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HUMAN TRAFFICKING RESEARCH REPORT CONFERENCE REFLECTIONS ON RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES DR. ROSELINE NTSHINGILA-KHOSA Kopanong Hotel and Conference Centre Johannesburg.

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Presentation on theme: "HUMAN TRAFFICKING RESEARCH REPORT CONFERENCE REFLECTIONS ON RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES DR. ROSELINE NTSHINGILA-KHOSA Kopanong Hotel and Conference Centre Johannesburg."— Presentation transcript:

1 HUMAN TRAFFICKING RESEARCH REPORT CONFERENCE REFLECTIONS ON RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES DR. ROSELINE NTSHINGILA-KHOSA Kopanong Hotel and Conference Centre Johannesburg 23- 24 MARCH 2010

2 OVERVIEW Methodologies used in the current Study Achievements Limitations Challenges and Gaps with Research on Human Trafficking Studies Globally Future research areas for consideration in Southern Africa

3 STRENGHTS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE CURRENT STUDY Purpose : Exploratory and baseline study The study is first of its kind in South Africa Regional study by IOM, 2003- Women and children All forms of HT Comprehensive approach to HT

4 STRENGHTS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE CURRENT STUDY Multi- disciplinary team Anthropology Criminology Psychology Sociology Regional focus South Africa Lesotho Swaziland Zimbabwe Multiple sources of data Victims NGOs Service organisations Law enforcement officials Immigration officers Custom officials Government representatives Embassy officials International organisations Multiple methods Surveys Interviews Documentary analysis Investigation led methods

5 CHALLENGES AND GAPS IN THE CURRENT STUDY Time/period for data collection Less than 6 months Lack of national data Implications for comprehensive picture of the problem Synthesis of Methodology across Results Areas Implications for future follow-up or regional replication studies

6 CHALLENGES RESEARCH ON HUMAN TRAFFICKING a sampling frame representative sample of the population first-hand information Hidden population studies based only on assisted cases may not be representative of the total number of trafficked persons which may remain undiscovered The actual ratio of assisted survivors to the total number of victims is unknown studies are often conducted within a fairly short time frame, usually six to nine months, and with limited resources The focus on action- oriented and applied research

7 CHALLENGES WITH RESEARCH ON HUMAN TRAFFICKING There has been less funding for long-term research to investigate in more detail the causes of trafficking and the best ways to prevent and combat it or to make a detailed assessment of the impacts of different interventions and policy responses There are very few comparative studies of trafficking based on extensive fieldwork in either country of origin or of destination. Most studies are also based on research conducted at one point in time, with little longitudinal research investigating the circumstances of individuals before, during, and after trafficking, including research to assess the extent to which survivors can achieve long-term self-sufficiency

8 FUTURE RESEARCH AREAS-IMMEDIATE Indicator development according to crime categories and HT Training and retraining of officials in migration data collection and statistics in order to capture the main trends of trafficking. Improve and simplify data gathering Data synergy across different departments, sectors and agencies Centralised data base for HT data using an multi-sectoral TIMS

9 FUTURE RESEARCH AREAS Studies to improve our understanding of factors contributing to vulnerabilities Research on root causes of trafficking in a broader context especially the traditional practices of child placements, child fostering, and domestic work, which are conducive to trafficking. Studying the traffickers, the clients, and law enforcement agencies who may be involved in different ways in creating the conditions under which trafficking can flourish Need for both more interdisciplinary research and research which looks at trafficking issues from a range of different perspectives, including migration, human rights, health, law enforcement etc.

10 INNOVATIVE RESEARCH METHODS (UNIAP Phase III- Winning Proposals for statistical methods for estimating numbers of HT victims) GPS mapping of HT routes, venue locations (Cambodia/UMiami) Data collection follow up involving repeat ‘mystery clients Respondent driven sampling- chain referrals fro friendship networks of existing members of a non-random sample (Thailand/Johns Hopkins University) Mystery client surveys in karaoke establishments (Cambodia) Research collaborations between researchers, intelligence agencies and investigative journalisms for research based on “going native” in the HT chain

11 FUTURE RESEARCH AREAS More research on the ‘demand side’ of HT: Is male demand a key driver of sex trade? How does male demand shape HT market? Psychology of male demand; Profile of johns-30 years old; married (70-90%); employed (from working class to professionals & prominent community members) Education programmes for johns (incl. reshape male norms) about plight of sex slaves & johns role in perpetuating human rights abuses (in Philippines & San Francisco) 97% said it is unlikely they would solicit a prostitute again Of 2200, only 18 rearrested (recidivism rates around 1% or less)

12 FUTURE RESEARCH AREAS Independent evaluation of counter-trafficking policies and programmes to assess the real impact and effectiveness of different interventions to identify best practices and assess which countries have been most successful in their efforts to combat trafficking Well-designed monitoring and evaluation studies, particularly external evaluations, can identify effective policies and ‘best practice’ approaches as well as assess the success of different programs Impact of trafficking, not only on the survivors but also their families and communities and all those affected by it

13 COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE IMPACT OF LEGISLATION OF PROSTITUTION ON HT Sweden-1998 Act Prohibiting the Purchase of Sexual Services 75% drop in johns Sweden is considered a ‘bad market’ for HT Abolition of Prostitution State of Victoria, Australia in 1984 Increase in organised crime and sex trafficking More victims trafficked Legalisation of prostitution

14 REGIONAL RESEARCH COLLABORATIONS Regional collaboration on research and sharing of indicators and data to ensure comparable regional data, and the sharing of existing data between governments Need longer-term research, using more comprehensive approaches, and involving collaboration between researchers in both countries of origin and countries of destination. Agency that acts as a focal point for the collection, collation, or harmonization of statistics on trafficking either at the regional level. Regional research capacity building for government to design, implement and maintain information systems

15 SOURCES Frank Laczko and Elzbieta Gozdziak (IOM, 2005) Aderanti Adepoju (IOM, 2005)Human Development Research Paper (UNDP, 2005)United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking (UNIAP) Of vice and men: new approach to eradicating sex trafficking by reducing male demand through education programmes and abolitionists legislation

16 THANK YOU

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