1 Hira Peracha Jordana Qi Heather Shaeffer Original papyrus with Homer’s Odyssey( B.C.)“The Odyssey”Hira PerachaJordana QiHeather Shaeffer
2 PLOT BOOKS 1-4 Poseidon hates Odysseus Telemachus is Odysseus’ son Goddess Athena helps TelemachusSuitors want to marry PenelopePenelope and weavingTelemachus heads off to PylosTelemachus hides from PenelopeMenelaus vs. AgamemnonPenelope Unraveling Her Work At Night, Dora Wheeler , 1886
3 PLOT BOOKS 1-4 Telemachus visits Menelaus, who missed Odysseus a lot Odysseus a previous hero in the Trojan WarTelemachus vs. ProteusThe suitors plan to sail and ambush Telemachus for making their lives difficultPenelope finds out about TelemachusMap of Troy
4 PLOT BOOKS 5-7 Athena begs Zeus to have mercy on Odysseus Hermes takes Zeus’s message to CalypsoOdysseus leaves Calypso’s islandSea hardships“White armed princess” encounters OdysseusCalypso, Greek vase, 400 B.C.
5 Plot: Books 9-16 Odysseus tells the story of his adventures on the sea He has travelled to many different islands to come to where he is nowHe lost all of his crew in many different situationsThe Phoenicians took him back to Ithaca, and left him with all of his treasuresAthena disguises him as an old manOdysseus, disguised, stays with EumaeusThe Return of Odysseus, Claude Lorrain, 1644
6 Landscape with Polyphemus and Galatea (Ancient Roman wall painting, 1st century B.C.)
7 Plot: Books 17-20Odysseus returns to his own castle, disguised as a beggar.He is challenged to a fight by a messenger, ultimately proving his strength, and tells tales of his travels to Penelope, still in disguise.The palace is filled with Penelope’s suitors. Odysseus receives signs from Athena and Zeus to defeat the suitors, but waits.ca. 450 B.C.
8 Plot: Books 21-24Return of Odysseus, Nicholas Monsiau, Early 1800'sThe contest to string Odysseus’ bow is underway. Odysseus, still in disguise, wins the contest, leaving all the suitors in horror.After making sure the women are safe, Odysseus slaughters all of the suitors and servants disloyal to Penelope and the palace.Odysseus finally reveals his identity to Penelope. He fights one last battle against the suitors’ soldiers, which he wins, and Athena brings peace to Ithaca.
9 Epic Qualities In Medias Res Vast Setting Invocation to a Muse Gods speak of “the great Odysseus” (Book 1)Vast SettingBegins in Ithaca and continues to Sparta (Books 2-3)Odysseus’ journey at sea lasts 10 yearsInvocation to a Muse“Sing in me, Muse, and through me tell the story…” (Book 1)Not THAT Ithaca!
10 Epic Qualities (Cont’d.) Statement of ThemeMortality of Humans— “Your last hour has come. You die in blood.” (Book 22)Use of Epithets“Odysseus, the great teller of tales” (Book 9)“the bewitching queen of Aeaea” (Book 9)“Calypso the lustrous goddess” (Book 9)Odysseus as a Guest of the Nymph Calypso, Hendrick van Balen, 1616
11 Even more epic Qualities Epic CatalogueDescription of Calypso’s island“Long-tongued beachcombing birds”, “beds of violets and tender parsley” (Book 5)Epic/Formal SpeechesKing Nestor tells Telemachus a story “in length” about his time in Troy (Book 3)Menelaus mourns Odysseus in a “deep”, long, and affectionate manner(Book 4)Divine intervention“Now Zeus who masses the stormclouds hit the fleet with the North Wind” (Book 9)“Athena stroked Odysseus with her wand.” (Book 13)“Poseidon, quaking with anger at you” (Book 13)Some lovely violets and parsley…
12 Tired of epic qualities yet? Heroes Embodying Civilization’s ValuesFeast Traditions—Odysseus enjoys the feast and listens to “the lyre that god has made the friend of feasts” (Book 17)Descent into the Underworld“What brings you here, forsaking the light of day to see the joyless kingdom of the dead?” (Book 11)Kingdom of the Dead, Gary Stickel,(The Homeric Project)
13 Who is the true hero? Warrior Strength—Odysseus “years ago…rose to Philomedes’ challenge, wrestled him, pinned him down with one tremendous throw…” (Book 17)Loyalty—Odysseus has taught his son loyalty. Telemachus refuses to pack his mother “off against her will from her own home”. (Book 20)Courage—Odysseus quietly thinks through his decisions until he bravely defends his kingdom and kills the suitors in Book 22.The Return of Odysseus, Romare Bearden, 1978
14 More heroic code…KingHospitality—Odysseus treats his hostess, Penelope with grace. “Never a man in the wide world should have fault to find with you…” (Book 19).Political Skill—The servants and suitors were held responsible by Odysseus for their actions.They “bore the cold weight of the dead…” (Book 22)Generosity—Odysseus saves the two men who were loyal to him in his absence.PhemiosMedon “cared for [him] from boyhood…” (Book 22)Ulysses Killing the Suitors, 1805
15 Literary Elements Foreshadowing Cyclops curses him: “Hear me – Poseidon, god of the sea-blue mane who rocks the earth! If I really am your son and you claim to be my father – come, grant that Odysseus, raider of cities, Laertes’ son who makes his home in Ithaca, never reaches home. Or, if he’s fated to see his people once again and reach his well-built house and his own native country, let him come home late and come a broken man – all shipmates lost, alone in a stranger’s ship – and let him find a world of pain at home!”Odysseus and Companions Escape, BC(Vessel)
16 Literary Elements (cont’d.) Repetition“When young Dawn with her rose red fingers shone once more” (Books 5, 7, 9, 10, 17)KenningsPoseidon is “the Old Man of the Sea” (Book 17).Odysseus is “the man who’d borne long years abroad”. (Book 17)SymbolismOdysseus’ literally difficult journey symbolizes the social difficulties he faces in getting back to his own kingdom.The west side of the Palace of Minos and the central courtyard. Piet de Jong.Photographed by Craig Mauzy in 2006
17 HISTORICAL AND LITERARY cONTEXT Homer lived around 8th century B.C.However, “The Odyssey "was not written down until almost 500 years laterWritten in a manner more similar to everyday speechGreat for storytelling!Most likely written for all types of audiences
18 REFERENCESFitzgerald, R. (1962). The odyssey: Homer. Doubleday Publishing Group.Homer. ( ). Retrieved fromgarden.html