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November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 1 Navigating the Immigration Maze Strategies and Solutions from Student to Work Visa Michael.

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Presentation on theme: "November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 1 Navigating the Immigration Maze Strategies and Solutions from Student to Work Visa Michael."— Presentation transcript:

1 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 1 Navigating the Immigration Maze Strategies and Solutions from Student to Work Visa Michael L. Kabik, Esq. © 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A Park Potomac Avenue, 6 th Floor, Potomac, MD T: (301) F: (301) ShulmanRogers.com

2 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 2 Work Visas and Permanent Residence H-1B “Specialty Occupation” F-1 Optional Practical Training (“OPT”) “Cap Gap” Visa Alternatives to H-1B & OPT

3 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 3 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B – “Specialty Occupation” Employer-Specific Professional Requires Bachelor’s degree or equivalent –CIS work experience 3:1 rule 3 Year validity period 6 year maximum Extensions beyond 6 year maximum in limited circumstances

4 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 4 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B – “Specialty Occupation” H-1B status limited by annual quota (“cap”) Maximum number each Fiscal Year (“FY”) –Unless EXEMPT Federal government FY –Starts October 1 st –Ends September 30 th –FY-2013 started 10/1/12 and will end 9/30/13 H-1B Cap = 195,000 in FY-2003 H-1B Cap = 65,000 in FY-2004 and later

5 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 5 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B “Portability” Greatly simplifies mobility among employers H-1B workers can start new employment Upon filing of new “non-frivolous” H-1B Petition –Subject to final approval of new H-1B Petition Need not wait for approval of H-1B Petition to begin work

6 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 6 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B “Portability” Requirements Lawfully admitted to U.S. New petition filed prior to expiration of authorized stay –CIS has discretion to forgive “lapse in status” No prior employment w/o authorization

7 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 7 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap Employers can file H-1B petitions up to 6 months before start date FY-2013 started 10/1/12 FY-2014 starts 10/1/13

8 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 8 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap If H-1B cap is exhausted for current FY Must wait until 6 months before next FY to file –Unless EXEMPT from H-1B cap “H-1B Cap Season” begins on April 1 st –6 months before start of next FY and new H-1B cap

9 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 9 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap H-1B Lottery If maximum number reached in initial filing window Computer-generated random selection of H-1B petitions Wait list selection also by lottery To replace selected H-1B petitions later denied, withdrawn, or found ineligible Non-selected or wait listed H-1B petitions Returned to sponsoring employers With filing fees

10 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 10 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap H-1B Lottery – Advanced Registration New CIS Proposed Rule Only employers selected in advance will be able to file H-1B petitions in lottery period Eliminates large CIS intake of H-1B petitions during initial filing window and return of non-selected H-1B petitions Saves employers time and expense of filing H-1B petitions that are not selected in lottery

11 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 11 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap – Next FY-2014 Earliest filing date for FY-2014 start date of 10/1/13 is 4/1/13 Initial filing window 1 st 5 business days Monday 4/1/13 to Friday 4/5/13

12 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 12 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap – Current FY-2013 FY-2013 H-1B cap not reached during initial filing window 4/2/12 to 4/6/12 No H-1B lottery for FY-2013 All H-1B petitions filed during initial filing window assigned an H-1B cap number (subject to approval)

13 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 13 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap – FY-2013 As of 6/11/12: 65,000 H-1B cap reached Only non-cap H-1B’s approvable until FY (start dates beginning 10/1/13) Unless EXEMPT from H-1B cap –H-1B workers previously counted in cap –Other exempt H-1B workers

14 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 14 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” Snapshot of Prior Year H-1B Cap (FY-2012) FY-2012 H-1B cap not reached during initial filing window 4/1/11 to 4/7/11 No H-1B lottery for FY-2012 All H-1B petitions filed during initial filing window assigned an H-1B cap number (subject to approval)

15 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 15 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” Snapshot of Prior Year H-1B Cap (FY-2011) FY-2011 H-1B cap not reached during initial filing window 4/1/10 to 4/7/10 No H-1B lottery for FY-2011 All H-1B petitions filed during initial filing window assigned an H-1B cap number (subject to approval)

16 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 16 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” Snapshot of Prior Year H-1B Cap (FY-2010) FY-2010 H-1B cap not reached during initial filing window 4/1/09 to 4/7/09 No H-1B lottery for FY-2010 All H-1B petitions filed during initial filing window assigned an H-1B cap number (subject to approval)

17 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 17 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” Snapshot of Prior Year H-1B Cap (FY-2009) FY-2009 H-1B cap reached 4/7/08 5 th day of H-1B filing window for FY /1/08 start dates Approx. 163,000 H-1B petitions filed subject to FY-2009 cap During initial lottery period Between 4/1/08 to 4/7/08

18 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 18 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap – Current/Prior Years Impact of the Recession Current FY-2013 H-1B Cap reached 6/11/12 Prior FY-2012 H-1B Cap reached 11/22/12 Prior FY-2011 H-1B Cap reached 1/26/11 Prior FY-2010 H-1B cap reached 12/21/09

19 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 19 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap – Current/Prior Years Booming economy prior FY-2009 and FY-2008 H-1Bs exhausted during initial filing window –1 st 5 business days of April –6 months ahead of October 1 st start date

20 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 20 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap – Current FY-2013 Only non-cap H-1B’s approvable until FY-2014 (start dates beginning 10/1/13) Unless EXEMPT from H-1B cap –H-1B workers previously counted in cap –Other exempt H-1B workers

21 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 21 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap Exemptions Institutions of higher education Nonprofit entities related to or affiliated with institutions of higher education Nonprofit research organizations Governmental research organizations

22 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 22 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap Exemptions Holders of U.S. Masters or higher degrees 20,000 H-1B cap exemptions each fiscal year Random selection lottery, if necessary –Preceding the general 65,000 cap lottery –Advanced degree holders not selected for one of 20,000 exemptions also included in 65,000 cap lottery

23 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 23 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap Exemptions Holders of U.S. Masters or higher degrees Current year FY-2013 Advanced degree H-1B cap exemptions exhausted 6/7/12

24 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 24 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap Exemptions Holders of U.S. Masters or higher degrees Snapshot of prior year FY-2012 Advanced degree H-1B cap exemptions exhausted 10/19/11

25 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 25 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap Exemptions Holders of U.S. Masters or higher degrees Snapshot of prior year FY-2011 Advanced degree H-1B cap exemptions exhausted 12/22/10

26 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 26 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap Exemptions Holders of U.S. Masters or higher degrees Snapshot of prior year FY-2010 Advanced degree H-1B cap exemptions exhausted 10/25/09

27 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 27 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap Exemptions Holders of U.S. Masters or higher degrees Snapshot of prior year FY-2009 Advanced degree H-1B cap exemptions exhausted 4/7/08

28 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 28 H-1B “Specialty Occupation” H-1B Cap Exemptions Prospective H-1B employees previously granted H-1B status In the past 6 years Not left U.S. for >1 year after attaining H-1B status Not previously worked for a cap-exempt organization/not counted against the H-1B cap in past 6 years

29 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 29 F-1 OPT “Cap-Gap” Gap in status between Student’s F-1 status and OPT employment authorization expiration –In current fiscal year Start of H-1B status –In next fiscal year

30 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 30 F-1 OPT Cap-Gap relief for F-1 Students Where pending or approved H-1B petition For following fiscal year (with 10/1 start date) Automatically extends period of F-1 status and employment authorization Covers period between end of OPT/60-day departure period to start of following fiscal year H-1B petition approval start date

31 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 31 F-1 OPT Cap-Gap relief for F-1 Students Automatic extension terminates if CIS rejects, denies, or revokes H-1B petition Cap-Gap benefits only if no violation of status

32 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 32 Visa Alternatives to H-1B & OPT TN – NAFTA Professional Canada Mexico H-1B1 – FTA Professional Chile Singapore

33 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 33 Visa Alternatives to H-1B & OPT E-1 – Treaty Trader E-2 – Treaty Investor E-3 – Professional Australia L-1 – Intracompany Transferee O-1 – Extraordinary Ability

34 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 34 TN NAFTA Professional TN – NAFTA Professional Employer specific U.S. Employers Canadian or Mexican Employers Limited to Canadians and Mexicans 67 specified professions

35 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 35 TN NAFTA Professional TN – NAFTA Professional 3 Year maximum admission Effective 10/16/08 Increased admission/extension period from 1 to 3 years Indefinite extensions

36 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 36 TN NAFTA Professional TN – NAFTA Professional Canadians visa exempt Apply directly at Border or POE Mexicans require TN Visa Apply directly at U.S. Consular Post Changes as of January 2004 –5,500 FY Cap eliminated –LCA approval requirement eliminated –I-129 Petition approval requirement eliminated

37 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 37 H-1B1 FTA Professional H-1B1 – FTA Professional U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement Limit = 1,400 per FY U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Limit = 5,400 per FY “Specialty Occupation” requirement

38 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 38 H-1B1 FTA Professional H-1B1 – FTA Professional LCA requirement Limited to 18 months No “Dual Intent” as with regular H-1B’s Required to overcome presumption of “Immigrant Intent” After 5 renewals, counts against regular H-1B cap

39 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 39 H-1B1 FTA Professional H-1B1 – FTA Professional Application Options Primary U.S. embassies and consulates abroad –No CIS approval required Alternative application to CIS if in U.S. –If depart U.S., must apply for U.S. embassy or consulate abroad Change/Extension of status with CIS in U.S.

40 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 40 E-1 Treaty Trader E-1 – Treaty Trader Employer-Specific No prior employment abroad req’d (unlike L-1) Treaty must exist - U.S. & other country Majority ownership/control of U.S. entity At least 50% by treaty country nationals Excluding U.S. Citizens or Permanent Residents Direct and/or Indirect ownership 50/50 Split- Negative Control

41 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 41 E-1 Treaty Trader E-1 – Treaty Trader Sponsored employee must be citizen of treaty country With 50/50 ownership split U.S. entity can qualify for 2 different treaty countries 2 Year maximum visa validity period Indefinite extensions

42 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 42 E-1 Treaty Trader Application Options Primary U.S. embassies and consulates abroad –No CIS approval required Alternative application to CIS if in U.S. –If depart U.S., must apply for U.S. embassy or consulate abroad Change/Extension of status with CIS in U.S.

43 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 43 E-1 Treaty Trader E-1 Special Requirements Trade Exchange, purchase, or sale of goods, services or technology Substantial No minimum dollar threshold Volume of trade Number of transactions Includes binding contracts Continued course of trade

44 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 44 E-1 Treaty Trader E-1 Special Requirements Principally with U.S. 50%+ of total volume of international trade of the U.S. entity must consist of trade between U.S. and treaty country Duties Executive, Supervisory Highly Specialized Essential Skills Not including “ordinarily skilled” workers

45 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 45 E-1 Treaty Trader EB-1 Multinational Executive/Manager Greencard Benefit Skip PERM/Labor Certification

46 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 46 E-2 Treaty Investor E-2 – Treaty Investor Employer-Specific No prior employment abroad req’d (unlike L-1) Treaty must exist - U.S. & other country Majority ownership/control of U.S. entity At least 50% by treaty country nationals Excluding U.S. Citizens or Permanent Residents Direct and/or Indirect ownership 50/50 Split- Negative Control

47 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 47 E-2 Treaty Investor E-2 – Treaty Investor Sponsored employee must be citizen of treaty country With 50/50 ownership split U.S. entity can qualify for 2 different treaty countries 2 Year maximum visa validity period Indefinite extensions

48 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 48 E-2 Treaty Investor Application Options Primary U.S. embassies and consulates abroad –No CIS approval required Alternative application to CIS if in U.S. –If depart U.S., must apply for U.S. embassy or consulate abroad Change/Extension of status with CIS in U.S.

49 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 49 E-2 Treaty Investor E-2 Special Requirements Active investment Irrevocable commitment of funds Actual active investment Not passive investment –Uncommitted funds in bank account –Stocks –Undeveloped land Land development vs. land investment

50 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 50 E-2 Treaty Investor E-2 Special Requirements “Substantial” investment No minimum dollar amount –Standards for new or existing business Proportionality Test –Measured against the type of business –Small and medium businesses –The lower the cost of the enterprise, the higher proportionally the investment must be to be considered “substantial”

51 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 51 E-2 Treaty Investor E-2 Special Requirements “Substantial” investment Investment in process –Start-up company Investor’s own resources “At risk” in the commercial sense

52 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 52 E-2 Treaty Investor E-2 Special Requirements Cannot be “marginal” To only support the investor & his family Create job opportunities for U.S. workers –Employees –Outside contractors Significant impact upon U.S.

53 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 53 E-2 Treaty Investor E-2 Special Requirements Essential role in enterprise Investor to develop and direct investment Executives, Supervisors, Specially Qualified Essential employee Not including “ordinarily skilled” workers

54 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 54 E-2 Treaty Investor EB-1 Multinational Executive/Manager Greencard Benefit Skip PERM/Labor Certification

55 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 55 E-3 Australian Specialty Occupation Australian nationals Limit = 10,500 per FY

56 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 56 E-3 Australian Specialty Occupation E-3 – Australian Specialty Occupation Application Options Primary U.S. embassies and consulates abroad –No CIS approval required Alternative application to CIS if in U.S. –If depart U.S., must apply for U.S. embassy or consulate abroad Change/Extension of status with CIS in U.S.

57 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 57 E-3 Australian Specialty Occupation E-3 Special Requirements Employer-Specific Labor Condition Application required Same as H-1B Must meet “specialty occupation” definition Same as H-1B Requires bachelors degree or equivalent

58 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 58 E-3 Australian Specialty Occupation E-3 Special Requirements Limited to 2 years Unlimited extensions Intent to depart U.S. upon termination of E-3 status

59 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 59 L-1 Intracompany Transferee L-1 – Intracompany Transferee Employer specific Alien must be employed abroad by foreign entity 1 continuous year out of prior 3 years In “Executive,” “Managerial,” or “Specialized Knowledge” position Transfer to U.S. to fill “Executive, ” “Managerial,” or “Specialized Knowledge” position

60 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 60 L-1 Intracompany Transferee L-1 – Intracompany Transferee Foreign entity must be related to U.S. company Same company Subsidiary Affiliate

61 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 61 L-1 Intracompany Transferee L-1 – Intracompany Transferee Ownership/Control 50%+ ownership Effective control –With <50% ownership

62 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 62 L-1 Intracompany Transferee L-1 – Intracompany Transferee Qualifying Organization Doing business in U.S. and other country During whole period of transfer

63 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 63 L-1 Intracompany Transferee L-1 – Intracompany Transferee L-1A -- Executives & Managers L-1B -- Specialized Knowledge Personnel Visa Validity Terms 5-7 Year Maximum (3 years initially) Start-ups (1 year initially)

64 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 64 L-1 Intracompany Transferee L-1 – Intracompany Transferee EB-1 Multinational Executive/Manager Greencard Benefit Skip PERM/Labor Certification

65 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 65 O-1 Extraordinary Ability O-1 – Extraordinary Ability Employer-Specific Aliens of “Extraordinary Ability” Sciences, Arts, Education, Business & Athletics 3 Year maximum visa validity period Unlimited extensions

66 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 66 O-1 Extraordinary Ability O-1 Criteria Receipt of a major internationally recognized award e.g., the Nobel Prize Receipt of 3/10 of other forms documentation

67 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 67 O-1 Extraordinary Ability O-1 – 3/10 Criteria Nationally/Intl’ly recognized prizes/awards for excellence in the field of endeavor Membership in associations in the field which require outstanding achievements as judged by recognized nat’l or int’l experts Published material about the person in professional or major trade publications or other major media

68 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 68 O-1 Extraordinary Ability O-1 – 3/10 Criteria Participation (on a panel or individually) as a judge of the work of others in the field Original scientific, scholastic, artistic, athletic or business-related contributions of major significance in the field Authorship of scholarly articles in the field in professional journals or major media

69 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 69 O-1 Extraordinary Ability O-1 – 3/10 Criteria Employment in a critical or essential capacity for organizations or establishments that have distinguished reputations High salary or other high remuneration in relation to others in the field Other comparable evidence

70 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 70 O-1 Extraordinary Ability O-1 – Extraordinary Ability EB-1 Extraordinary Ability Greencard Benefit Skip PERM/Labor Certification

71 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 71 NIV Dependents Dependent Work Authorization Spouse Work Permits E-1 Treaty Trader E-2 Treaty Investor E-3 Australian Specialty Occupation L-1 Intracompany Transferee

72 November 6, 2012 Shulman, Rogers, Gandal, Pordy & Ecker, P.A. 72 Legal Disclaimer Facts of individual cases differ The information provided herein is general in nature and should not be relied upon Consult with an experienced immigration attorney with regard to specific cases


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