Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Ice Core Paleoclimate Research Group Lonnie G. Thompson Henry Brecher Mary Davis Paolo Gabrielli Ping-Nan Lin Matt Makou Victor Zagorodnov Understanding.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Ice Core Paleoclimate Research Group Lonnie G. Thompson Henry Brecher Mary Davis Paolo Gabrielli Ping-Nan Lin Matt Makou Victor Zagorodnov Understanding."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ice Core Paleoclimate Research Group Lonnie G. Thompson Henry Brecher Mary Davis Paolo Gabrielli Ping-Nan Lin Matt Makou Victor Zagorodnov Understanding Global Climate and Environmental Change Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Professor (Atmospheric Science) Director, Byrd Polar Research Center The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio, USA Funding provided by: NSF: Paleoclimate and Polar Programs NASA: Earth Sciences (Glaciology) NOAA: Paleoclimatology Gary Comer Foundation OSU Climate, Water & Carbon Program Graduate Students: Liz Birkos Aron Buffen Natalie Kehrwald David Urmann Lijia Wei The Human Footprint on Earth Image: NASA

2 Our Earth is warming! - some changes are unprecedented for thousands of years - some changes are occurring rapidly (years to decades) rapid changes can pose severe challenges for adaptation Environmental conditions are changing! 2005 warmest year on record 0.75°C ( ◦ C) Year A.D. Global Temperature Change (ºC) Year A.D. relative to the mean Mean Surface Temperature Anomaly ( ◦ C) Global.54 relative to the mean ºC Climate is changing differently across the globe!

3 Natural mechanisms influence climate Changes in the Sun Changes in the amount of volcanic aerosols in the atmosphere Internal variability of the coupled atmosphere-ocean system (e.g., ENSO, monsoon systems, NAO) Natural mechanisms

4 Human factors also influence climate Non-natural mechanisms Changes in the concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases Changes in aerosols and particles from burning fossil fuels (sulfate aerosols) and biomass (black carbon) Changes in the reflectivity (albedo) of the Earth’s surface Smoke from fires in Guatemala and Mexico (May 14, 1998)

5 ? ? Pre-anthropogenic level

6 Lüthi et al., Nature, May 15, 2008 Today: CO 2 is 378 ppmv CH 4 is 1750 ppbv Today: CO 2 is 387 ppmv CH 4 is 1800 ppbv Thousands of Years (B.P.) IPCC 2000 Scenario A1B for 2100 AD CO 2 remains in the atmosphere from 70 to 120 years Carbon Dioxide & Methane Concentrations Past, Present and Future Dome C EPICA Dome C ice core extends back through eight glacial and interglacial stages (800,000 years) recording changes in the composition of Earth's atmosphere

7 - Recent and rapid melting of glaciers in non-polar regions around the world Many observed changes that are broadly consistent with an increase in the radiative heating of Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere Climatologically we are in unfamiliar territory, and the world’s ice cover is responding dramatically.

8

9 Gangapurna Glacier 1957 ~ m thinning / year Courtesy Doug Burbank, UCSB Massive retreat of low-latitude glaciers today 2002

10 Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru L.G. Thompson, OSU

11 Kilimanjaro has lost 85% of its ice cover since 1912 Thompson et al., PNAS, 2009, in press, November issue

12 - Increase in global ocean surface temperatures of 0.35°C since warming evident at all latitudes over all ocean basins - to depths of at least 3000 meters Many observed changes that are broadly consistent with an increase in the radiative heating of Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere - Decreases in the area covered by seasonally frozen ground in the high northern latitudes - Reduction by about 2 weeks of the annual duration of northern lake and river ice - Recent and rapid melting of glaciers in non-polar regions around the world - Dramatic decreases in the areal coverage and thickness of Arctic sea ice

13 - Rising sea level - Increases in atmospheric moisture content (increased evaporation) - Changes in extremes are consistent with warming - increase in heat waves globally - widespread increase in warm nights - rarer occurrences of cold days, cold nights and days with frost These many independent observations and the physical consistency among them form the basis for the 2007 conclusion by the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) that “warming of the climate is unequivocal” Many observed changes are broadly consistent with an increase in the radiative heating of Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere

14 “ Warming of the climate system is unequivocal” “Most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20 th century is very likely* due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations.” * Very likely means 90% confidence A 3-year effort 152 authors (30 countries) > 600 reviewers Approved by 113 governments

15 observations Global and Continental Temperature Change from 1900 to 2000 AD natural forcings only natural and anthropogenic forcings IPCC Fourth Assessment February 2007

16 Global Temperature (°C) N.H. Temperature (°C) IPCC 4 th Assessment (2007) Projection for 2100 AD 2.0 – 4.5 o C Year (A.D.) Year A.D.. Northern Hemisphere temperature (°C) for the last 1000 years

17 Global Temperature (°C) Year (A.D.) Year A.D.. Global average surface temperature is heading not only far outside the range of variation of the last 1000 years but outside the range experienced in the tenure of Homo sapiens on Earth. Future energy policy will determine this This warming has already occurred

18 Recent Assessments Reports/Scientific Assessment FULL Report.pdf Report of the Committee on Environment and Natural Resources National Science and Technology Council May p/sap4-3/final-report/default.htm Report from U.S. Climate Change Science Program 2008

19 scientific-assessments/us-impacts Recent Assessment 2009


Download ppt "Ice Core Paleoclimate Research Group Lonnie G. Thompson Henry Brecher Mary Davis Paolo Gabrielli Ping-Nan Lin Matt Makou Victor Zagorodnov Understanding."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google