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Managing Contemporary Information System 5/2/20151.

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Presentation on theme: "Managing Contemporary Information System 5/2/20151."— Presentation transcript:

1 Managing Contemporary Information System 5/2/20151

2 Reason for Communication People found there was a real need to communicate. With that communication they realized their lives were better and more pleasant. They started to observe what were the best ways to communicate. After centuries of development, study and analysis modern day communication has revolutionized the way we send, share, connect, exchange, speak and impact people in today’s world. 5/2/20152

3 Communication as a Process Is a process in which people share information, ideas, and feelings. We use it to persuade, influence, inform, share, discover, and uncover information. Involves not only the spoken and written word but also body language, personal mannerisms and style- anything that adds meaning to a message. It is vital in all areas of our lives. 5/2/20153

4 Communication as a Process It is an exchanging of information through a common protocol. 5/2/20154

5 FEATURES  PERSONAL PROCESS  OCCURS BETWEEN PEOPLE  INVOLVES CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR  MEANS TO INFLUENCE OTHERS  EXPRESSION OF THOUGHTS AND EMOTIONS THROUGH WORDS & ACTIONS.  TOOLS FOR CONTROLLING AND MOTIVATING PEOPLE.  IT IS A SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL PROCESS 5/2/20155

6 Effective and efficient communication: – Effective communication Occurs when the intended meaning of the sender is identical to the interpreted meaning of the receiver. – Efficient communication Occurs at a minimum resource cost. 5/2/20156

7 Functions of Communication Control Motivation Emotional Expression Information 5/2/20157

8 Ch. 1, Slide 8 The Communication Process Basic Model 2. Sender encodes idea in message 2. Sender encodes idea in message 3. Message travels over channel 3. Message travels over channel 1. Sender has idea 1. Sender has idea 4. Receiver decodes message 4. Receiver decodes message 6. Possible additional feedback to receiver 6. Possible additional feedback to receiver 5. Feedback travels to sender 5. Feedback travels to sender 5/2/2015

9 Elements of Communication Sender-Receivers – the people Messages – ideas and feelings to be shared Symbols ( something that stands for something else) – verbal, concrete, abstract, nonverbal Channels – the route traveled by a message – sound and sight (listen and look at each other) – the media (radio, records, television, newspapers, magazines) Feedback – the response Noise – the interference Setting – Where the communication occurs 5/2/20159

10 Ch. 1, Slide 10 The Communication Process Expanded Model 5/2/2015

11 Communication Fundamentals Direction: Downward Upward Crosswise Networks: Formal vs. Informal 5/2/201511

12 Types of Communication Downwards Communication : Highly Directive, from Senior to subordinates, to assign duties, give instructions, to inform to offer feed back, approval to highlight problems etc. Upwards Communications: It is non directive in nature from down below, to give feedback, to inform about progress/problems, seeking approvals. Lateral or Horizontal Communication:Among colleagues, peers at same level for information level for information sharing for coordination, to save time. 5/2/201512

13 HIERARCHY LEVEL Horizontal Comm. 5/2/201513

14 Types of Communication Intrapersonal – It occurs within a person. Occurs within us, involves thoughts, feelings, and the way we look at ourselves. Interpersonal – Communication where one person is interacting with another on a one- to-one basis (usually informal) Small-group – A few people who meet to do a job or solve a problem. – Small enough for all to interact Public – A person sends a message to an audience. Ethical – That is honest, fair and considerate of other’s rights. Intercultural – Message sent to a group of people who share a distinct set of norms. – When two or more people from different cultures interact. 5/2/201514

15 COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Formal Network : Virtually vertical as per chain go command within the hierarchy. Informal Network Free to move in any direction may skip formal chain of command. Likely to satisfy social and emotional 5/2/201515

16 Communication Networks Chain WheelAll Channels 5/2/201516

17 Additional Types of Communication Formal and Informal Diagonal Persuasive Vertical Verbal and Non – verbal Visual Written Internal and external 5/2/201517

18 Formal Communication Communications which are routed through what have been known as ‘official channels,’ Ex: a written memorandum from a managing director to his / her departmental heads to call a meeting. 5/2/201518

19 Informal Communication Information is passed on by word of mouth among interested colleagues who have received it from various sources e.g. visits. 5/2/201519

20 Grapevine Grapevine Characteristics – Informal, not controlled by management. – Perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications. – Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who use it. – Results from: Desire for information about important situations Ambiguous conditions Conditions that cause anxiety 5/2/201520

21 Diagonal Communication There is no obvious line of authority through which a middle manager may want a service or job to be done. 5/2/201521

22 Persuasive Communication Information given with the idea to change or alter: – an opinion – A thought – idea – belief – conviction – Principle – ECT. 5/2/201522

23 Vertical Communication The principal channel for routing directions, instructions and policies from top decision makers down through the organization to the people, who at various levels will implement them. 5/2/201523

24 Verbal Communication Includes speaking to another person over the telephone, face to face etc, in a discussion, debate, interview, presentation etc. 5/2/201524

25 Non-verbal Communication There is no spoken language e.g., eye contact, body language, sign language etc. 5/2/201525

26 5/2/201526

27 Visual Communication There's an old saying that "a picture is worth a thousand words." Life would indeed be difficult without paintings, photographs, diagrams, charts, drawings, and graphic symbols. These are some of the reasons why SHOWING is such an important form of communication. Most people understand things better when they have seen how they work. Involved, complex ideas can be presented clearly and quickly using visual aids. People retain information longer when it is presented to them visually. Visuals can be used to communicate to a wide range of people with differing backgrounds. 5/2/201527

28 Visual Communication Visuals are useful when trying to condense information into a short time period. Visual aids--used imaginatively and appropriately--will help your audience remember more. Consider the following: People think in terms of images, not words, so visuals help them retain and recall technical information. Visuals attract and hold the attention of observers. Visuals simplify technical information. Visuals may be useful in presenting technical information to a non-technical audience. 5/2/201528

29 Written Communication When the message being sent is displayed in writing, e.g. , letters, fax etc. Written materials often bear the greatest burden for the communication of new ideas and procedures. Effective writing is the product of long hours of preparation, revision and organization. Clear, vigorous writing is a product of clear, vigorous thinking. Clarity is born of discipline and imagination. 5/2/201529

30 Internal and External Communication There are various methods of internal communication, which can be used in an organization. These include notices, bulletins, newsletters, fax, letters, telephone, memos, communication by computer, face to face, reports, memorandums etc. 5/2/201530

31 Barriers to communication Noise Inappropriate medium Assumptions/Misconceptions Emotions Language differences Poor listening skills Distractions 5/2/201531

32 TO OVERCOME BARRIERS: èLearn to use feedback well. èBe sensitive to receiver’s point of view. èListen to UNDERSTAND! èUse direct, simple language, or at least use language appropriate to the receiver. èUse proper channel(s). Learn to use channels well. èLearn to use supportive communication, not defensive communication. 5/2/201532

33 References Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Communication: Process and Product, 5e 5/2/201533


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