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Knowledge – remember previously learned information  Define  Describe  Identify  Name  Outline  Relate  Select  state.

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Presentation on theme: "Knowledge – remember previously learned information  Define  Describe  Identify  Name  Outline  Relate  Select  state."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Knowledge – remember previously learned information  Define  Describe  Identify  Name  Outline  Relate  Select  state

3 Comprehension – demonstrate an understanding of facts.  Classify  Describe  Discuss  Distinguish  Explain  Give examples  Identify  Indicate  summarize  rewrite

4 Apply knowledge to actual situations.  Apply  Choose  Demonstrate  Illustrate  Interpret  Predict  Write

5 Analysis – breakdown objects or ideas into simpler parts and find evidence to support generalizations.  Analyze  Compare  Contrast  Critique  Distinguish  Examine  Point out  Relate  select

6 Synthesis – compile component ideas into a new whole or propose alternative solutions.  Arrange  Assemble  Compose  Develop  Explain  Prepare  Rewrite  Revise  summarize

7 Evaluation – make and defend judgements based on internal evidence or external criteria.  Argue  Compare  Defend  Describe  Explain  Summarize  Support  judge

8 The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its introduction into education would remove the conventionality, artificiality, and backward-lookingness which were characteristic; of classical studies, but they were gravely disappointed. So, too, in 5 their time had the humanists thought that the study of the classical authors in the original would banish at once the dull pedantry and superstition of mediaeval scholasticism. The professional schoolmaster was a match for both of them, and has almost managed to make the understanding of chemical reactions as dull 10 and as dogmatic an affair as the reading of Virgil's Aeneid.

9 The chief claim for the use of science in education is that it teaches a child something about the actual universe in which he is living, in making him acquainted with the results of scientific 15 discovery, and at the same time teaches him how to think logically and inductively by studying scientific method. A certain limited success has been reached in the first of these aims, but practically none at all in the second. Those privileged members of the community who have been through a secondary or public school 20 education may be expected to know something about the elementary physics and chemistry of a hundred years ago, but they probably know hardly more than any bright boy can pick up from an interest in wireless or scientific hobbies out of school hours.

10 As to the learning of scientific method, the whole thing is palpably 25 a farce. Actually, for the convenience of teachers and the requirements of the examination system, it is necessary that the pupils not only do not learn scientific method but learn precisely the reverse, that is, to believe exactly what they are told and to reproduce it when asked, whether it seems nonsense to them or 30 not. The way in which educated people respond to such quackeries as spiritualism or astrology, not to say more dangerous ones such as racial theories or currency myths, shows that fifty years of education in the method of science in Britain or Germany has produced no visible effect whatever.

11 The only way of learning the 35 method of science is the long and bitter way of personal experience, and, until the educational or social systems are altered to make this possible, the best we can expect is the production of a minority of people who are able to acquire some of the techniques of science and a still smaller minority who are able to use and 40 develop them. Adapted from: The Social Function of Science, John D Bernal (1939)

12 1. The author implies that the 'professional schoolmaster' (line 7) has A. no interest in teaching science B. thwarted attempts to enliven education C. aided true learning D. supported the humanists E. been a pioneer in both science and humanities. Questions

13 2. The author’s attitude to secondary and public school education in the sciences is A. ambivalent B. neutral C. supportive D. satirical E. contemptuous

14 3. The word ‘palpably’ (line 24) most nearly means A. empirically B. obviously C. tentatively D. markedly E. ridiculously

15 4. The author blames all of the following for the failure to impart scientific method through the education system except A. poor teaching B. examination methods C. lack of direct experience D. the social and education systems E. lack of interest on the part of students

16 5. If the author were to study current education in science to see how things have changed since he wrote the piece, he would probably be most interested in the answer to which of the following questions? A. Do students know more about the world about them? B. Do students spend more time in laboratories? C. Can students apply their knowledge logically? D. Have textbooks improved? E. Do they respect their teachers?

17 6. Astrology (line 31) is mentioned as an example of A. a science that needs to be better understood B. a belief which no educated people hold C. something unsupportable to those who have absorbed the methods of science D. the gravest danger to society E. an acknowledged failure of science

18 7. All of the following can be inferred from the text except A. at the time of writing, not all children received a secondary school education B. the author finds chemical reactions interesting C. science teaching has imparted some knowledge of facts to some children D. the author believes that many teachers are authoritarian E. it is relatively easy to learn scientific method.

19 Incorrect  They were not dangerous criminals they were detectives in disguise.

20  They were not dangerous criminals; they were detectives in disguise.

21 Incorrect  I have not decided on a career I am too confused to decide.

22 correct  I have not chosen a career since I am too confused to decide

23  He enjoys walking through the country. He often goes backpacking on his vacations.

24 correct  He enjoys walking through the country, and he often goes backpacking on his vacations.

25  Frank loves TV so much that he would watch all the reruns. Joan would read instead.

26 correct  Frank loves TV so much that he would watch all the reruns; Joan would read instead.  Frank loves TV so much that he would watch all the reruns; however, Joan would read instead.

27  Run-on sentences – two independent clauses that are joined together with no connecting word or punctuation to separate the clauses.

28 Problem sentenceProblem identified  Then I attended Morris Junior High. A junior high that was a bad experience.  dependent clause

29 Problem sentenceProblem identified  The scene was filled with beauty. Such as the sun sending its brilliant rays to the earth and the leaves of various shades of red, yellow, and brown moving slowly in the wind.  dependent clause

30  He talked for fifty minutes without taking his eyes off his notes. Like other teachers in that department, he did not encourage students' questions.

31 Incorrect sentenceProblem identified  Within each group, a wide range of features to choose from. It was difficult to distinguish between them  No main verb

32 Problem sentenceProblems identified  A president is an appointed leader. Someone who is a decision maker in the executive branch of our government. This doesn't necessarily mean that the person the people elect is capable. Just hopefully assumes. Assumes through his past record as a politician, over the years' buildup of experience and handling situations.  A president is an appointed leader. Someone who is a decision maker in the executive branch of our government. (no main verb) This doesn't necessarily mean that the person the people elect is capable. Just hopefully assumes. (no subject) Assumes through his past record as a politician, over the years' buildup of experience and handling situations. (no subject)

33  A president is an appointed leader, someone who is a decision maker in the executive branch of our government. This doesn't necessarily mean that the person the people elect is capable. This just hopefully assumes so based on his past record as a politician, over the years' buildup of experience and handling situations.

34 No main verbcorrect  For the past twenty years, the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan has been measuring the level of Americans' trust and confidence in their politicians and quasi- political trust and confidence in their political institutions and their leaders. "Political" being all levels of government, and "quasi-political" churches, labor unions, large professional/business associations, educational institutions, and the like. The result is that a very sharp decline has taken place every year since  For the past twenty years, the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan has been measuring the level of Americans' trust and confidence in their politicians and quasi- political trust and confidence in their political institutions and their leaders. "Political" refers to all levels of government, and "quasi-political" includes churches, labor unions, large professional/business associations, educational institutions, and the like. The result is that a very sharp decline has taken place every year since 1964.

35  my brother was always my best friend when I was a child especially as we two were almost alone in the world we lived with our old grandmother in a little house, almost a shack, in the country whenever I think of him now I see a solemn, responsible boy a boy too old for his years who looked out for me no matter what once there was a bully John Anson who looked enormous to me though he was probably an average twelve-year-old John had it in for me because he liked Littice Grant who liked me he decided to beat me up right before her eyes I was lucky my brother came by he didn't interfere any he just stood there somehow though his presence gave me confidence I licked the stuffing out of John Anson if my brother hadn't been there I don't think I could have done it.

36  My brother was always my best friend when I was a child, especially as we two were almost alone in the world. We lived with our old grandmother in a little house, almost a shack, in the country. Whenever I think of him now, I see a solemn, responsible boy, a boy too old for his years, who looked out for me no matter what. Once there was a bully, John Anson, who looked enormous to me, though he was probably an average twelve-year-old. John had it in for me because he liked Littice Grant, who liked me. He decided to beat me up right before her eyes. I was lucky my brother came by. He didn't interfere any. He just stood there. Somehow, though, his presence gave me confidence. I licked the stuffing out of John Anson. If my brother hadn't been there, I don't think I could have done it.

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38  Exemplification - the topic sentence is supported in examples that illustrate, support, and clarify the main point.

39 Vitamins and minerals can be added to enrich (replace nutrients lost in processing) or fortify (add nutrients not normally present) foods to improve their nutritional quality. Breads and cereals are usually enriched with some B vitamins and iron. Common examples of fortification include the addition of vitamin D to milk, vitamin A to margarine, vitamin C to fruit drinks, calcium to orange juice, and iodide to table salt.

40 Time line is usually very easy to understand Example The carbon feasibility studies were completed in October, Immediately thereafter, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) "Blue Magoo" was dispatched to the site to provide on-site emergency treatment.

41  First, wastewater generated during construction was collected, pH adjusted, clarified, sand filtered, and carbon treated. Next, treated effluent was analyzed and was found to confirm Calgon's study findings. After this process, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation granted a discharge permit on October 27, 1978.

42  Use process in paragraphs to develop sequences that describe how an action is carried out or how something works.

43  Ideally, an image should contain a region of high-intensity pixels that form the target, and a low-intensity background. To find the target region, the algorithm first samples the images in overlapping windows and sums the pixel intensities contained in each window. The window with the highest sum is assumed to contain the target, and the average of the remaining windows is assumed to be indicative of the background level.

44  Thus, subtracting the average of the window sums from the highest window sum provides a measure of the target strength over the background noise level. If an image does not contain a target, then the different between the highest sum and the average sum will be very small. The difference will also be small for images containing faint targets and high levels of background noise.

45  Use descriptive prose to provide a physical picture or a functional view of the subject. Physical description develops a picture by identifying the shapes, materials, position, and functions of its subject.

46  The test section (0.86 m × 2.44 m) of the boundary layer tunnel, as shown in Figure 2, is situated between the nozzle and the diffuser. It consists of a flat aluminum test plate, a contoured wall, and two transparent side walls. A bleed-scoop layer at the leading edge of the test plate removes the inlet boundary layer.

47  The contoured wall opposite the test plate generates the required pressure distribution. The two differently-contoured walls used in this investigation generate either squared-off pressure distribution or aft-loaded pressure distribution.

48 Use comparison and contrast to develop a topic by examining its similarities or dissimilarities to another thing, process, or state. Comparison emphasizes the similarities, contrast the differences.

49  For a number of critical performance characteristics, fiber-optic cable offers considerable advantages over standard coaxial cables. The most obvious distinction between the two is the great bandwidth- distance capacity of fibers.

50 The high-frequency capacity of coaxial cables decreases rapidly with increased length, but the bandwidth of a commercial fiber- optic system will remain constant with length.

51  A commercial fiber-optic system like that of Artel, as shown in Figure 3, remains constant for a bandwidth over a distance of 4,000 ft, while three different sizes of coaxial cable rapidly drop in less than half the distance.

52 For RG-179 coax, a 1,024 × 1,024 signal is limited to 50 ft; RG-59 rolls off 3 dB at 170 ft. Larger, bulkier cables such as RG-11 can reach up to 250 ft, but are impractical to install, since three such cables are required for RGB color.

53 Fiber-optic cable, on the other hand, allows transmission of more than 60 MHz video clock over a mile, and 20 MHz over 2½ miles, with no repeaters or equalizers.

54  Noise interference is another important area in which performance differs greatly. Coaxial cables are susceptible to induced interference (EMI/RFI) from such noise generators as fluorescent lights, computers, power cables, industrial equipment, and even other communications cables.

55  Cable frequency equalization further aggravates this noise problem. Fiber-optic cable is, in contrast, immune to all forms of EMI, RFI, and crosstalk.

56  Use analogy to explain one object or process in terms of another. The aptness of the analogy is generally a point of subtle judgment.

57  The immune response of billions of cellular defenders is carried out by different kinds of white blood cells, all of which are continuously being produced in the bone marrow. Neutrophils, one type of white blood cell, travel in the blood stream to areas of invasion, attacking and ingesting pathogens.

58  Macrophages, or "big eaters," take up stations in tissues and act as scavengers, devouring pathogens and worn-out cells. Natural killer cells directly destroy virus-infected cells and cells that have turned cancerous. When lymph nodes are actively involved in fighting an invasion of microorganisms, they fill with lymphocytes.

59 Attempts to show how events are influenced by or caused by others- -the linkage of causation.

60  Global climate change resulting from the accumulation of greenhouse gases, for example, is likely to have significant health effects, both direct and indirect. An average global temperature rise of 3-4°C, predicted for the year 2100 by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, will greatly increase the number of days in the United States with temperatures over 38°C (100°F), with a resulting sharp rise in heat-related mortality.

61  Deaths would occur primarily from heat strokes, heart attacks, and cerebral strokes. The very young, poor, and elderly, as well as those with chronic cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, are most at risk. During the two-week heat wave of July 1993 in the eastern United States, 84 people died in Philadelphia alone as a result of the higher temperatures.

62  In classification, you associate similar things or processes by grouping them into classes.

63  Glazed ceramic tile. Industrial glazed ceramic tile units are made of fireclays with an iron oxide content of less than 2%. The clays are processed and then extruded into various shapes. The shaped parts are coated on the process side before firing with a glass-forming glaze solution. Then the tile is fired, the clay body...

64  Bimetals are components made up of two separate metallic units, each occupying a distinct position in the component. Bimetal rods or wires (also called clad metal, duo- or dual-metal) are made of dissimilar metals. The rod core, a cylindrical body made of one metal, is surrounded by a concentric, cylindrical sleeve of another metal.

65  Some fibrous metals may also be regarded as bimetallic; for example, rods made by unidirectional solidification of some eutectic compositions contain a metallic (or nonmetallic) compound of fibrous filaments embedded in an almost pure metallic matrix. The structure of a present-day Nb-Sn superconducting core can be even more complex. It is multimetallic--containing more than two dissimilar metals.

66  Analysis examines a subject by evaluating one of its aspects-- weighing evidence and possible causal linkages. The object of analysis, however, is to get to the center of how something works.

67  One possible explanation for these statistics on cancer can be found in the high levels of stress associated with poverty. Studies have found that stress can dampen the immune system, the body's first line of defense against cancer, and experiments with animals have shown that a stressful environment can enhance the growth of a variety of tumors.

68  The link between poverty, stress, and cancer mortality in humans has not been proven, but studies have shown a link between stress and other illnesses

69 Use enumeration in paragraphs when you want to itemize or list a set of topics or a series of some kind. Enumeration is a powerful way to establish a series of observations and to emphasize each element.

70 Have your blood cholesterol measured if you've never had it done. Finger-prick tests at health fairs and other public places are generally fairly accurate, especially if they're offered by a hospital or other reputable health group. When you know your "number," follow these guidelines from the National Cholesterol Education Program:

71  If your cholesterol is under 200 mg/dl, maintain a healthy lifestyle--including eating a low- fat diet, getting regular exercise, maintaining a health body weight, and not smoking--and get another test within five years.

72  If your cholesterol is between 200 and 239 mg/dl, have a second test performed and average the results. If that number falls in the same range, and if you do have any form of cardiovascular disease, change your diet to improve your cholesterol. In addition, eliminate any other risk factors you have and get tested again in about one year.

73  If your cholesterol is 240 mg/dl or more, your physician should order a more detailed cholesterol analysis and recommend therapy based on the results. You should begin a cholesterol-improving diet immediately.

74 Last spring, employees of the Hartville Corporation organized a weeklong strike to protest poor working conditions and unreasonable company policies. The strike resulted in huge financial losses for the company and the threat of a national boycott on Hartville products.

75 The situation resulted in the formation of an employee task force, supported by Hartville management, to review circumstances that led to the strike. The task-force findings follow:

76 ■ Hartville’s overtime pay schedule is well below the national level, and overtime is mandatory at least once a week.

77 ■ Employees working in the manufacturing department have an alarmingly high rate of repetitive stress injury. The equipment they are working with is extremely old and dangerous and does not meet current health and safety standards. The task force recommended that equipment be evaluated and brought up to- date immediately.

78 ■ Sick and personal day policies are unclear. Employees report conflicting and/or confusing policies relating to sick and personal days, which have resulted in numerous is understandings about procedures and allowances as well as unfair disciplinary action.

79 ■ In the past four years, five pregnant women with clean work records were terminated soon after their pregnancies were public. In all five cases, the grounds for firing were not specifically cited, although one of the employees was told by her immediate supervisor that new mothers make very unreliable employees.

80 ■ Hartville’s upper management is largely unaware of the dissatisfaction of employees. There is evidence that middle management withholds vital information leading to upper management’s underestimation of the severity of employee discontent.

81 1)Which of the following is the main organizational pattern used in the passage? a. chronological order b. hierarchical order c. order by topic d. cause and effect

82 1) Paraphrase the main points in all the paragraphs. 2) What literary device is used in the first paragraph? Comment on the effectiveness of this device. 3) Explain the role that public opinion plays in a person’s choice of sports. Give reasons to support your answer. 4) Explain the meaning of the phrase “propagating an absolute myth.”

83 5) What are the fundamental differences that characterise male and female approach to sports? 6) Explain in your own words one of the deciding factors in women’s choice of sports. Give reasons for your answer. 7) In one paragraph, discuss how sports can impact the lives of young males or females.

84 1) According to the passage, what role does music play in our lives? Explain in your own words. 2) What literary device is used in the following quote, “Music is always walking right next to me…” Is it effective? 3) What literary device is used in the following quote, “music is a world of emotions …” Is it effective. Support your answer.

85 4) Explain the following phrase in your own words, “It can move you in time and space …” 5) Paraphrase the main points in all the paragraphs. 6) In your own words, explain the following sentence as used in the passage, “With music, there are no borders and no limits.” 7) In one paragraph, discuss how music impacts on our lives.

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87  generating ideas, including reading and research  establishing purpose  identifying audience  ordering ideas

88  creating body paragraphs following the pre- writing order  creating introductory and concluding paragraphs

89  rewriting from the reader's point of view  analyzing and changing paragraph and sentence organization  assessing content and clarity for effective communication  editing to improve word choice, grammar, usage, and punctuation  proofreading for typos and surface errors

90  Clearly states the topic or issue that will be addressed in the essay  stimulates the reader's interest  clearly states the writer's position on the topic/issue.

91  Apologize. Never suggest that you don't know what you're talking about or that you're not enough of an expert in this matter that your opinion would matter. Your reader will quickly turn to something else. Avoid phrases like the following:  In my [humble] opinion... I'm not sure about this, but...  Announce your intentions. Do not flatly announce what you are about to do in an essay.  In this paper I will... The purpose of this essay is to...

92  Get into the topic and let your reader perceive your purpose in the topic sentence of your beginning paragraph.  Use a dictionary or encyclopedia definition.  According to Merriam-Webster's WWWebster Dictionary, education is...  Although definitions are extremely useful and it might serve your purpose to devise your own definition(s) later in the essay, you want to avoid using this hackneyed beginning to an essay.

93  The Rhetoric of U2's "Sunday Bloody Sunday"  by Mike Rios

94  U2 have always produced rhetorically powerful songs. From the spiritually driven "I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For" to the blatantly sexual "If You Wear That Velvet Dress," audiences have been persuaded to examine their religious doubts as well as to give in to their emotions. Never a band content in sticking to one style, their music has evolved and taken many forms.rhetoricallyaudiences

95  Their more recent songs show a level of complexity so far unsurpassed in music, drawing heavily on the ambiguity of paradox in songs like "So Cruel" while evoking sensory overload with the aid of the list structure in "Numb." But one of the most powerful songs dates back to their early years, when their style was Senecan-like, seemingly simpler and more direct. "Sunday Bloody Sunday" stands out as one of U2’s finest songs. Its rhetoric is successful because of its simplicity, not despite it.ambiguity paradoxlistSenecan-like"Sunday Bloody Sunday"

96  has a summary statement that restates the thesis without repeating the words and phrases used in the thesis statement.  It is a clincher - a final thought which creates a lasting impression on the reader.

97 ◦ "Sunday Bloody Sunday" remains as powerful today as it was when U2 first performed it. The irony of its longevity is that it is still relevant. U2 would no doubt rather they did not have to sing it anymore. As it stands, they will probably have to continue singing it.

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99 A sentence in an essay, report, research paper, or speech that identifies the main idea and/or central purpose of the text.sentenceessayreport research paperspeechpurpose

100 Sugar consumption  This fragment isn’t a thesis statement. Instead, it simply indicates a general subject. Furthermore, your reader doesn’t know what you want to say about sugar consumption.

101  Narrow the topic. Your readings about the topic, however, have led you to the conclusion that elementary school children are consuming far more sugar than is healthy.  You change your thesis to look like this:  Reducing sugar consumption by elementary school children.

102  This fragment not only announces your subject, but it focuses on one segment of the population: elementary school children. Furthermore, it raises a subject upon which reasonable people could disagree, because while most people might agree that children consume more sugar than they used to, not everyone would agree on what should be done or who should do it. You should note that this fragment is not a thesis statement because your reader does not know your conclusions on the topic.

103  Take a position on the topic. After reflecting on the topic a little while longer, you decide that what you really want to say about this topic is that something should be done to reduce the amount of sugar these children consume. You revise your thesis statement to look like this:  More attention should be paid to the food and beverage choices available to elementary school children. This statement asserts your position, but the terms more attention and food and beverage choices are vague.

104  Use specific language. You decide to explain what you mean about food and beverage choices, so you write:  Experts estimate that half of elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar.  This statement is specific, but it is not a thesis. It merely reports a statistic instead of making an assertion.

105  Make an assertion based on clearly stated support. You finally revise your thesis statement one more time to look like this:  Because half of all American elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar, schools should be required to replace the beverages in soda machines with healthy alternatives.

106  Notice how the thesis answers the question, “What should be done to reduce sugar consumption by children, and who should do it?” When you started thinking about the paper, you may not have had a specific question in mind, but as you became more involved in the topic, your ideas became more specific. Your thesis changed to reflect your new insights.

107 1. A strong thesis statement takes a stand. 2. A strong thesis statement justifies discussion. 3. A strong thesis statement expresses one main idea. 4. A strong thesis statement is specific

108  There are some negative and positive aspects to the Banana Herb Tea Supplement.  Because Banana Herb Tea Supplement promotes rapid weight loss that results in the loss of muscle and lean body mass, it poses a potential danger to customers.

109  My family is an extended family.  While most American families would view consanguineal marriage as a threat to the nuclear family structure, many Iranian families, like my own, believe that these marriages help reinforce kinship ties in an extended family.

110  Companies need to exploit the marketing potential of the Internet, and Web pages can provide both advertising and customer support.  This is a weak thesis statement because the reader can’t decide whether the paper is about marketing on the Internet or Web pages. To revise the thesis, the relationship between the two ideas needs to become more clear. One way to revise the thesis would be to write:

111  Because the Internet is filled with tremendous marketing potential, companies should exploit this potential by using Web pages that offer both advertising and customer support.  This is a strong thesis because it shows that the two ideas are related. Hint: a great many clear and engaging thesis statements contain words like because, since, so, although, unless, and however.

112  World hunger has many causes and effects.  This is a weak thesis statement for two major reasons. First, world hunger can’t be discussed thoroughly in seven to ten pages. Second, many causes and effects is vague. You should be able to identify specific causes and effects. A revised thesis might look like this:

113  Hunger persists in Glandelinia because jobs are scarce and farming in the infertile soil is rarely profitable.  This is a strong thesis statement because it narrows the subject to a more specific and manageable topic, and it also identifies the specific causes for the existence of hunger

114 India has a lot of interesting festivals. Is this a strong or weak thesis statement?

115 The statement is too broad--the writer cannot discuss all Indian festivals. Even though it does state the writer's opinion, the statement is not clear: it doesn't explain why the festivals are interesting.

116 Diwali is an important festival for Indians because they celebrate, remember traditional legends, and enjoy time with their families. Is this a strong or a weak thesis statement?

117  The topic is specific enough, and it clearly gives the writer's opinion. In addition, it lists the supporting ideas."

118  An expository essay attempts to explain the subject to the audience. This may be accomplished by explaining a process, comparing or contrasting two items, identifying a cause-effect relationship, explaining with examples, dividing and classifying, or defining. Depending upon the particular type of expository essay being written, the order of presentation of supporting details may vary. The process essay will employ chronological (time) order; the essay which compares or contrasts, explains with examples, or divides and classifies may use an order of importance (most-to-least important or least-to-most important); the essay which employs causal analysis may identify a cause and then predict its effect or start with the effect and seek to identify its cause.

119  An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and- effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.

120 The life of the typical college student is characterized by time spent studying, attending class, and socializing with peers. The paper that follows should:  Explain how students spend their time studying, attending class, and socializing with peers

121 High school graduates should be required to take a year off to pursue community service projects before entering college in order to increase their maturity and global awareness. The paper that follows should:  Present an argument and give evidence to support the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college

122  Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence.  The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper.  Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper

123  The expository essay is a genre of essay that requires the student to investigate an idea, evaluate evidence, expound on the idea, and set forth an argument concerning that idea in a clear and concise manner. This can be accomplished through comparison and contrast, definition, example, the analysis of cause and effect, etc.

124 A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first paragraph of the essay.  It is essential that this thesis statement be appropriately narrowed to follow the guidelines set forth in the assignment. If the student does not master this portion of the essay, it will be quite difficult to compose an effective or persuasive essay.

125 Clear and logical transitions between the introduction, body, and conclusion.  Transitions are the mortar that holds the foundation of the essay together. Without logical progression of thought, the reader is unable to follow the essay’s argument, and the structure will collapse.

126 Body paragraphs that include evidential support.  Each paragraph should be limited to the exposition of one general idea. This will allow for clarity and direction throughout the essay. What is more, such conciseness creates an ease of readability for one’s audience. It is important to note that each paragraph in the body of the essay must have some logical connection to the thesis statement in the opening paragraph.

127 Evidential support (whether factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal).

128 A bit of creativity!  Though creativity and artfulness are not always associated with essay writing, it is an art form nonetheless. Try not to get stuck on the formulaic nature of expository writing at the expense of writing something interesting. Remember, though you may not be crafting the next great novel, you are attempting to leave a lasting impression on the people evaluating your essay.

129 A conclusion that does not simply restate the thesis, but readdresses it in light of the evidence provided.  It is at this point of the essay that students will inevitably begin to struggle. This is the portion of the essay that will leave the most immediate impression on the mind of the reader. Therefore, it must be effective and logical. Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize and come to a conclusion concerning the information presented in the body of the essay.

130 The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner

131  Expository The function of "expository" essays is to describe, analyse or explain something. You are expected to demonstrate understanding of a topic, or at least that you have covered it adequately. You may find it useful to use illustrations or examples to answer a question.

132  Argument here consists loosely of debating differences of interpretation, or evaluating both sides of an argument. So, it is more likely that you will be set tasks which test your ability to summarise and evaluate positions or assertions rather than merely reproduce them.

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