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The French Revolution and Napoleon

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1 The French Revolution and Napoleon

2 On the Eve of Revolution
1789, France still clung to an outdated social system, from the Middle Ages Everyone in France belonged to Three classes: Clergy Nobility Majority of population: Middle Class and Peasants First Estate 1% Second Estate 2% Third Estate 97%

3 First Estate During Middle Ages the Church had great influence throughout Christian Europe In 1789, French Clergy, still enjoyed enormous wealth and privilege, owned 10% of land, collected tithes and didn’t pay taxes High church leaders, Bishops and abbots were usually rich nobles Parish priests were humble and often poor Philosophers targeted the church for reform Church was often corrupt and interfered in politics Clergy condemned the Enlightenment for undermining religion and moral order

4 Second Estate Titled nobility of French Society
During the Middle Ages, noble knights defended the land, Louis XIV, crushed nobles military power but gave them jobs in government, the army, courts and the Church Nobles raised taxes trying to live lavish lifestyles to keep up with everyone else Feared losing traditional privileges, especially freedom of paying taxes

5 Third Estate In 1789, numbered about 27 million people, or 97% of the population. 10% of them were the bourgeoisie (Middle class), included prosperous bankers, merchants and manufacturers, officials who staffed royal bureaucracy, lawyers, doctors, journalists, professors and skilled artisans 9 out 10 people in Third Estate were rural peasants Some were prosperous land owners, others were tenant farmers and day laborers

6 Poorest members of the Third Estate were the city workers
Apprentices and journeymen Women and men earned livings as servants, stable hands, porters, construction workers Large number were unemployed, to survive many turned to begging and crime

7 Discontent Members of the Third Estate resented privileges of their social “betters” The wealthy, bourgeoisie could buy political office and titles Urban workers couldn’t afford rising prices of bread Peasants burdened on taxes from land to soap to salt Enlightenment ideas led people to question the old regime Everyone in third estate called for other estates to pay their share

8 Financial Crisis Deficit spending- Government spent more money then it takes in Louis XIV left France deeply in debt Seven Years War and American Revolution strained the treasury Cost rose in 1700’s, lavish court soaked up millions Government borrowed more and more money and by 1789, half its tax income went just to pay interest on debt Nobles and clergy still refuse to pay taxes

9 Crumbling Economy Failure of Reform
General economic decline in 1770’s, bad harvest sent food prices soaring People rioted in towns, peasants attacked noble’s manor houses Failure of Reform Louis XVI burdened with debt hires Jacques Necker, finical wizard, proposes idea to tax first and second estates, nobles and clergy had him dismissed Crisis worsened, the wealthy and powerful demand that the King call the Estates General before making any changes French Kings had not summoned the Estates General in 175 years

10 Estate General meets at Versailles in May 1789
Louis XVI had all three estates prepare cahiers, notebooks listing their grieveneces Many cahiers called for reforms ( fairer taxes, freedom of the Press, regular meetings of the Estates General) All three estates elect delegates to represent at Estates General Estates General would have all estates meet separately then vote, this allowed for Third Estate to be outvoted 2 to 1 Third Estate wanted all three order to meet as one Estates General then becomes deadlocked over voting

11 After weeks of a stalemate, delegates of Third Estate, transformed themselves into the National Assembly (Stating that they represented the people of France) Invited members of other Estates to help shape a Constitution A few days later they are locked out of the meeting place Tennis Court Oath Men vow to not disband until they had drawn up a Constitution in France

12 Storming of the Bastille
Reformed clergy and nobles joined National Assembly, Louis XVI had to accept it Royal troops arrive in Versailles Storming of the Bastille 800 Parisians assembled outside of Bastille (Medieval fortress used as a prison) Crowd demanded weapons and gun powder stored there, due to the presence of the Royal Army Commander of Bastille opened fire, many were killed, angry mob broke through, killed commander and five guards, found no weapons Bastille Day, July 14, French National Holiday

13 Creating a New France The Great Fear
Peasants starved, grain prices soared, people spent 80% of income on bread Rumors of government troops seizing crops, peasants unleashed their fury on nobles Stole grain and burned down manors

14 Paris in Arms Moderates looked to Marquis de Lafayette, aristocrat that fought with Gorge Washington in American Revolution Lafayette headed National Guard, middle class militia, organized after presence of royal troops Guard was first group to wear Red, White and Blue Paris Commune Even more radical then Guard, could mobilize quickly for protests or violent action

15 Liberty, Equality and Fraternity
August 4, nobles in National Assembly vote to give up rights and privileges Assembly issues the Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen, document modeled after American Declaration of Independence Each French man had an equal right to take office, freedom of religion, taxes to be levied according to ability to pay Parisians grew suspicious as more Royal troops enter Paris

16 A Time for Reform Reorganize the Catholic Church
To pay off debt Assembly voted to take over and sell Church lands Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790), Bishops and Priests became elected and salaried officials Reaction was swift and angry Many Bishops and Priests refused to accept Civil Constitution of the Clergy Pope condemned it and conservative peasants rejected changes Government punished Clergy who refused → Huge shift opened between the revolutionaries in Paris and peasants in pronvinces

17 Written Constitution Constitution of 1791 set up a limited Monarchy in place of absolute Legislative Assembly had power to make laws, collect taxes, decide on issues of war and piece Abolished old provincial courts and reformed laws

18 Reaction Outside France
Fateful Flight King and Queen attempt to escape in disguise When stopped in town, they were recognized, brought back to Paris, King was seen as a traitor Reaction Outside France Supporters of Enlightenment supported reforms of the Assembly, saw French experiment as the dawn of a new age for justice and equality European rulers denounced French Revolution Émigrés, nobles and clergy the fled France spread news of attacks on privileges and property Marie Antoinette’s family in Prussia and Austria issues, Declaration of Pilnitz, threatened to intervene to protect French Monarchy

19 Working class men and women pushed revolution into more radical action.
1791, demanded a republic Wanted government to guarantee them a living wage Legislative Assembly began developing factions Left wing, moderates, right wing 1792, left-wingers declare war on Prussia and Austria

20 Radical Days French Republic- Radicals took control of the Assembly, called for an election Suffrage, the right to vote, was extended to all male citizens All French men and women were called citizen Convention put Louis XVI on trial January 1793 Louis XVI beheaded October 1793 Marie Antoinette beheaded Son Louis XVII died of unknown causes in a dungeon

21 1793, France was at war with most of Europe
Britain, Holland, Spain, Austria and Prussia To deal with threats to France the Convention created the Committee of Public Safety 12 member committee had almost absolute power, battled to save Revolution Prepared France for all out war Developed new war tactics to win battles with masses of ill trained, patriotic forces French armies overran Holland and invaded Italy

22 Robespierre Government battled anti-revolutionaries under guided hand of Robespierre Lawyer/Politician, rose to leadership in the Committee of Public Safety Selfless dedication to the Revolution, believed France could achieve a “Republic of Virtue”, through terror Reign of Terror Revolutionary Courts conducted hasty trials 40,000 people died Guillotine developed as a human method of behading Convention turned on itself, leaders, including Robespierre were tried and beheaded, excutions then slowed

23 Reaction and the Directory
Made 3rd Constitution (1795) Set up of five man directory and two house legislature, elected by male citizens with property Directory held power from Faced growing discontent, leaders lined their own pockets, failed to solve problems, chaos spread Politicians turned to military hero, Napoleon Bonaparte, to help them advance their goals BACKFIRED, Napoleon would outwit them and become ruler of France Nationalism- An aggressive feeling of pride and devotion to one’s country, developed due to the Revolution and war

24 Age of Napoleon Born on French ruled island of Corsica, in Mediterranean Came from little money, minor nobles, at age 9 sent to France to be trained in military career. Favored Republic rule but found revolution confusing

25 Early Successes Rose quickly in the army, in 1793 drove British forces out of French Ports. Won several victories against Austrians, capturing Northern Italy. By 1799 moved from victorious general to political leader Overthrew the weak directory, set up Three man governing board, the Consulate, made another Constitution, Napoleon took title of First Consul In 1802, had himself named Consul for LIFE

26 Self-Made Emperor 1804, Napoleon accumulated enough power to the title of Emperor of France. Held a plebiscite, ballot in which voters say yes or no to an issue Each time the French strongly supported him Consolidated power, strengthening the central government

27 Reforms Napoleonic Code
Modernized finance-Regulated the economy to control prices, encourage new industry and build roads and canals Made peace with Catholic Church Encouraged émigrés to return, provided they took an oath of loyalty Peasants were allowed to keep land purchased from nobles during the Revolution Made all careers open to talent Napoleonic Code Religious toleration, equality of all citizens before law, advancement based on merrit

28 Empire 1804-1814, Napoleon marched all over Europe, victories
Developed new battle plans for each battle, so opposing generals could never anticipate what he would do next Napoleon redrew the map of Europe, he annexed or added outright some areas to France, including Holland, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany

29 Abolished the weak Holy Roman Empire
The rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia reluctantly signed treaties with Napoleon Put friends and family members on thrones of Europe Removed King of Spain from throne and put in his brother Divorced wife, Josephine, married princess of Austria Claimed Kingship to ancient ruling families

30 France vs. Britain Napoleon attempted to take Britain but their small naval fleet won Turned to economic warfare Closed European ports to British goods Britain then set up own blockade, shutting off ports to keep people or supplies from moving in or out Both Britain and France seized neutral ships, suspected of trading with other side British attached America ship, caused War of 1812 Napoleon failed to bring Britain to its knees Restrictions hurt Europe, created a scarcity of goods and sent prices soaring, resentful merchants turned to smuggling

31 Challenges to Napoleon’s Empire
French armies spread ideas of Revolution across Europe Installed reforms in other countries Opened careers to men of talent across Europe (Napoleonic Code was carried across Europe when he took over a country) Nationalism in other countries , unleashed revolts against the French

32 Resistance in Spain Napoleon and his brother undermined Catholic church Spanish resisted French invaders and Napoleon responded with brutal repression Spanish patriots conducted, guerilla warfare, hit and run raids, against the French Attacks kept large number of French troops tied down in Spain British sent troops to help Spain

33 Defeat in Russia Despite some defeats Napoleon continued
In 1812, Alexander I of Russia, resigned from Continental System, Napoleon responded by making the Grand Army, 600,000 soldiers from France and other countries Russians retreated eastward to avoid battles, burning crops and villages as they retreated Leaving the French hungry and cold In September Napoleon reached Moscow, realized he couldn’t feed and supply army through long Russian winter, retreated in October 1,000 mile retreat turned into desperate battle to survive, only 100,000 soldiers in Grand Army survived

34 Downfall of Napoleon Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia formed an alliance to beat weakened France In 1813, they defeated Napoleon at the battle of Leipzig, the next year Napoleon abdicated (stepped down from power) He was exiled to Elba, island on the Mediterranean Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI becomes King of France

35 Napoleon Returns!!!! Restoration of Louis XVIII didn’t go well
Émigrés rushed back to France seeking revenge, rekindling loyalty for Napoleon Victorious allies gathered in Vienna for peace conference, Napoleon escapes exile and returns to France Citizens cheered Napoleon’s advance, Louis XVIII leaves France March 1815, Napoleon is Emperor in France again, only lasts 100 days, until allies assemble their forces Opposing armies met in Waterloo, Belgium, Napoleon was defeated, sent to exile in St. Helena, never to return Napoleon died in 1821

36 Legacy of Napoleon Impact on France lived on
Made France a centralized state with a Constitution Held elections, citizens had more rights to property Sparked nationalist feelings across Europe Ended Holy Roman Empire, allowing for creation of new Germany Sold Louisiana territory to American Government, doubling size of United States, allowing for American Expansion

37 Congress of Vienna Vienna Settlement
After Waterloo diplomats met for 10 months Lots of entertainment and dances Vienna Settlement Decisions of the diplomats of Europe, set the stage for European policy for the next 100 years Re-drew the map of Europe, to contain French ambitions Ringed France with strong countries In North added Belgium and Luxemburg to Holland to make Kingdom of the Netherlands To prevent eastward, gave Prussia land along the Rhine, allowed Austria to control Northern Italy again

38 Leaders pledged to maintain order in Europe Problems with Peace
Stability- Promoted principal of legitimacy-restoring hereditary monarchies tat the French Revolution or Napoleon unseated Leaders pledged to maintain order in Europe Problems with Peace Vienna Congress achieved immediate goals, failed to see how nationalism would shake foundations of Europe They re-drew the boundaries without concern for national cultures

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