architecture RUSSIA BYZANTINES

36 After the fall of the Roman Empire, a new political and social system called feudalism developed
Feudalism is a system in which land is given to knights by lords in exchange for military service and loyalty

37 The Role of the Medieval Church
Roman Catholicism was the dominant religion in Western Europe during the Middle Ages The Catholic Church gave people a sense of security and the goal of reaching Heaven; the Catholic Church provided unity and stability in Western Europe during the Middle Ages Religion as a Unifying Force Feudalism and the manor system created divisions among people. But the shared beliefs in the teachings of the Church bonded people together. The church was a stable force during an era of constant warfare and political turmoil. It provided Christians with a sense of security and of belonging to a religious community. In the Middle Ages, religion occupied center stage. Medieval Christians’ everyday lives were harsh. Still, they could all follow the same path to salvation—everlasting life in heaven. Priests and other clergy administered the sacraments, or important religious ceremonies. These rites paved the way for achieving salvation. For example, through the sacrament of baptism, people became part of the Christian community. At the local level, the village church was a unifying force in the lives of most people. It served as a religious and social center. People worshiped together at the church. They also met with other villagers. Religious holidays, especially Christmas and Easter, were occasions for festive celebrations.

38 Charlemagne was the greatest Medieval king because he did something no other Medieval king was able to do: create an organized empire One of Charlemagne’s greatest legacies was spreading Christianity throughout Western Europe

39 Effects of the Crusades
A long-term result of the Crusades was the growth of cultural exchanges between Europe and the Middle East They increased desires for luxury goods like silk, cotton, sugar, and spices They introduced technologies like compass, astrolabe, ship designs, and gunpowder They introduced ideas like Arabic numbers, chemistry, algebra, and telescopes

40 Aztecs worshipped many gods, especially the sun god; they made thousands of human sacrifices each year to the sun god

41 The demise of the Aztecs and Incas came when the Spanish conquistadors arrived in America and conquered the two empires

42 This era of stability was called “Pax Mongolica”, which means “Mongol Peace”
Because of the safety of Pax Mongolica, there was enormous increase in trade between Asia and Europe through the Silk Road

43 From 1200 to 1206, Genghis Khan (“Universal Ruler”) united all of the Mongol clans under his rule
Equally intelligent and vicious, Genghis Khan would lead the creation of the Mongol Empire, the largest land empire in human history

44 MARCO POLO’S TRAVELS Marco Polo traveled throughout Asia and Europe, making a written record that would later increase Europe’s interest in Asian luxury goods

45 The voyages led by Chinese admiral Zheng He led to the Chinese coming into contact with people from numerous other cultures

CHINESE INNOVATIONS 1. Mechanical clock 6. Chinese writing 2. Magnetic compass 7. Ship building 3. Gunpowder 8. Vaccinations 4. Printing press 9. Silk weaving 5. Paper money 10 Porcelain

47 During the Renaissance, humanists emphasized the importance of human potential and achievement

48 Michelangelo Michelangelo’s sculpture,“David”, is considered a masterpiece; he is perhaps most well-known for the painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel


50 Ancient Greek art and Renaissance art both emphasized realism and perfecting the human form

51 Italian city-states became centers of learning and trade
Art showed peoples’ new social & political status The rise of cities brought artists together & shared ideas—this led to new techniques & styles The most important Italian city-state was Florence; in this wealthy trade city, the Renaissance began

52 Erasmus’ writings paved the way for the Protestant Reformation
Dismayed at the corruption of the Catholic Church he served, Erasmus wrote “In Praise of Folly”, which sharply criticized the abuses of Church leaders and called for reform of the Catholic Church Erasmus’ writings paved the way for the Protestant Reformation

53 Martin Luther Martin Luther strongly disagreed with the Church’s selling of indulgences, which he saw as false salvation

54 Martin Luther’s actions led to the Protestant Reformation, which was a movement to reform the practices of the Catholic Church; this led to new versions of Christianity The Catholic Church and the Protestant Churches still shared the basic ideas of Christianity, though (such as belief in Jesus and the Bible)

55 THE COUNCIL OF TRENT In 1545, Pope Paul III created a committee of Catholic leaders called the Council of Trent; its purpose was to review Church practices, make reforms, and emphasize core Catholic beliefs

56 The Protestant Reformation led to a decline in the power of the Roman Catholic Church, but it still remained the largest religion in Europe (especially in Italy, Portugal, France, and Spain)

57 The Effect of the Printing Press
This invention revolutionized the way ideas were spread around Europe

58 From the 1400s to the 1700s, Europe experienced an “Age of Exploration”
A period beginning in the early 1400s and ending in the late 1700s in which European explorers and merchants discovered areas of the world yet unseen by Western Europe. These expeditions led to the discovery of new lands, new markets, and new technology By the early 1400s, Europeans were ready to venture beyond their borders. As Chapter 17 explained, the Renaissance encouraged, among other things, a new spirit of adventure and curiosity. This spirit of adventure, along with several other important reasons, prompted Europeans to explore the world around them. This chapter and the next one describe how these explorations began a long process that would bring together the peoples of many different lands and permanently change the world. For “God, Glory, and Gold” Europeans had not been completely isolated from the rest of the world before the 1400s. Beginning around 1100, European crusaders battled Muslims for control of the Holy Lands in Southwest Asia. In 1275, the Italian trader Marco Polo reached the court of Kublai Khan in China. For the most part, however, Europeans had neither the interest nor the ability to explore foreign lands. That changed by the early 1400s. The desire to grow rich and to spread Christianity, coupled with advances in sailing technology, spurred an age of European exploration. The Renaissance helped lead to the Age of Exploration because it encouraged a desire for new things and new trade routes

59 Vasco da Gama of Portugal was the first explorer to find a direct trade route to Asia by going around Africa to get to India

60 Vasco da Gama’s route took him along the west coast of Africa, around the southern tip of Africa, and up to India

61 In Portugal, Prince Henry (A. K. A
In Portugal, Prince Henry (A.K.A. “Henry the Navigator”) started a school of navigation to train sailors He brought in Europe’s best map-makers, ship-builders, and sailing instructors

62 The introduction of American potatoes and corn helped improve the diets and life expectancy of people throughout the world The introduction of European grains, horses, and cattle transformed many Indian cultures Traffic across the Atlantic did not flow in just one direction, however. Europeans introduced various livestock animals into the Americas. These included horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs. Foods from Africa (including some that originated in Asia) migrated west in European ships. They included bananas, black-eyed peas, and yams. Grains introduced to the Americas included wheat, rice, barley, and oats. Some aspects of the Columbian Exchange had a tragic impact on many Native Americans. Disease was just as much a part of the Columbian Exchange as goods and food. The diseases Europeans brought with them, which included smallpox and measles, led to the deaths of millions of Native Americans.

63 A negative effect of the Columbian Exchange: the introduction of European diseases like smallpox and influenza killed millions of Native Americans

64 Czar Peter the Great wanted to modernize and “Westernize” Russia to catch up with Europe
In disguise, Peter toured Western Europe to learn new ways to modernize Russia

65 Together, the Magna Carta and Bill of Rights created a “constitutional monarchy” in England by serving as written limits on the monarchy’s power

66 Polish scientist Nicolaus Copernicus proposed that the Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun, an idea known as the “heliocentric theory”

67 Johannes Kepler, a German astronomer and mathematician, proved Copernicus’ theory to be true; he also proved that the planets move in elliptical orbits

68 GALILEO GALILEI Galileo was one of the most influential scientists of all time Some of Galileo’s accomplishments: (1) he improved the telescope (2) He made observations about the Moon and our Solar system (3) He created the Law of Inertia and (4) he perfected the scientific method

69 Newton discovered and explained the theory of gravity
ISAAC NEWTON Newton discovered and explained the theory of gravity


71 Originally created by Christopher Jaskowiak



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