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G GE Global Research Large Scale Wind Hydrogen Systems Sept, 2003 Ellen Liu GE Global Research.

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Presentation on theme: "G GE Global Research Large Scale Wind Hydrogen Systems Sept, 2003 Ellen Liu GE Global Research."— Presentation transcript:

1 g GE Global Research Large Scale Wind Hydrogen Systems Sept, 2003 Ellen Liu GE Global Research

2 g Wind Power and Large Scale Hydrogen Production Wind Power for Renewable Hydrogen Production Has Great Potential  The Opportunity: Renewable routes to Hydrogen-required to reduce oil dependency and green house gas emissions and improve urban air quality  The Competition: Gasoline-inexpensive at $1.50/Gal: $14/MBTU or 5 ¢/kWh.  The Goal: US DOE Hydrogen cost target-$2/kg or 6 ¢/kWh.  The Candidate: Wind power is commercially viable - COE reduced to ~ 4 ¢/kWh 1.2 B$ Freedom CAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) Initiative will create large demand for low cost/high volume Hydrogen fuel supply  Fossil fuel replacement will require industrial scale hydrogen production, storage and delivery systems  US Today: 84% of hydrogen produced via natural gas reforming w/o carbon sequestration GM Hy-Wire Fuel Cell Car

3 g GE Global Research Electrolyzer - Water purification - Regulators - Gas dryer - Shutdown Switch - etc. Hydrogen Storage Grid H 2 Gas + - V Water Supply H 2 Trucking H 2 Pipeline O 2 Gas Peak Shaving ICE/Fuel Cell Power Conditioner -Grid Interconnector -Max Power Tracker -AC/DC converter -Power Supply Switch -etc. Control Systems Local H 2 Use Wind-Hydrogen System Concept Wind-Hydrogen Forms a Green Energy Cycle and is Technically Feasible

4 g GE Global Research Opportunity Assessment: NY State Wind-H 2 New York Petroleum Usage (310 MM Barrels/year) FEASIBLE: Replace 50% of NY Oil use with Hydrogen from renewable energy sources-Wind Power is Vital NY Wind Potentials: 4GW onshore 8GW offshore NY Wind Map Potential Wind Farms Tug Hill Plateau Long Island

5 g GE Global Research Hydrogen Buffer Storage O 2 Gas 200 MW 4500 kg/hr, 25 bar 3 gal/kg H bar Plateau-Syracuse: 30 miles Hydrogen pipeline 10” Diameter, 25 bar $1MM /mile  ~99% (30 miles) 200 MW $1000/kW  ~75% 4500kg (150 MWh) $100/kWh  ~ 99% H 2 Production - Pipeline Delivery (Tug Hill -Syracuse) 500 MW $1000/kW  ~ 40% Water Consumption 324,000 gal/day H 2 production: 107,000 $3.5/kg 6 MW $1000/kW  ~80% H 2 production: 108,000 $3.4/kg

6 g GE Global Research Offshore Wind - Onshore H 2 Production (Long Island) Offshore Wind - Onshore H 2 Production (Long Island) Hydrogen Buffer Storage O 2 Gas 220 MW 4950kg/hr, 25 bar 220 MW ~ $1000/kW  ~75% 4950kg (150 MWh) ~ $100/kWh  ~99% 500 MW ~ $1200/kW  ~45% Water Consumption 356,400 gal/day 150 kV AC sub-sea cable ~ $1.2 MM/mile  ~ 98% 8 miles GH 2 ~ 98 trucks (180kg/truck) ~ 60,000/truck  ~85% (40miles) H 2 production: 100,980 $4.15/kg H 2 production: 118,000 $3.5/kg 3 gal/kg H 2 6 MW  ~80% 350 bar NOTE: Assuming trucks are powered by H 2

7 g GE Global Research North Dakota: The “Saudi Arabia” of Wind Enough wind potential to supply 1/3 of the electricity consumption of the lower 48 states. No major load centers – need to transmit power to remote locations Potential to become an clean fuel supplier to Minneapolis & Chicago: Electricity (through power transmission lines) Hydrogen (through pipelines) Opportunity Assessment: ND Wind-H 2 Wind Resources & Infrastructure Challenges

8 g GE Global Research Hydrogen Buffer Storage O 2 Gas 200 MW 4500 kg/hr, 25 bar 350 bar 10” Diameter, 25 bar $1MM /mile  ~85% (1000 miles) 200 MW $1000/kW  ~75% 4500 kg (150 MWh) $100/kWh H 2 Production with Pipeline Delivery (ND-Chicago) North Dakota - Chicago 1000 miles 500 MW $1000/kW util. 40% Water Consumption 324,000 gal/day H 2 production: 91,809 $8.9/kg 100 miles 1 MW 6 MW $1000/kW  ~80% North Dakota-Chicago: 1000 miles Hydrogen pipeline 3 gal/kg H 2 NOTE: Assuming pumps along pipeline are powered by H 2

9 g GE Global Research Hydrogen Buffer Storage O 2 Gas 200 MW 3825 kg/hr, 25 bar 350 bar North Dakota-Chicago: 1000 miles 170 MW $1000/kW  ~75% 3060 kg (102 MWh) $100/kWh HVDC Transmission (ND-Chicago) – H 2 Production HVDC Transmission (ND-Chicago) – H 2 Production 500 MW $1000/kW util. 40% Water 275,427 gal/day H 2 Production 91,810 $8.85/kg HVDC Electricity Transmission Cable 2/3 Overhead: $0.8 MM/mile 1/3 Underground cable: $1.2 MM/mile  ~85% (1000 miles) 5 MW North Dakota - Chicago 1000 miles 3 gal/kg H 2

10 g GE Global Research Hydrogen Delivery Alternatives

11 g GE Global Research Wind-Hydrogen System Economics COE, Electrolyzer Cost and Efficiency are the Major Cost Factors for Hydrogen H 2 at gate System Sensibility Analysis NOTE: no energy delivery considered

12 g GE Global Research Percent Percent Percent 0:0006:0012:0018:00 24:00 75 Time of Day H 2 Production Electricity Production Dedicated Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Off-Peak, Electricity On-Peak Hydrogen Off-Peak, Hydrogen+Electricity On-Peak H 2 Production H 2 Electricity Production Grid-connected Wind-Hydrogen System Dedicated hydrogen production Off-peak hydrogen production H2 production only during off-peak electrical demand hours when low-cost electricity is available Full off-peak H2 production 24h/day, but lower during on- peak electricity demand times Stand-alone Wind-Hydrogen System H 2 refueling station at remote, isolated area: island, rural area, Alaska, etc. Wind-electrolysis-fuel cell/H 2 ICE (  -turbine) system, wind-reversible electrolysis Wind hybrid system with H 2 production Viable Wind-Hydrogen System Options

13 g GE Global Research Current Technology:  State of the Art Alkaline Electrolyzer, Efficiency: 60-70% (LHV)  Operating temperature: up to 80 o C  Operating pressure: 1 atm – 25 atm  Cost: ~$1000/kW - $2500/kW Electrolyzer Technologies Future Technology: increase capacity, efficiency and reduce cost  System efficiency should reach 70-80% (LHV) by advanced electrolyzer technology  Industrial size electrolyzer (MW level)  Cost should be reduced to $300/kW - $500/kW (COH at $2/kg)  Integration with renewables (wind, PV, geothermal, etc.) New Technology Development Required for Megawatt Scale Electrolyzer Stuart Electrolyzer

14 g GE Global Research Current Technologies  Compression Processes High energy consumption: losses 15-30% High capital cost for large quantity storage: $ /kW Pressure to bar  Liquefaction Processes High energy consumption: losses 40-50% High capital cost: $ /kW  Compressed Storage Large space required for large quantity storage: limited by pressure (5000 psi now)  Liquid Storage Boil-off: %/day Advanced Storage Technologies:  Low pressure “solid state” : Metal Hydrides, Chemical Hydrides  Large capacity : underground tankage  Low cost: storage material systems design, compression & liquefaction processes Currently: Intense Focus on On-Board Vehicle Storage Future: Effort Required for Industrial Scale Storage Industrial Scale H 2 Stationary Storage Challenge

15 g GE Global Research Hydrogen Delivery: Pipelines Current Status: Hydrogen PipelineOil & Natural Gas Pipeline 450 miles in USOil: 200,000 miles Natural Gas: 1.3 million miles $500K - $1.5 million /mile$200K- $800K/mile H 2 pipeline efficiency is comparable with Natural Gas Pipeline Future Needs:  Reduce pipeline cost: increase system life, solve embrittlement  Explore the options: modify NG or oil pipelines to carry H 2  High pressure H 2 : new pipe materials & systems  H 2 pipeline safety management Hydrogen Pipeline Practical but Expensive Praxair's Gulf Coast Hydrogen Pipeline System

16 g GE Global Research  Technical Feasibility: Hydrogen production and distribution are feasible  Commercial Viability: Current technologies are immature or high cost  System Optimization Required: Integrating electricity-Hydrogen energy carriers into the current and future energy infrastructure  New Technology Opportunities: MW scale, high efficiency and low cost electrolyzers with variable power capability Electrolyzer integration and optimization with wind turbine generator Large-scale, high density/pressure, low cost hydrogen storage Energy efficient and cost effective compression and liquefaction processes Reliable, Low Cost hydrogen energy delivery High pressure, low cost hydrogen pipelines (pipe materials of construction, infrastructure, etc.) Electricity transmission with distributed H 2 production Fuel Flexible IC & GT engines capable of utilizing hydrogen and other fuels Wind Power-H 2 Generation Summary Wind - Hydrogen is a viable “green energy” solution. Hydrogen infrastructure and new technologies are required.


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