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Black abolitionists by Dr. James Jennings, Hendrix College

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1 Black abolitionists by Dr. James Jennings, Hendrix College

2 HENRY HIGHLAND GARNET Born a slave in 1815 (Maryland)
Family escaped in 1824 Attended African Free School, in 1826, (NY) with Alexander Crummell, Samuel Ringgold Ward, James McCune Smith (first Black to earn a medical degree), Charles Reason (first black college professor) Made two voyages to Cuba as a cabin boy in 1828 Injured his knee for life in 1830 Fired a shot at an angry mob during the Noyes Academy incident

3 HENRY HIGHLAND GARNET Split with Garrison in 1849 and co-founded American and Foreign Anti-slavery Society 1843 – National Negro Convention (Albany,NY) – “An Address to the Slaves of the United States of America” – rather “die freeman than live to be slaves” Compares his speech to Walker’s Appeal in 1848 Later supports black emigration – Starts the African Civilization Society in 1858 (strong, independent Africa through black emigration) 1865 – first AA to deliver a sermon in Congress

Father (Boston Crummell) told master he would serve him no longer, and walked away Gave Alexander the best of education – hired private tutors Taught to be proud of “pure African heritage” Attended Noyes with Garnet Self-determination – AA’s must take primary responsibility for their survival and advancement in American society

5 ALEXANDER CRUMMELL Believed free blacks needed access to higher education (black-controlled) aimed at AA advancement One of several (Douglass, Garnet, Crafts, Ward, Remond) who lectured and studied in Europe Graduates from Cambridge in 1853 and goes to Liberia - 8,000 blacks in Liberia (Africa). Racism in Liberia is intolerable. Returns to U.S. in 1861. Starts American Negro Academy in 1872 (best educated and prominent AA’s) – sets the stage for DuBois’ “talented tenth”

Born in 1825, and parents died in Lived in Baltimore Started to write poetry in her teens 1839 – poems published in abolitionist journals Lived at an underground railroad station – had a profound effect on her writings and activism 1850’s – published “Poems of Miscellaneous Subjects” – sold over 10,000 copies over 5 years

Lectured as an abolitionist (northern U.S. and Canada) and later became involved with women’s rights In 1866, Harper gave a moving speech before the National Women's Rights Convention, demanding equal rights for all, including black women.

Labored for the free produce movement Contributed a significant portion of her earnings to William Still to assist his efforts with fugitive slaves Openly sympathized with John Brown Traveled across the South during Reconstruction lecturing on black suffrage, temperance, education, and economic self-reliance Helped form the National Association of Colored Women -1896

9 SAMUEL RINGGOLD WARD Born a slave in 1817 (Maryland), he escaped with his parents in Grew up in New York Spoke against slavery in every northern state (1840s) and referred to as the “Black Daniel Webster” because of his eloquence Criticized Webster later concerning his acquiescence on the Fugitive Slave Act Aided fugitive slaves (agent of the American Anti-Slavery Society)

10 SAMUEL RINGGOLD WARD Serves as pastor of an all-white congregation from (NY) Flees to Canada after the Fugitive Slave Act and works with the Anti-Slavery Society of Canada Tours England for two years giving speeches, and writes life story – Autobiography of a Fugitive Negro

11 SAMUEL RINGGOLD WARD Considers slavery a “national sin” and encouraged “people to do all in their power at the ballot box and elsewhere for the removal of this sin, or to expect the severe judgements for its continuance.” “Be a man ever free he is liable to instant seizure and enslavement.”

12 JAMES FORTEN 1766 – 1842 Born free
Joined navy at 14, Revolutionary War – invented device to handle ship sails Started business of making sails Extremely wealthy - $100,000 Helped raise funds for Garrison’s Liberator Helped form the AASS, and supported the UGRR


Organized meetings, petitions, distributed propaganda, and employed lecturers 1840 – 250,000 members, published more than 20 journals, 2,000 local chapters Controversy on Lydia Maria Childs’ appointment to the executive committee Lewis Tappan: “To put a woman on the committee with men is contrary to the usages of civilized society”

Tappan, Samuel Cornish (picture), et al formed the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in 1840 – refused to support women’s rights

16 MARY ANN SHADD CARY Father was a key figure in the UGRR and a subscription agent for William Lloyd Garrison’s Liberator Against those who took advantage of freed slaves – taught freed slaves to be self-reliant

17 MARY ANN SHADD CARY Started integrated school in Canada (along with Henry Bibb and his wife) Criticized black southern ministry and other blacks who did not teach intellectual growth and self-reliance to other blacks

18 MARY ANN SHADD CARY Editor, publisher, and investigative writer of her newspaper Recruiting officer for the Union Army Attends Howard Law School – becomes the first black female lawyer (1870)

19 CHARLES REMOND Address to a Legislative Committee in the Massachusetts House of Representatives, 1842 Member of American Anti-Slavery Society

20 WILLIAM WHIPPER Moral Reform Nonviolence Integrated effort

21 SUMMARY The governmental structure and societal norms of the North as well as the South made the abolishment of slavery almost impossible. (ALL OF THE BULLETS HIGHLIGHTED RELATE TO THE ANNUAL NATIONAL NEGRO CONVENTIONS) The Black abolitionist movement was a community-based initiative. The Black abolitionist movement involved all segments of the black community – religious leaders, businessmen, women, scholars, writers, teachers, etc. It relied on a well-developed network that focused on Boston, New York City, and Philadelphia. Later, Canada.

22 SUMMARY Black newspapers played a very important role in providing a means of communication with the Black populace. Black abolitionism in America evolves into an international affair with international havens – Canada, England, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Haiti Advances to the level of Pan-Africanism Intellectualism is very important. Would not give up their fight

23 SUMMARY The Black Abolitionist Movement was divided by internal matters: Integrated vs. segregated schools Integrated vs. racially exclusive organizations Nonviolence vs. violence Emigration? Tactical shifts The opposition to Black abolitionism (and abolition in general) teaches us that RACISM had a stronghold on all of America – including the “enlightened” North. The 208,000 black Union soldiers should be remembered as “abolitionists.”

24 SUMMARY (David Zimmerman – “William Whipper in the Black Abolitionist Tradition”) “The tactical shifts that characterized William Whipper’s thoughts are not simply personal inconsistencies but are symbolic of the evolving strategies which were a necessary result of the changing political and judicial landscape in the United States. The black population in Columbia and across the nation evaluated local and national events as they affected their lives. Strategies of resistance were formulated over time in order to remain relevant to the varying conditions of African Americans. While bearing the mark of his own class standing,

25 SUMMARY (David Zimmerman – “William Whipper in the Black Abolitionist Tradition”) William Whipper’s dedication to the abolitionist cause reflects the complex ties that existed between the wealthiest of free northern blacks and enslaved southern compatriots.”


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