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Budget Policy & Fiscal Framework Bhutan’s Macro-economy and Public Finances in the Medium-Term Eleventh Round Table Meeting THIMPHU 2 nd September, 2011 Ministry of Finance Royal Government of Bhutan © mof_rgob
Outline 1.The Budget Policy & Fiscal Framework (BPFF) 2.Macroeconomic Outlook in the Medium Term (Fiscal Years 2009/10 – 2013/14) 3.Projections of Public Finance 4.Public Expenditure Management Initiatives 5.Domestic Financing Trends 6.Official Development Assistance © mof_rgob
The Framework: Basis 1.Result of reforms in Good Governance (2005). 2.A starting point for the Government’s Resource Allocation Mechanism (RAM). 3.A first, necessary step for implementing Multi- year Rolling Budgets (MYRBs). 4.Links policies and plans (i.e. Five Year Plans, Vision 2020, and MDGs) to the annual budgets. 5.Adopted as per the Public Finance Act © mof_rgob
The Framework: Principles 1.A move from needs-based to availability-based budgeting. 2.Determines resource envelope and project revenue requirements. 3.Fundamental principles: a.Maintain aggregate fiscal discipline. b.Allocate budgetary resources efficiently. c.Ensure value for money spent. 4.Typically covers a period of current year’s estimate and actuals or projections for two outer years on a rolling (1+2) basis. © mof_rgob
The Framework: Process © mof_rgob Macroeconomic Framework Coordination Committee (MFCC) : Secretarial-level policy and decision-making body Macroeconomic Framework Coordination Technical Committee (MFCTC) : Agency-level technical analysis body Department of Energy, Ministry of Economic Affairs Research & Statistics Department, Royal Monetary Authority National Accounts & Price Division, National Statistics Bureau Development Cooperation Division, Gross National Happiness Commission Department of Revenue & Customs, Ministry of Finance Department of Public Accounts, Ministry of Finance Policy & Planning Division, Ministry of Finance Department of National Budget, Ministry of Finance Electricity Projections BoP Projections GDP Projections Grants Projections Revenue Projections Debt Projections Expenditure Projections * Compilation and/or Fiscal Projections * Set Fiscal Targets; Budget Ceiling; and, Resource targets in the Medium Term Projections of macroeconomic and fiscal aggregates in the medium term
Macroeconomic Outlook © mof_rgob Table 1. BPFF: Macroeconomic Aggregates FY09/10FY10/11FY11/12FY12/13FY13/14 Average: 2011 – 2014 ActualRevisionEstimateProjection In Millions Ngultrum (unless otherwise stated) Real GDP Growth (%) Nominal GDP 66, , , , , , Agriculture, Livestock & Forestry Industry Services Inflation Current Account Balance -8, , , , , , Trade Balance -13, , , , , , Capital & Financial Account 7, , , , , , Overall Balance 4, , , , , ,195.58
Macroeconomic Outlook © mof_rgob Table 1. BPFF: Macroeconomic Aggregates (Continued) FY09/10FY10/11FY11/12FY12/13FY13/14 Average: 2011 – 2014 ActualRevisionEstimateProjection In Millions Ngultrum (unless otherwise stated) External Debt Outstanding 35, , , , , , As a % of Nominal GDP Rupee (India) Debt 18, , , , , Hydropower Debt 22, , , , , , As a % of Total Debt As a % of Total External Debt Total External Debt Service 4, , , , , , External Debt Service Ratio Gross International Reserves ($) , , , , In Months of Imports of GNFS
Macroeconomic Updates 1.Projections of growth rely disproportionately on accurately sequencing construction cycles of hydropower projects. 2.Recent price pressures threaten to erode strong gains in growth. 3.Favorable overall balance albeit import and aid dependency. 4.Foreign reserve accumulation not a result of export performance. © mof_rgob
Macroeconomic Updates 5.Unemployment rate at 3.3% in CY Price, interest, and exchange rates in Bhutan, for the most part, fluctuate in tandem with rates in India. 7.Significant increase in public external debt obligations on account of ‘commercially viable’ hydropower projects. 8.Excluding private debt, government debt service ratio at 14% (of exports of goods & services). © mof_rgob
Public Finance Projections © mof_rgob BPFF projections going forward; critical assumptions: a.Capital expenditure remains dependent on external financing. b.No new (ODA) commitments beyond the end of the Tenth Five Year Plan (FY 2012/13). 2.Current expenditures fully met through domestic revenues in the medium term.
Public Finance Projections © mof_rgob Table 2. BPFF: Public Finance Aggregates FY09/10FY10/11FY11/12FY12/13FY13/14 Average: 2011 – 2014 ActualRevisionBudgetedProjection In Millions Ngultrum (unless otherwise stated) Resource (Revenue + Grants) 30, , , , , , Domestic Revenue 15, , , , , , Tax Revenue 9, , , , , Grants 11, , , , , Project-tied Grants 9, , , , , Programme Grants 1, , , , Outlay (Total Exp. + Net Lending) 29, , , , , , Total Expenditure 25, , , , , , Current Expenditure 12, , , , , , Capital Expenditure 12, , , , , ,466.27
Public Finance Projections © mof_rgob Table 2. BPFF: Public Finance Aggregates (Continued) FY09/10FY10/11FY11/12FY12/13FY13/14 Average: 2011 – 2014 ActualRevisionBudgetedProjection In Millions Ngultrum (unless otherwise stated) Net Lending Fiscal Balance 1, , , , , , As a % of Nominal GDP Financing , , , , Borrowing 2, , , , Repayment 2, , , , , Resource Gap -1, , , , ,402.62Σ 23, As a % of Nominal GDP
Public Finance Updates 1.Government spending drives overall growth in Bhutan. 2.Internal resources adequate to meet current expenses as per Constitutional stipulation. 3.Projections of sustainable fiscal balances upto the end of the 10 th FYP assumes continued inflow of already committed ODA. © mof_rgob
Public Finance Updates 4.Predictable and adequate capital inflows (grants, aid, concessional loans) in the medium to long term important for framing a robust resource picture for Eleventh Five Year Plan. 5.Fiscal size expected to contract – ceteris paribus – in the medium term as 10 th FYP winds down. 6.Public debt burgeoning despite being deemed sustainable under most scenarios of sensitivity analyses. © mof_rgob
PEM Initiatives 1.Multi Year Rolling Budget (MYRB) a.Web-based budgeting and budget management module. b.Move towards performance budgeting. c.Central part of the Government’s efforts to ensure effective use of public resources. 2.Public Expenditure Management System (PEMS) a.Web-based system introduced to strengthen the Government’s financial management system. b.Upgraded from the former Budget & Accounting System (BAS). © mof_rgob
PEM Initiatives 3.Public Financial Management Accountability Assessment (PFMA-A) – The World Bank (2010) a.31 key indicators of aggregate fiscal discipline; strategic allocation of resources; efficient service delivery; and, overall reform processes. b.Finds a strong foundation for public finance management and good governance in place. © mof_rgob
PEM Initiatives 4.Debt Management Performance Assessment (DeMPA) – The World Bank and Debt Relief International (2010) a.Assessment of a country’s capacity to manage its debt. Finds Bhutan’s policy and institutional settings are strong. b.Bhutan’s debt structure poses low (fiscal) risks as purposes for borrowing are clearly specified; in line with primary legislation; and, not to finance current expenditure. © mof_rgob
PEM Initiatives 5.Cost Reduction Measures a.To control and minimize wasteful expenses in office utilities and stationeries; pool vehicles; hospitality; advertisement; and, purchase of computers. 6.Reforms in Procurement System (2011) a.Establishment of the Procurement Policy and Management Divisions (2009 and 2011). b.To assess and introduce efficient procurement methods and standardize goods/services. c.Central procurement of widely-used goods. © mof_rgob
Domestic Financing Trends © mof_rgob Table 3. BPFF: Domestic Revenue FY09/10FY10/11FY11/12FY12/13FY13/14 Average: 2011 – 2014 ActualRevisionBudgetedProjection In Millions Ngultrum (unless otherwise stated) Total Domestic Revenue 15, , , , , Year-on-Year Growth As a % of Total Expenditure As a % of Current Expenditure Tax Revenue9, , , , , Year-on-Year Growth As a % of Total Domestic Revenue Non-tax Revenue5, , , , , Year-on-Year Growth As a % of Total Domestic Revenue
Domestic Financing Trends © mof_rgob Total Expenditure
External Financing Trends © mof_rgob Table 4. BPFF: Official Development Assistance/Grants FY09/10FY10/11FY11/12FY12/13FY13/14 Average: 2011 – 2014 ActualRevisionBudgetedProjection In Millions Ngultrum (unless otherwise stated) Total Grants 11, , , , , As a % of Total Expenditure As a % of Capital Expenditure Grants from India 7, , , , As a % of Capital Expenditure As a % of Total Grants Grants from OBM-DPs * 3, , , , As a % of Capital Expenditure As a % of Total Grants
External Financing Trends © mof_rgob Total Expenditure
External Financing 1.ODAs highly effective for Bhutan. 2.On average, 39% of total expenditure and 74% of capital expenditures of first three budgets of the 10 th FYP funded by ODAs. 3.India is Bhutan’s largest development partner with 70% on average of total development assistance from FY 2009/10 to FY 2011/12. © mof_rgob
External Financing 4.Major bilateral development partners such as Austria, Denmark, Japan, Netherlands, and Switzerland; and multilateral partners like the UN Agencies, EU, The World Bank, ADB, IFAD, etc … remain key to development. 5.International development partners funded – on average – 12% of total expenditure and 24% of capital expenditure in the first three years of the 10 th FYP. © mof_rgob
External Financing 6.Under current assumptions, capital investment expected to decline significantly in the medium term as ODAs projected to decrease without a clear alternative or substitute avenue for financing; 7.And, given the growing trends in fiscal deficits and a projected resource gap of over Nu. 23 billion in the medium term: © mof_rgob
External Financing 8.Exacerbate Bhutan’s existing external debt profile; 9.Thus, hindering critical development investment and the full achievement of international development goals such as the MDGs and Bhutan’s own Vision 2020 Goals. 10.ODA remains a necessary development input to Bhutan’s aspirations of Gross National Happiness in the foreseeable future. © mof_rgob
Thank you © mof_rgob
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