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Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9- 1 Basic Marketing Research: Using Microsoft Excel Data Analysis, 3 rd edition Alvin.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9- 1 Basic Marketing Research: Using Microsoft Excel Data Analysis, 3 rd edition Alvin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9- 1 Basic Marketing Research: Using Microsoft Excel Data Analysis, 3 rd edition Alvin C. BurnsLouisiana State University Ronald F. BushUniversity of West Florida

2 Data Matrix, Coding Data, and the Data Code Book Prior to analysis, the data from a survey is arranged into a data matrix, which is an arrangement of rows and columns identical to a spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel. Each row pertains to the answers provided by a single respondent Each column represents a question on the questionnaire Because the answers vary from respondent to respondent, the questions or question parts are sometimes referred to as “variables” Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10- 2

3 Data Matrix, Coding Data, and the Data Code Book, Continued... Data Entry refers to the creation of a computer file that holds the raw data taken from all of the acceptable completed questionnaires. Data Coding is defined as the identification of code values that are associated with the possible responses for each question on the questionnaire (i.e. males=0, females=1). Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10- 3

4 Data Matrix, Coding Data, and the Data Code Book, Continued... A Data Code Book identifies: The questions on the questionnaire The variable name or label that is associated with each question or question part The code numbers associated with each possible response to each question Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10- 4

5 Missing Data What code is used when a missing item is encountered? Practically all statistical analysis programs treat a blank as “missing” Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10- 5

6 Errors Encountered During Data Collection The data collection stage of a marketing research project can be the source of many non-sampling errors, which are errors in the research process pertaining to anything except the sample size. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10- 6

7 Non-Sampling Errors- Fieldworker Errors Intentional Fieldworker Errors Where the interviewer deliberately falsifies his or her work, such as cheating by submitting bogus completed questionnaires. Unintentional Fieldworker Errors Where the interviewer makes mistakes such as those caused by fatigue or lack of understanding of how to administer the questions. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10- 7

8 Non-Sampling Errors- Fieldworker Errors The best way to minimize Fieldworker Errors is to hire a reputable data collection company that has excellent training, good supervision, and built-in validation techniques to ensure that Fieldworkers will be very unlikely to commit Fieldworker Errors. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10- 8

9 Non-Sampling Errors- Respondent Errors Intentional Respondent Errors- those committed when respondents knowingly provide false answers. Tactics such as incentives, assuring anonymity, providing confidentiality, or follow-up validation are utilized to reduce the level of intentional respondent error. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 10- 9

10 Non-Sampling Errors- Respondent Errors, Continued... Unintentional Respondent Errors- occur when the respondent is confused, distracted, or otherwise inattentive. Tactics such as good questionnaire design, adequate pretesting of the questionnaire, “no opinion” or “unsure” response options, negatively worded items, or prompters such as “Do you have any other things that come to mind?” minimize the amount of unintentional respondent error in a survey. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

11 Types of Non-Response Errors Non-response is defined as a failure on the part of the prospective respondent to take part in the survey or to answer specific questions on the questionnaire. Non-response is a respondent error, and it may be either intentional or unintentional. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

12 Big Problem! Non-response has been labeled the marketing research industry’s biggest problem. Industry observers believe that the major problems leading to non-response are caused by fears of invasion of privacy, skepticism of consumers regarding the benefits of participating in research, and the use of research as a disguise for telemarketing. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

13 Types of Non-Response Errors Refusal to participate in the survey Break-offs during the interview Refusals to answer specific questions or item omission Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

14 Types of Non-Response Errors, Continued... Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

15 Reducing Refusal to Participate Make an offer to call back at a more convenient time Indentifying name of research company (and client if possible) Making the interviews as short as possible Emphasizing that the interviewer is not selling anything Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

16 Preliminary Data Screening The researcher must examine the responses for data quality problems prior to analysis. What to look for… Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

17 Preliminary Data Screening, Continued... What to look for in raw data inspection: Incomplete response Nonresponses to specific questions (item omissions) Yea-saying or Nay-saying patterns Yea-saying or nay-saying patterns may be evident on one respondent in the form of all “yes” or “strongly agree” answers Implies that the answers are not valid And… Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

18 Preliminary Data Screening, Continued... …What to look for in raw data inspection: Middle-of-the-road patterns A preponderance of “no opinion” responses Other Data Quality Problem Examples Respondent may have checked more than one response option Another respondent may have failed to look at the back of the questionnaire page and missed all of the questions there A respondent may have ignored an agree-disagree scale and simply written in personal comments Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

19 How to Handle Data Quality Issues Three Options If there are several egregious errors, the researcher will most likely throw out the respondent’s entire data row. If the errors are minor and will not falsely sway the findings of the survey, the researcher will probably leave the respondent’s entire row in the data set. If there are some obvious error-ridden responses, while other responses by this respondent seem valid, the researcher may opt to set the bad data items to blanks or missing data and use only the good data items in subsequent analyses. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

20 What is an Acceptable Respondent? At what point does an incomplete or problem respondent constitute an acceptable respondent that the researcher will allow into data analysis? Researcher must have a definition or otherwise specify the criteria for an acceptable respondent. Most research studies consist of questions focused on the primary purpose of the study, while others are of lesser or secondary nature. An acceptable respondent may be defined as one who answered all the primary questions satisfactorily Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

21 Introduction to Your XL Data Analyst There are four reasons we have created the XL Data Analyst Practically everyone is acquainted with Excel. We have programmed our XL Data Analyst so the findings of your analyses are not confusing. The XL Data Analyst produces tables that can be copied and pasted into word processor applications such as Microsoft Word without the need for extensive reformatting into professionally appearing tables. By creating a macro system for Excel, we have avoided the added cost (to you) of including a statistical program with this textbook. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

22 The Data Set and Data Code Book are in the XL Data Analyst There are two named worksheets in an XL Data Analyst that are critical: The Data worksheet The Define Variables worksheet Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

23 Your Data Set and Data Code Book in XL Data Analyst Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

24 XL Data Analyst Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

25 Define Variables Worksheet The Define Variables worksheet is the data code book because it identifies the column label, provides a long description of the variable, lists the answer value code numbers, and matches the answer value labels to these code numbers. It is also used by the XL Data Analyst to provide variable descriptions and answer labels in the tables and graphs it creates by its various analyses. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

26 Case Data Sets and Building Your Own Data Analyst Data Set There are three XL Data Analyst data sets that accompany your textbook: Advanced Automotive Concepts New Restaurant Survey Friendly Market You may download these from the XL Data Analyst website (www.xldataanalyst.com)www.xldataanalyst.com Each of these Excel files has a Data worksheet and a linked Define Variables worksheet, and when you load the file and enable XL Data Analyst macro, you will have full access to all XL Data Analyst operations. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

27 Hints: Make sure your Excel macro security settings are disabled. Click “enable this content” To get XL Data Analyst Menu, click on “add- ins” in the Excel menu bar Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

28 Using a Different Survey Data Set See pages 234 & 235 of the textbook See “manual” at Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

29 Special Operations and Procedures with XL Data Analyst Data Sets Selecting subsets of the data for analysis Utilities-Filter Data operation will apply Excel’s data filter feature and thus allow the researcher to select the code value(s) for any one or a number of values. To return to the original data set, simply use the Untilities-Unfilter Data Operation. Hint: don’t forget to select “done” when you’ve selected the subset of cases you want. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

30 Special Operations and Procedures with XL Data Analyst Data Sets, Continued... Computing or Adding Variables Users may wish to add a variable or to compute a variable using Excel operations such as SUM, COUNT, a division operation, or some other data manipulation. Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

31 Copyright Protected Copyright ©2010 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 9- 31


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