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ISO TC 37 Standards Basic Principles of Terminology Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS Sue Ellen Wright Institute for Applied Linguistics,

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Presentation on theme: "ISO TC 37 Standards Basic Principles of Terminology Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS Sue Ellen Wright Institute for Applied Linguistics,"— Presentation transcript:

1 ISO TC 37 Standards Basic Principles of Terminology Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS Sue Ellen Wright Institute for Applied Linguistics, Kent State University

2 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 2 Standards for the Language Industry  Translation & localization, multilingual text representation, Internet content, multilingual content management  See: http://appling.kent.edu/ResourcePages/LTStandards/Chart/Lang uageTechnologyStandards.htm http://appling.kent.edu/ResourcePages/LTStandards/Chart/Lang uageTechnologyStandards.htm

3 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 3 ISO TC 37 Terminology and other Language Resources  Standards for the basic principles of terminology management  Standards for layout and lexicography  Standards for computerized terminology management  Standards for natural language processing applications  Metadata registry for all of the above

4 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 4 Language Codes  ISO 639:1988 Code for the representation of names of languages  ISO 639-2:1998 Code for the representation of names of languages - Part 2: Alpha-3 code  ISO CD 639-3:2003 Code for the representation of names of languages - Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages  ISO NWI 639-4:2003 Code for the representation of names of languages - Part 4: Implementation guidelines and general principles for language coding  ISO NWI 639-5:2003 Code for the representation of names of languages - Part 5: Alpha-3 code for language families and groups  ISO NWI 639-6:2003 Code for the representation of names of languages - Part 6: Alpha-4 code [for dialects]

5 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 5 Core TC 37 Standards  ISO 704:2000 Terminology work - Principles and methods  ISO 860:1996 Terminology work - Harmonization of concepts and terms  ISO 1087-1:2000 Terminology work - Vocabulary - Part 1: Theory and application  ISO 1087-2:2000 Terminology work - Vocabulary - Part 2: Computer applications

6 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 6 Terminology 1) The discipline of terminology management  Called in this presentation terminology management  Synonymous with terminology work (used in ISO 704) 2) The set of designations used in the special language of a subject field, such as the terminology of chemistry  Used in this presentation in both the singular and plural  Used with an article in the singular: a terminology

7 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 7 Terminological View  Objects  perceived or conceived, concrete or abstract  abstracted or conceptualized into concepts  Concepts  depict or correspond to a set of objects based on a defined set of characteristics  represented or expressed in language by designations or by definitions  organized into concept systems  Designations  represented as terms, names (appellations) or symbols  designate or represent a concept  attributed to a concept by consensus within a special language community

8 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 8 Basic Principles of Terminology  Terms in special purpose languages (as opposed to terms / descriptors in thesauri)  Principles for defining concepts to which terms are assigned  Establishing concept systems on which terminological definitions are based  Applicable for terms in special languages, for data element names and definitions, for elements in thesauri and ontologies

9 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 9 Fundamental Activities  Identifying concepts and concept relations;  Analyzing and modeling concept systems on the basis of identified concepts and concept relations;  Establishing representations of concept systems through concept diagrams;  Crafting concept-oriented definitions;  Attributing designations (predominantly terms) to each concept in one or more languages; and,  Recording and presenting terminological data, principally in terminological entries stored in print and electronic media (terminography).

10 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 10 Frege, Peirce, Ogden & Richards Unit of Thinking (Concept) Designation (Symbol, Sign, Term, Formula etc.) Referent (Concrete Object, Real Thing, Conceived Object) (Unit of Thought, Unit of Knowledge)

11 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 11 A Concept  A mental image used for thinking & communication  Question of psychological primes and prototypes  Conditioned by:  Language & culture  Individual point of view & experience  Time, space  The blind man and the elephant

12 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 12 Properties and characteristics  Property: any quality, attribute, or feature of an object  Characteristic: essential features that determine the identify of the concept associated with the object  The significance of properties varies with: The object in question, its function Point of view

13 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 13 Characteristics  Characteristics used for:  Analyzing concepts  Modelling concept systems  Formulating definitions  Forming designations.  Essential characteristics  Comprise the intension of the concept  Delimiting characteristics  Characteristic that distinguishes the concept from related concepts

14 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 14 Properties vs. Characteristics object/visual representation one of the set of all lead pencils (extension) concept: designation abstraction (term): based on: lead pencil category level of abstraction composition colour composition shape usage medium function property concreteness made of a long, thin piece of graphite wood casing surrounds graphite casing is yellow at one end there is an eraser other end sharpened to a point graphite&casing sharpened for use graphite is writing medium used for writing or making marks characteristic concreteness graphite core graphite core is encased in wood casing may be any colour one end may have an eraser one end may be sharpened to a point graphite & casing sharpened for use graphite is writing medium used for making marks

15 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 15 Concept Relations  hierarchical relations  superordinate concept + subordinate concepts  generic relations  generic concept + specific concepts  partitive relations  comprehensive concept + partitive concepts

16 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 16 Concept Relations raw material – productaction - equipment/tool material - propertymaterial - state concrete item - shapematter/substance concrete item - materialtarget, action quantity - unitaction. typical agent place/locationaction - actor  associative relations Compare: related term

17 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 17 Modeling Concept Systems  Select the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs.  Analyze the intension and extension of each concept.  Determine the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system.  Formulate and evaluate definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations.  Attribute designations [terms or other forms of representation] to each concept.

18 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 18 Tree Diagram (Generic) plant 1 bush 1.1 tree 1.2 flowering plant 1.3 evergreen 1.2.1 deciduous 1.2.2

19 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 19 Bracket Diagram (Partitive)  Limited in its representational scope  Difficult to include details  Not widely accepted in the US  Useful for representing mixed generic / meronymic systems tree (comprehensive concept) crownbranch twig root trunk core sapwood bark (partitive concepts)

20 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 20 Concept Systems & Thesauri Broader term Hypernym Parent Superordinate concept Narrower term Hyponym Child Subordinate concept SiblingCoordinate Concept Use / Use forPreferred / Deprecated

21 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 21 Significant Differences  Principle of term autonomy: although some terms may be identified as preferred or deprecated, there is no assignment of synonyms or related words to a “use/use for” system as in controlled vocabularies. All terms are defined with the same degree of detail.  Terms qualified with respect to term status:  Preferred terms  Admitted terms  Deprecated terms  Obsolete terms

22 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 22 Terminological Entry Term Concept Term (All terms associated with a single concept; compare to concept of the synonym ring, + multilingual equivalents.)

23 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 23 Terminological Entry  rattle  Subject Field: snakes  Definition: The tail structure of the poisonous North American genera Crotalus and Sisturus which has been modified into a series of horny, loose- fitting structures that produce a buzzing sound when vibrated.  Equivalent terms (other languages)...

24 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 24 Form of Definitions  Preferably intentional definitions  The statement of a superordinate or broader concept followed by a statement of the essential characteristics making up the intension of the concept, with emphasis on the delimiting characteristic(s) that differentiate that concept from similar concepts  Always defined with reference to a specific subject field

25 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 25 Intensional Definitions plant (superordinate concept; generic concept) A living thing which grows in earth, in water or on other plants. Note: It usually has a stem, leaves, roots and flowers and produces seeds and can make its own food. Trees are plants, but the word is mainly used for those plants which are smaller than trees. tree (subordinate concept; specific concept) A tall plant which has a wooden trunk and branches that grow from its upper part bush (subordinate concept; specific concept) A plant with many small branches growing either directly from the ground or from a hard woody stem, giving the plant a rounded shape

26 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 26 An Implied Sentence Implied subject: verb (copula): [An account is] a user ID and disk area restricted for the use of a particular person, which is usually password protected. (The definition itself is a predicate. Note: DIN allows for the repetition of the subject within the definition.)

27 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 27 Components of the Definition  Subject (the designation)  The term as an implied subject  Copula  In place of the implied verb “is”  Colon, dash, carriage return  Predicate  Statement of genus & listing of essential and delimiting characteristics

28 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 28 Leveraging ontological information from terminology resources  Using the concept of well-formed definitions to use automatic parsing routines for:  Compilation of intelligent enhanced corpora (marking up intelligent, intranet-bounded corpora)  Information extraction  Terminology mining  Automatically creating draft concept systems  Leveraging back and forth across different kinds of information resources: terminological concept systems, thesauri, taxonomies, and rule-based ontologies

29 Networked Knowledge Organization Systems/Services NKOS 29 For More Information Sue Ellen Wright Institute for Applied Linguistics Kent State University 109 Satterfield Hall Kent, Ohio 44242, USA sewright@neo.rr.com sellenwright@gmail.com sewright@neo.rr.com sellenwright@gmail.com


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