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HISTORY OF CRIMINALISTICS. EUGENE FRANÇOIS VIDOCQ FOUNDER AND FIRST PRIVATE DETECTIVE.

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Presentation on theme: "HISTORY OF CRIMINALISTICS. EUGENE FRANÇOIS VIDOCQ FOUNDER AND FIRST PRIVATE DETECTIVE."— Presentation transcript:

1 HISTORY OF CRIMINALISTICS

2 EUGENE FRANÇOIS VIDOCQ FOUNDER AND FIRST PRIVATE DETECTIVE

3 EUGENE FRANCOIS VIDOCQ THE FOUNDER OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION,THE SÛRETÉ, IN 1812 OPENED THE WORLD’S FIRST PRIVATE DETECTIVE AGENCY, LE BUREAU DES RENSEIGNEMENTS, IN 1834 STARTED A CARD-INDEX SYSTEM WAS A MASTER OF DISGUISE AND SURVEILLANCE CONSIDERED TO BE “THE FATHER OF MODERN CRIMINOLOGY” THE FIRST PRIVATE DETECTIVE, HIS FELLOW CRIMINALS WOULDN’T DISCOVER HE WAS PART OF THE POLICE BECAUSE HE WOULD ACT AS ONE OF THEM AND HELP WITH THE CRIME BUT THEN REPORT TO THE POLICE EVEN HIS RELEASE FROM PRISON WAS STAGED AS A BREAK OUT SO OTHER CRIMINALS WOULD THINK HE WAS ON THE RUN INTERESTING FACT: ACCIDENTLY KILLED HIS FENCING INSTRUCTOR WHEN HE WAS JUST 14 YEARS OLD

4 MATHIEU JOSEPH BONAVENTURE ORFILA TOXICOLOGY

5 MATHIEU JOSEPH BONAVENTURE ORFILA “FATHER OF TOXICOLOGY” PUBLISHED A BOOK, A TREATISE OF GENERAL TOXICOLOGY, THAT SUMMED UP EVERYTHING KNOWN ABOUT POISONS AND ORGANIZED THEM INTO GROUPS IN 1813 BECAME A MEDICAL EXPERT IN WIDELY PUBLICIZED CRIMINAL CASES MADE STUDIES OF ASPHYXIATION, THE DECOMPOSITION OF BODIES, AND EXHUMATION HELPED TO DEVELOP TESTS FOR THE PRESENCE OF BLOOD IN A FORENSIC CONTEXT ONE OF THE FIRST PEOPLE TO USE A MICROSCOPE TO ANALYZE BLOOD AND SEMEN STAINS INTERESTING FACT: HELPED TO ESTABLISH HOSPITALS, MUSEUMS, SPECIALTY CLINICS, BOTANICAL GARDENS, A CENTER FOR DISSECTION IN CLAMART

6 HENRY GODDARD BULLET AND FIRE ARM BALLISTICS

7 HENRY GODDARD IN 1835 HE EXAMINED THE LEAD BULLET FROM A DEAD MAN AND FOUND A DISTINCTIVE RIDGE HE COMPARING THE MARKS ON BULLETS FROM THE FIREARMS FROM SEVERAL SUSPECTS, DETERMINED THE SOURCE OF THE BULLET AND ARRESTED THE GUILTY PARTY MANY CASES INVOLVING FIREARMS WERE SOLVED BY USING THIS ANALYSIS OF THE MARKS LEFT BEHIND ON THE GUNS BULLETS OR CASINGS HE SPECIALIZED IN BALLISTICS INTERESTING FACT: HE WAS ONE OF THE BOW STREET RUNNERS ( A GROUP OF POLICEMEN IN ENGLAND)

8 SIR WILLIAM HERSCHEL FINGERPRINTS

9 SIR WILLIAM HERSCHEL STUDIED FINGERPRINTS AND DISCOVERED THEY DON’T CHANGE OVER TIME HE SUGGESTED THAT FINGERPRINTS BE USED ON LEGAL DOCUMENTS, IN ORDER TO PREVENT IMPERSONATION AND THE REPUDIATION OF CONTRACTS IN 1877, HE BEGAN THE FINGERPRINTING OF CRIMINALS, THIS WAY THEIR JAIL SENTENCES COULD NOT BE CARRIED OUT BY A HIRED IMPOSTOR INTERESTING FACT: THIS DISCOVERY STARTED FROM HIM TRYING TO PREVENT KONAI DENYING HIS SIGNATURE AT A LATER DATE WHEN HE MADE HIM PUT A HAND-PRINT ON THE DOCUMENT

10 RUDOLF VIRCHOW FORENSIC HUMAN-HAIR COMPARISON

11 RUDOLF VIRCHOW 1861 WAS THE FIRST REPORTED USE OF THE HAIR COMPARISON HE DETERMINED THE HAIRS ON THE DEFENDANT MUST BE THE SAME AS HAIRS OF THE VICTIM, IF THEY DON’T HAVE THE SAME CHARACTERISTICS, THEY MUSTN’T HAVE COME FROM THE HEAD OF THE VICTIM IN OTHER WORDS, HAIRS AREN’T ENOUGH TO MATCH A DEFENDANT, CORRECT EXAMINATION MUST BE DONE THE MICROSCOPIC FEATURES AND COMPARISON OF HUMAN HAIRS ARE MAINLY THE DOMAIN OF FORENSIC SCIENTISTS INTERESTING FACT: HAIR ANALYZE CAN DETECT DRUG USE

12 HENRY FAULDS FINGERPRINTS

13 HENRY FAULDS FAULDS BECAME INVOLVED IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL DIGS IN JAPAN, IT WAS DURING A DIG THAT HE NOTICED ON AN ANCIENT POTTERY SOME FINGERPRINTS FROM WHO MADE IT, THIS CAUSED HIM TO STUDY FINGERPRINTS HE HAD WROTE TO CHARLES DARWIN WITH HIS IDEAS AND CONNECTED FAULDS WITH FRANCIS GALTON IN 1880, FAULDS PUBLISHED A PAPER ON FINGERPRINTS WITH DETAILS HOW THEY COULD BE USED TO CATCH CRIMINALS INTERESTING FACT: IN 1886, FAULDS OFFERED HIS FINGERPRINTING SYSTEM TO SCOTLAND YARD BUT IT WAS REJECTED

14 ALPHONSE BERTILLON ANTHROPOMETRIC SYSTEM

15 ALPHONSE BERTILLON HE STUDIED PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS OF BODY PARTS, SPECIFICALLY THE HEAD AND FACE, TO PRODUCE A DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PERSON HE INVENTED IN 1879, THE BERTILLON SYSTEM BASED OF HIS STUDIES OF THE BODY OFFICERS USE THE BERTILLON SYSTEM TO DETERMINE IF A SUSPECT IN CUSTODY HAD BEEN INVOLVED IN PREVIOUS CRIMES, BY RECORDS OF KNOWN CRIMINALS, WHICH CONTAINED HIS OR HER ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS (AKA MUGSHOTS) INTERESTING FACT: BERTILLON SYSTEM, ALSO KNOWN AS BERTILLONAGE, USED IN ONE YEAR CAUGHT 241 OFFENDERS

16 ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE AUTHOR OF SHERLOCK HOMES

17 ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE WROTE THE SHERLOCK HOMES NOVELS IN 1887 SHERLOCK HOLMES USED CHEMISTRY, BLOODSTAINS AND FINGERPRINTS TO CATCH OFFENDERS HIS CHARACTER WAS THE FIRST TO USE BALLISTICS, INCLUDING BULLET TRAJECTORY, AS EVIDENCE IN CRIMINAL CASES INTERESTING FACT: THE CRIMES IN THE NOVELS CAN BE FOUND IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES AND HELPED IMPROVE METHODS FOR CAPTURING TODAY’S CRIMINALS

18 SIR FRANCIS GALTON FINGERPRINTS

19 SIR FRANCIS GALTON HE WAS NOT THE FIRST TO USE FINGERPRINTS BUT WAS THE FIRST TO PLACE THEIR STUDY ON A SCIENTIFIC BASIS, WHICH ORGANIZED THEIR USE IN CRIMINAL CASES HE STARTED THE FIRST POSSIBLE FINGERPRINT CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM WHICH WAS USED BY THE POLICE AND LEGAL SYSTEMS IN 1892 HE SHOWED THE COMPARISON OF FINGERPRINTS SHOWING THE DIFFERENCE FROM EACH PRINT INTERESTING FACT: HE BELIEVED HIS SYSTEM WOULD BE ABLE TO TAKE IN 20,000 SETS OF PRINTS

20 SIR EDWARD RICHARD HENRY FINGERPRINT EXPERT

21 SIR EDWARD RICHARD HENRY KNOWN AS A “FINGERPRINT EXPERT” IN 1901, HE MADE THE METROPOLITAN POLICE FINGERPRINT BUREAU, WHICH WAS BRITAIN'S FIRST THE PURPOSE OF THE SYSTEM WAS TO PREVENT CRIMINALS FROM HIDING PREVIOUS SENTENCES FROM THE LEGAL SYSTEMS AND POLICE INTERESTING FACT: HE WAS AWARDED THE KING'S POLICE MEDAL IN 1909

22 KARL LANDSTEINER IMMUNOLOGY AND BLOOD

23 KARL LANDSTEINER HE IS BEST KNOWN FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF BLOOD TYPES HE STUDIED IMMUNOLOGY AND BLOOD HE IDENTIFIED THE MEANS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE IMMUNE REACTIONS, AND EXAMINED THE INTERACTION OF ANTIGENS AND ANTIBODIES, AND STUDIED ALLERGIC REACTIONS IN TESTS DONE ON ANIMALS IN 1901,HE SHOWED THAT THE BLOOD SERUM OF A PERSON COULD CLUMP THE BLOOD OF OTHERS, PUTTING THE BLOOD INTO 3 GROUPS, ( A, B, C) IN 1902, HE AND OTHER SCIENTIST, FOUND A NEW METHOD OF DETERMINING THE TYPE OF DRIED BLOOD STAINS TO HELP SOLVE CRIMES LEFT AT THE SCENE INTERESTING FACT: IN 1907 THE FIRST SUCCESSFUL TRANSFUSIONS OCCURRED AT MT. SINAI HOSPITAL

24 EDMUND LOCARD LOCARD'S EXCHANGE PRINCIPLE & POROSCOPY

25 EDMUND LOCARD "SHERLOCK HOLMES OF FRANCE“ HE HELPED IMPROVEMENT OF DACTYLOGRAPHY (FINGERPRINTS) HE DEVELOPED POROSCOPY, WHICH WAS THE STUDY OF FINGERPRINT PORES AND THE IMPRESSIONS THEY LEFT BEHIND HE STARTED LOCARD'S EXCHANGE PRINCIPLE, A THEORY RELATING TO THE TRANSFER OF TRACE EVIDENCE BETWEEN OBJECTS, "EVERY CONTACT LEAVES A TRACE“, THIS THEORY STATED WHEN TWO THINGS TOUCH EACH WILL TAKE SOMETHING FROM THE OTHER OBJECT "ANY ACTION OF AN INDIVIDUAL, AND OBVIOUSLY, THE VIOLENT ACTIONS OF A CRIME, CANNOT OCCUR WITHOUT LEAVING A TRACE” 1934 INTERESTING FACT: DURING WW1, HE WORKED FOR THE FRENCH SECRET SERVICE AS AN MEDICAL EXAMINER

26 ALBERT OSBOURNE PENMANSHIP

27 ALBERT OSBOURNE FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENT EXAMINERS IN 1942 LAWYERS BEGAN SUBMITTING QUESTIONED DOCUMENT PROBLEMS TO HIM, SINCE BACK THEN ATTORNEYS OFTEN SENT QUESTIONS TO HELP WITH OPINIONS HE WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR PLACING QUESTIONED DOCUMENT WORK ON A SCIENTIFIC BASIS IN 1920, HE OPENED HIS OWN BUSINESS TO WORK ON THESE QUESTIONS FULL TIME INTERESTING FACT: HIS SON, GRANDSONS, AND GREAT GRANDSONS CONTINUE DOING THE WORK HE DID

28 THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION

29 ALSO WELL KNOWN AS FBI BELONGS TO THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, SERVES A FEDERAL CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIVE BODY AND AN INTERNAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY FOUNDED IN 1908 INVESTIGATES CRIMES ALL OVER THE UNITED STATES INTERESTING FACT: WAS ORIGINALLY CALLED BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION BUT CHANGED TO FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION IN 1935

30 MAX FREI-SULZER TAPE METHOD

31 MAX FREI-SULZER HE FOUNDED THE FIRST SWISS CRIMINALISTICS LABORATORY, THE ZURICH POLICE SCIENTIFIC LABORATORY, IN 1950 HE STARTED THE TAPE LIFE METHOD OF COLLECTING TRACE EVIDENCE. THIS WAS DONE BY APPLYING A PIECE OF STICKY TAPE TO A SURFACE, THAT COLLECTED THE PARTICLES THAT CAN THEN BE EXAMINED UNDER A MICROSCOPE IN 1973 HE USED THIS TAPE METHOD ON THE CLOTH FROM THE SHROUD OF TURIN CASE INTERESTING FACT: HE HAD TAUGHT MICROSCOPICAL TECHNIQUES AT ZURICH UNIVERSITY

32 AFIS AUTOMATED FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

33 AFLIS AUTOMATED FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM, STARTED IN 1999 IT IS NOT ONLY FINGERPRINTS, BUT CRIMINAL HISTORIES AND MUG SHOTS AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS IT IS THE LARGEST CRIMINAL FINGERPRINT DATABASE IN THE WORLD, OVER 70 MILLION CRIMINAL FILES INTERESTING FACT: THE NEXT GENERATION IDENTIFICATION PROGRAM (NGI) WILL BE TAKING OVER REPLACING THE AFLIS DUE TO THE NEED FOR FASTER AND MORE ADVANCED IDENTIFICATION CAPABILITIES

34 SIR ALEC JEFFREYS GENETIC FINGERPRINTING & DNA PROFILING

35 SIR ALEC JEFFREYS HE DEVELOPED TECHNIQUES FOR DNA FINGERPRINTING AND DNA PROFILING IN 1984, HE DISCOVERED A METHOD OF SHOWING VARIATIONS BETWEEN PEOPLES DNA, WHICH USES VARIATIONS IN THE GENETIC CODE TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUALS HIS GENETIC FINGERPRINTS (DNA FINGERPRINTING) HELP WITH RESOLVING PATERNITY AND IMMIGRATION PROBLEMS, ALSO WITH POLICE DETECTIVE WORK HE AND HIS TEAM FOUND DNA PROFILING WHICH IS BASED ON TYPING INDIVIDUAL HIGHLY VARIABLE MINISATELLITES IN THE HUMAN GENOME INTERESTING FACT: IN 1994, HE WAS KNIGHTED FOR SERVICES TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

36 NDIS NATIONAL DNA INDEX SYSTEM

37 NDIS NATIONAL DNA INDEX SYSTEM FOUNDED IN 1998 IT IS THE COLLECTIVE DATABASE OF DNA PROFILES THIS HELPS KEEP THE US SAVE AND CLEARS THE NAMES OF INNOCENT PEOPLE INTERESTING FACT: THE NDIS ALONG WITH THE CODIS HAVE OVER 10 MILLION DNA PROFILES


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