Presentation on theme: "What is Cyber Terrorism? Definitions: Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS): “the use of computer network tools to shut down critical."— Presentation transcript:
What is Cyber Terrorism? Definitions: Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS): “the use of computer network tools to shut down critical national infrastructures (e.g., energy, transportation, government operations) or to coerce or intimidate a government or civilian population.” William Tafoya, Professor of Criminal Justice at the Henry C. Lee College of Criminal Justice and Forensic Sciences: the intimidation of civilian enterprise through the use of high technology to bring about political, religious, or ideological aims, actions that result in disabling or deleting critical infrastructure data or information.” The term was coined in the 1980s by Barry Collin, a senior research fellow at the Institute for Security and Intelligence in California, who in 1997 was attributed for creation of the term "Cyberterrorism", defined cyber-terrorism as the convergence of cybernetics and terrorism.
What Cyber Terrorism is not! Cyber terrorism is an element of information warfare, but information warfare is not cyber terrorism. Electronic Warfare and Information Operations both are synonymous of Information Warfare. None of the three, however, are synonymous with cyber terror. IW, EW, and IO encompass the use of cryptography, radar jamming, high-altitude aerial reconnaissance, electronic surveillance, electronically acquired intelligence, and steganography. Cyber terrorists may use these same tools. The distinction, however, is not the technological tools employed but the context and target.
Timeline of Preceding Events Early 1970s – Early beginnings of the internet during the days of the Cold War, when the U.S. Department of Defense wanted to reduce the exposure of its communication networks to nuclear attack. Late 1980s - Internet opened up to commercial users. Mid 1990s - The Internet connected more than 18,000 private, public, and national networks, with increasing numbers along with 3.2 million host computers and as many as 60 million users spread across the globe.
Historical Facts One of the first recorded cyber-terrorist attacks was in 1996 when a computer hacker allegedly associated with the White Supremacist movement temporarily disabled a Massachusetts Internet service provider (ISP) and damaged part of the ISP's record keeping system. The ISP had attempted to stop the hacker from sending out worldwide racist messages under the ISP's name. The hacker signed off with the threat, "you have yet to see true electronic terrorism. This is a promise.“ ." Since 1996, attacks have continued with increasing severity.
Cyber Terrorism Why cyber terrorism? - Cheaper than other methods - More difficult to get caught - Can be done from anywhere. - Can affect more people Countries with most cyber terrorism as in 2002 - United States = 35.4% - South Korea = 12.8% - China = 6.2 % - Germany = 6.7 % - France = 4.0 %
More statistics… In the first half of 2002, there were more than 180,000 Internet based attacks on business. Attacks against the Internet increase at an annual rate above 60%. The average business will experience 32 break-in attempts this week. Reported systems vulnerabilities and security incidents are doubling each year. The reported number of vulnerabilities and security incidents represent an estimated 10% of the actual total.
What the internet offers to terrorists easy access Minimal regulation, censorship, or any type of government control potentially huge audiences spread throughout the world; anonymity fast movement of information low-cost maintenance of a web page a multimedia environment (the ability to combine text, graphics, audio, and video and to allow users to download films, songs, books, posters, and so forth); the ability to shape coverage in the traditional mass media, which increasingly use the Internet as a source for stories.
Cyber terrorist organizations all over the world Today there are more than 40 terrorist organizations that maintain websites and use different languages. Their websites provide with information about the organization. Some of their purposes are to change public opinion, weaken public support for a governing regime, and even take them down. From the Middle East - The Unix Security Guards (pro Islamic group) - The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - The Anti - India Crew From Europe - The Irish Republican Army - The Basque ETA movement Israel and Pakistan groups fighting each other using cyber attacks.
Anonymous Hacker leaderless movement. Originated in 2003 on the imageboard 4chan Use masks for disguise. Most famous hacktivist group in the world. Use their technological knowledge to attack corporations and organizations they consider corrupt. Their first act was against the church of Scientology - Released videos on YouTube to inform people about the danger scientology and conduct protests against them. - Showed hundreds of illegal actions, fraudulent activities and violations of human rights committed by the church of scientology. - Released another video on YouTube calling for global protest.
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Anonymous Online attacks as non-violent protests Other activities: - Have dealt with drug cartels in Mexico and pornography file-sharing sites - Took down Israeli government servers as well as U.S Law Enforcement Agencies. - Launched denial of service attacks to the websites of MasterCard and Visa for refusing payments of donations to the website WikiLeaks. - Retaliation for the Megaupload Raids. Gained more reputation after hacking into Sony’s PlayStation Network, getting access to 77 million accounts. Considered the top terrorist threat to the U.S Government.
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Legal Provisions Amendments under the Information Technology Act, 2000 has defined the term “Cyberterrorism” U/Sec. 66F. This is the first ever attempt to define the term. It includes:- 1.Threatening the unity, integrity, security or sovereignty 2.Denying access to authourized person to access computer resource
Legal Provisions 3. Contaminating computer with mallware 4. Conduct causes death, injuries,damage to or destruction of property. Cybercrime Treaty 1.International agreement to foster international cooperation among law enforcement agencies of different countries in fighting cyber terrorism 2.Treaty sets common standards to resolve international cases
United States Law In United States warrants are required to search and seize a computer Charges are filled where the crime occurs Laws differ between states and countries FBI files in the state where the crime is discovered and the investigation began
Punishment Whoever commits or conspires to commit cyber terrorism shall be punishable with imprisonment which may extend to imprisonment for life. I.e. Imprisonment not exceeding fourteen years (Sec. 55, IPC) In some countries whoever commits the offence of cyber terrorism and causes death of any person shall be punishable with death or imprisonment for life.
Works Cited Krasavin, Serge. "What is Cyber-terrorism?." Computer Crime Research Center (CCRC). Computer Crime Research Center, 2002. Web. 5 Jul 2012.. Tafoya, William L.. "Cyber Terror." Federal Bureau of Investigations. FBI, Nov 2011. Web. 5 Jul 2012.. Wright, M.. Technology and terrorism: how the internet facilitates radicalization. N.p., 2008. Web. 5 Jul 2012.. Gabriel, W.."Internet modern.". N.p., 2005. Web. 5 Jul 2012.. "International Activists Use Facebook To Fight Terrorism." FoxNews. Fox News, 08 Dec 2008. Web. 5 Jul 2012..
Works Cited (cont.) Schwartz, Matthew J. "InformationWeek: The Business Value of Technology."Informationweek. N.p., 7 Feb. 2012. Web. 14 Aug. 2012.. Au Auza, Jun. "7 Most Notorious Computer Hacker Groups of All Time | TechSource." 7 Most Notorious Computer Hacker Groups of All Time | TechSource. N.p., 8 July 2011. Web. 14 Aug. 2012.. Elmusharaf, Mudawi M. "Computer Crime Research Center." Cyber Terrorism : The New Kind of Terrorism. N.p., 8 Apr. 2004. Web. 14 Aug. 2012.. Maggio, Edward J.. "Terrorism: Cyber Terrorism." Survival Insights. Survival Insights LLC, 07 Feb 2007. Web. 16 Aug 2012..
Works Cited (cont.) Ronald Standler, “Computer Crime,” http://www.rbs2.com/ccrime.htm (accessed October 29, 2010). Robert Taylor, Eric Fritsch, Tory Caeti, Kall Loper, and John Liederbach, Digital Crime and Digital Terrorism (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011), 19. James Lewis, “Assessing the Risks of Cyber Terrorism, Cyber War and Other Cyber Threats,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/021101_risks_of_cyberter ror.pdf (accessed October 28, 2010).