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1 HAIR CARE Original presentation by: Assoc. Prof. Dr.Pleumchitt Rojanapanthu Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

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Presentation on theme: "1 HAIR CARE Original presentation by: Assoc. Prof. Dr.Pleumchitt Rojanapanthu Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 HAIR CARE Original presentation by: Assoc. Prof. Dr.Pleumchitt Rojanapanthu Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Edited by: Ellen Berwick

2 2 HairHair Getting to know hair Types of hair Types of hair Hair structure Hair structure Hair growth cycle Hair growth cycle Hair Color Hair Color Physical properties of hair Physical properties of hair Chemical properties of hair Chemical properties of hair

3 3 Shampoos Shampoos Conditioners Conditioners “2 in 1” shampoos “2 in 1” shampoos Hair sprays Hair sprays Hair gels Hair gels Perming solutions Perming solutions Hair dyes Hair dyes General remarks about product development General remarks about product development Hair Care Products that affect Chemistry

4 4 Getting to Know Hair All land mammals including humans have hairy skins Hair characteristics (like your eyes and skin) are inherited directly from our parents hair color hair color hair type hair type

5 5 Human are covered all over in hair except on Human are covered all over in hair except on the palms of hands the palms of hands the sole of the feet the sole of the feet the lips the lips Hair is most obvious on the head and face Hair is most obvious on the head and face including the nose and ears in some people including the nose and ears in some people the armpits / the groin the armpits / the groin the chest and legs (in men) the chest and legs (in men) Hair distribution

6 6 Average : 100, ,000 hair follicles Average : 100, ,000 hair follicles Baby’s head : 1,100 follicles/m 2 Baby’s head : 1,100 follicles/m 2 Age 25 : ~ 600/m 2 Age 25 : ~ 600/m 2 Age : ~ /m 2 Age : ~ /m 2 Each follicle grow about 20 new hairs in lifetime Each follicle grow about 20 new hairs in lifetime Each new hair grows several year 1 meter Each new hair grows several year 1 meter Each hair falls out eventually and is replaced Each hair falls out eventually and is replaced by a new hair How much hair do we have

7 7 Different people have hair that differs in color, length, diameter, distribution Different people have hair that differs in color, length, diameter, distribution Influence factors : Racial type and Age Influence factors : Racial type and Age Variation in human hair

8 8 Three types of hair: Lanuga hair develops on an unborn baby develops on an unborn baby 3 months after the baby’s conception 3 months after the baby’s conception fine and soft fine and soft grows all over the body, at the same rate grows all over the body, at the same rate shed about 4 weeks before the baby is due to born shed about 4 weeks before the baby is due to born

9 9 Vellus hairs short hair, only 1 or 2 cm long short hair, only 1 or 2 cm long contains little or no pigment contains little or no pigment follicle doesn’t have oil glands follicle doesn’t have oil glands

10 10 long hairs that grow on the head, body, arms long hairs that grow on the head, body, arms and legs and legs produced by follicles with sebaceous glands produced by follicles with sebaceous glands people inherited a tendency for baldness where the hair become thinner and shorter until look people inherited a tendency for baldness where the hair become thinner and shorter until look like vellus hair like vellus hair Terminal hairs

11 11 d Vellus hairs on a woman’s chin. These are normal when female hormones decline, hairs on the chin can grow as strongly as terminal hairs

12 12 a tiny cup-shaped pit buried deep in the fat of the scalp a tiny cup-shaped pit buried deep in the fat of the scalp follicle is the point from which the hair grows follicle is the point from which the hair grows well supplied with minute blood vessels well supplied with minute blood vessels temperature is not affected by cold or hot water temperature is not affected by cold or hot water the rate of growth depends on the the rate of growth depends on the amount of natural light : growing a little faster in winter when the days are short Hair Structure Hair follicle

13 13 Hair follicle Hair bulb Hair follicle Hair bulb Hair shaft Hair shaft Hair bulb Hair bulb - lines in side the hair follicle - is a structure of actively growing cells - produce a long fine cylinder of hair - new cells are continuously produced in the lower part of the bulb part of the bulb

14 14 (a) Longitudinal section of a hair within its follicle. (b) Enlarged longitudinal section of a hair.

15 15 (c) Enlarged longitudinal view of the expanded hair bulb of (c) Enlarged longitudinal view of the expanded hair bulb of the follicle which encloses the matrix, actively dividing epithelial the follicle which encloses the matrix, actively dividing epithelial cells that produce the hair. cells that produce the hair.

16 16 (d) Cross section of a hair and hair follicle.

17 17 (e) Photomicrograph of scalp tissue showing numerous hair follicles (24 X ). hair follicles (24 X ).

18 18 Scanning electron micrograph showing a hair shaft emerging from a follicle at the epidermal surface. Notice how the scalelike cells of the cuticle overlap one another (1500 x).

19 19 can be seen above the scalp can be seen above the scalp consist mainly of dead cells consist mainly of dead cells Keratin + binding material + small amount of water terminal hairs are lubricated by natural oil (sebum) produced by sebaceous glands terminal hairs are lubricated by natural oil (sebum) produced by sebaceous glands high level of hormones (androgens) high level of sebum high level of hormones (androgens) high level of sebum The Hair Shaft

20 20 scales growing over the youngest part scales growing over the youngest part (closet to the scalp) are smooth and unbroken further along the hair have been damaged by cosmetic treatments and by mistreatment : (over-energetic brushing) Nature of cuticle

21 21 Nature of cuticle (con.) little by little, they may break away : little by little, they may break away : “weathering” healthy cuticle is more than just a protective layer healthy cuticle is more than just a protective layer intact cuticle cells are smooth, glossy, and reflect light from their surface (black hair reflects less light than blond hair) intact cuticle cells are smooth, glossy, and reflect light from their surface (black hair reflects less light than blond hair)

22 22

23 23 The cuticle scale on a normal hair (electronmicrograph)

24 24 Another normal hair - but this came from one of our nearest relatives an orangutan! A perfect hair seen under the electron microscope

25 25 keratin chains link by : disulphide bond and hydrogen bonds keratin chains link by : disulphide bond and hydrogen bonds disulphide bonds can be changed by chemical methods : perming and relaxing permanent disulphide bonds can be changed by chemical methods : perming and relaxing permanent hydrogen bonds can be easily broken apart whenever the hair is wetted and form again as it dries hydrogen bonds can be easily broken apart whenever the hair is wetted and form again as it dries when they break the shape of hair changes when they break the shape of hair changes wet hair is wound on the roller, the dried hair keeps the roller shape temporary wet hair is wound on the roller, the dried hair keeps the roller shape temporary Hair shape

26 26 European around micron European around micron Asian around 120 micron Asian around 120 micron People have average hair around People have average hair around 100,000 – 150,000 hairs Hair dimensions

27 27 individual hair form inside a hair bulb deep in hair individual hair form inside a hair bulb deep in hair follicle is tiny but powerful factory follicle is tiny but powerful factory each hair grows during many years each hair grows during many years shampooed, conditioned, cut, blown dry, exposal to the sun and wind, colored, bleached, permed none of these affected the hair growth shampooed, conditioned, cut, blown dry, exposal to the sun and wind, colored, bleached, permed none of these affected the hair growth the hair spontaneously falls out the hair spontaneously falls out the follicle rests for a little while and starts to produce a new hair the follicle rests for a little while and starts to produce a new hair Hair growth cycle

28 28 anagen : the growing phase ( ~ 1000 days) anagen : the growing phase ( ~ 1000 days) catagen : the intermediate phase ( ~ 10 days) catagen : the intermediate phase ( ~ 10 days) telogen : the shedding phase ( ~ 100 days) telogen : the shedding phase ( ~ 100 days) Stage of the hair cycle

29 29 last between 3-7 years without interruption last between 3-7 years without interruption roughly 1 cm/month > 1 meter roughly 1 cm/month > 1 meter faster rate in winter than summer faster rate in winter than summer melanin is made in hair bulb throughout this phase melanin is made in hair bulb throughout this phase less pigment is made in older people, hair cycle becomes shorter less pigment is made in older people, hair cycle becomes shorter follicles gradually give up producing long, strong hair : follicles gradually give up producing long, strong hair : hairs become thinner and shorter thinning of the hair degree of baldness hairs become thinner and shorter thinning of the hair degree of baldness Anagen (the growing phase)

30 30 short resting phase : 2-4 weeks short resting phase : 2-4 weeks no pigment is made no pigment is made follicles stop producing hair follicles stop producing hair the base of follicle moves upwards towards the surface of the skin the base of follicle moves upwards towards the surface of the skin Catagen (the intermediate phase)

31 31 last for 3-4 months last for 3-4 months new hair begin to grow from the hair follicle new hair begin to grow from the hair follicle as it grow s upwards the old hair will be shed naturally or easily be pulled out as it grow s upwards the old hair will be shed naturally or easily be pulled out at anytime around one in ten of the follicles at individual’s head is in the shedding phase at anytime around one in ten of the follicles at individual’s head is in the shedding phase shedding is part of normal process of the replacement of old hair with new hair shedding is part of normal process of the replacement of old hair with new hair new hair emerges from the same opening as the old one new hair emerges from the same opening as the old one Telogen (the shedding phase)

32 32 The hair follicle cycle

33 33

34 34 A method of measuring the rate of hair growth: both cut hairs and newly emerging hairs can be seen

35 35 Electronmicrograph showing new hairs emerging from the hair follicles of the scalp

36 36 general health and nutritional factors general health and nutritional factors starvation or crash diet loosing hair in 6-10 starvation or crash diet loosing hair in 6-10 weeks weeks alcoholic people have poor hair alcoholic people have poor hair some minerals may particularly important for hair growth some minerals may particularly important for hair growth What controls hair growth ?

37 37 lack of Zn : produces only fine, sparse hairs lack of Zn : produces only fine, sparse hairs even lost their hairs even lost their hairs Vit B : known as panthenol, plays a Vit B : known as panthenol, plays a part in hair growth, improves part in hair growth, improves physical properties physical properties (elasticity, strength and gloss) (elasticity, strength and gloss) of the hair shaft of the hair shaft Hair growth (con.)

38 38 thyroid hormone speeds up growth in thyroid hormone speeds up growth in resting hair follicles resting hair follicles steroids taken by mouth slow down the growth steroids taken by mouth slow down the growth Hormones :

39 39 Androgen : the most important factor regulating hair growth, thickness of hair shaft Androgen : the most important factor regulating hair growth, thickness of hair shaft : changes vellus - like hair : changes vellus - like hair terminal hair terminal hair oestrogen : slow down hair growth during oestrogen : slow down hair growth during growth period, make the period longer growth period, make the period longer Hormones (con.)

40 40 This boy has a zinc deficiency, and his hair is very thin and sparse; after treatment his hair is growing more strongly

41 41 Pigmentation Melanin : - produced by melanocytes at growing Melanin : - produced by melanocytes at growing phase (anagen) phase (anagen) - spread out throughout the cortex, the more near outer edge - spread out throughout the cortex, the more near outer edge - does not protect the harmful effect from - does not protect the harmful effect from sunlight sunlight - is found in 2 forms - is found in 2 forms Eumelanin : dark pigmented which Eumelanin : dark pigmented which predominates in black and predominates in black and brunette hair/oval shape brunette hair/oval shape Phaeomelain : lighter pigment, found in red Phaeomelain : lighter pigment, found in red and blond hair/smaller, partly oval and partly rod- shape oval and partly rod- shape Hair Color

42 42

43 43 Melanin granules in the cortex of a hair

44 44 the arrangement of keratin bundles the way the large bundles of keratin are the arrangement of keratin bundles the way the large bundles of keratin are arranged within each hair shaft the position of hair bulb : the position of hair bulb : African hair bulb may lie to the side of the African hair bulb may lie to the side of the follicle, so the hair shaft grows out of the follicle at an acute angle follicle, so the hair shaft grows out of the follicle at an acute angle Factors affecting hair structure :

45 45 irregular growth in the hair bulb : if it varies slightly to one side or the other, hair may grow wavy irregular growth in the hair bulb : if it varies slightly to one side or the other, hair may grow wavy the shape of the follicle : whether it is straight or curved the shape of the follicle : whether it is straight or curved the number of twists per unit length : the number of twists per unit length : African hair has 12 times as many twist per cm. as Caucasian hair Factors affecting hair structure (con.)

46 46 Strength Strength Elasticity Elasticity Static electricity Static electricity Moisture content Moisture content Porosity Porosity Texture Texture Physical properties of hair

47 47 a single hair can support a load of about 100 gm a single hair can support a load of about 100 gm keratin protein of the cortex responsible for the hair strength keratin protein of the cortex responsible for the hair strength keratin is a protein chains contain high concentration of an amino acid called “cystine” keratin is a protein chains contain high concentration of an amino acid called “cystine” matrix contains high level of cystine matrix contains high level of cystine Hair strength

48 48 each cystine unit contains 2 cysteine amino acids in different chain each cystine unit contains 2 cysteine amino acids in different chain the chains are linked by two sulphur atoms, the chains are linked by two sulphur atoms, forming a very strong chemical bond “disulphide linkage” many disulphide bonds form down the length many disulphide bonds form down the length of the keratin chains Hair strength (con.)

49 49 Chemical bonds within the hair maintain its shape

50 50 one of the most important properties one of the most important properties can resist forces that could change its can resist forces that could change its shape, volume and length lest spring back to its original lest spring back to its original form without damage wet hair can increase the length up to 30% wet hair can increase the length up to 30% and return to original length when it is dried Elasticity

51 51 elasticity of hair depends on the long elasticity of hair depends on the long keratin fibers in the cortex keratin fibers in the cortex chemical treatment can alter the cortex chemical treatment can alter the cortex and change the hair elasticity Elasticity (con.)

52 52 poor elasticity : poor elasticity : - stretch only to a limited extent - will break easily - cannot be permed satisfactorily natural sunlight and artificial UV light natural sunlight and artificial UV light damage chemicals of hair and its elasticity Elasticity (con.)

53 53 Static electricity rubbing drug hair / brushing / combing rubbing drug hair / brushing / combing builds up static electric charge builds up static electric charge the charges tend to push each other apart the charges tend to push each other apart charged hair never lie smooth against charged hair never lie smooth against each other “ fly away ” hair stands out from the head stands out from the head

54 54

55 55 Moisture content : Heat and humidity more moisture more moisture less static electricity less static electricity collapse collapse Heat and dryness less moisture less moisture more static electricity more static electricity more volume more volume

56 56 - wet hair swell cortex / lift cuticle scales - hair surface temporally loses its smoothness - wet hair more friction matting and tangles (over vigorous shampoo) and tangles (over vigorous shampoo) Moisture content (con.)

57 57 cuticle covering cortex is intact : almost cuticle covering cortex is intact : almost water proof (very little water can go in water proof (very little water can go in and out) shampoos do not damage the cuticle shampoos do not damage the cuticle treating the hair (permed or tinted) treating the hair (permed or tinted) Porosity Normal hair

58 58 temperature / applying an alkaline lotion temperature / applying an alkaline lotion separate the scale separate the scale allowing chemicals to go inside allowing chemicals to go inside after processing scales close up after processing scales close up Porosity (con.)

59 59 processing many times / too much blow processing many times / too much blow drying/ too high temperative / effect drying/ too high temperative / effect of sun and wind of sun and wind the scales lose the tightness the scales lose the tightness the porous the porous damage cuticle is fragile damage cuticle is fragile develop split end develop split end Porosity (con.)

60 60 the damage is worse as the time goes by the damage is worse as the time goes by the greater the damage, the more the the greater the damage, the more the cortex swells with water cortex swells with water the more water loses when it dries the more water loses when it dries repeated wetting and drying of the repeated wetting and drying of the cortex, gradually weakens the hair cortex, gradually weakens the hair Porosity (con.)

61 61 the larger the hair diameter the the larger the hair diameter the coarser it will feel coarser it will feel different people’s hair naturally feel different people’s hair naturally feel different soft / hard / silky / wiry different soft / hard / silky / wiry effected by degree of weathering of hair effected by degree of weathering of hair Texture

62 62 Texture is affected by what has been put on it : Texture is affected by what has been put on it : - spray : makes different feeling - spray : makes different feeling - conditioner : feel soft and smooth - conditioner with silicone : protect the hair cuticle hair cuticle - damage to cuticle : alter the hair texture Texture (con.)

63 63 Chemistry of Hair Keratinization process in the follicle keratin + water soluble substances : pentose, phenols, uric acid, glycogen, glutamic acid, valine, leucine

64 64 Chemistry of Hair (con.) Keratin is composed of amino acid Keratin is composed of amino acid 18 out of 25 normal amino acids 18 out of 25 normal amino acids are found in keratin are found in keratin

65 65 Organization of hair protein sets up by bonding in 3 ways : Chemistry of Hair (con.) between parallel peptide chains Formation of H-bonds I Formation of H-bonds

66 66 between acidic and basic side chain Chemistry of Hair (con.) II Formation of salt linkage

67 67 Chemistry of Hair (con.) amino acid contains two amino and two carlygl groups link together by a disulphide bond III Formation of disulphide linkages

68 68 Structure for - keratin Structure for  - keratin


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