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Motivation and Emotions: What Guides Our Behavior?

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation and Emotions: What Guides Our Behavior?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation and Emotions: What Guides Our Behavior?
The Big Picture: Why We Do What We Do

2 The Big Picture: Why We Do What We Do
Motive – tendency to desire, seek out positive incentives/rewards and to avoid negative outcomes Motives serve to protect us – eat, drinks, engage in some detrimental behavior When motives go astray The story of Marya, a child with bulimia and anorexia

3 Theories About Motivation
Various ways motive has been explained Instincts: inborn forces that direct behavior Drives: uncomfortable biological states seek to change Arousal: desire to maintain optimal level Incentives: seek rewards from world No one view complete in itself

4 Motivation as an Instinct
Influenced by Charles Darwin/theory of natural selection William James, American psychologist, proposed that instincts motivate behavior Form habits that fulfill daily needs

5 Motivation as a Drive Drive-reduction theories: motivation comes from desire to reduce internal, uncomfortable, state (drive) when needs not fulfilled Primary drives maintain homeostasis/equilibrium such as food, water Negative feedback loop: information systems monitor bodily process, adjust accordingly Secondary drives motivate behaviors not related to biological needs

6 Figure 8. 2 Negative feedback loops
Figure 8.2 Negative feedback loops. Negative feedback loops maintain homeostasis in our bodies by monitoring certain physiological conditions in our body (e.g., glucose levels and fluid levels). When levels drop too low, feedback from the body tell that brain to increase motivation levels (i.e., hunger or thirst). When levels are too high, feedback from the body tells the brain to decrease those motivation levels.

7 Does Drive Reduction Theory Really Explain Our Behavior?
Does it sufficiently explain things like achievement or desire for love Does it explain things such as overeating? Eating disorders? At times motivated to increase (not decrease) arousal in bodies (riding a roller coaster); not explained by drive reduction

8 Arousal Theories of Motivation
Operate best at optimal level of arousal (often moderately aroused); too much or too little arousal weakens performance Sensation seekers Seek out levels of arousal higher than most Zuckerman found low levels of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in sensation seekers MAO affects dopamine release; may cause sensation seekers to seek intense arousal

9 Figure 8. 4 Performance as a function of arousal
Figure 8.4 Performance as a function of arousal. Our best performance often occurs at moderate levels of arousal. You would likely do your best on an exam if you were neither too sleepy nor too anxious.

10 Incentive Theories of Motivation
Incentives are things that motivate to action Extrinsic motivation is behavior that is motivated from outside (praise, material items) Intrinsic motivation are incentives that come from within (feeling good about self, pride in accomplishment)

11 Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation – Which One Is Best?
Advantages of intrinsic motivation No extrinsic incentives needed Extrinsic motivators/tangible reinforcers lower motivation to engage in task justification effect Intangible reinforcers motivate without extrinsic incentives Advantages of extrinsic motivation Can help motivate when not intrinsically motivated

12 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Basic human needs: physiological, safety and security Psychological needs: belongingness and love, esteem Self-fulfillment needs: self-actualization and transcendence Lower needs need to be met first before can meet higher need Hierarchy not supported by research but still used in business, marketing, etc.

13 Hunger and Thirst: What Makes Us Eat and Drink
Eating is most fundamental motivation, ensures survival Motivation to eat remains strong even when we fight it (e.g. eating disorders)

14 Hunger and Feedback in the Body
Hunger motivates us to eat when needed Brain turns hunger off and on in order to maintain homeostasis (negative feedback loop)

15 Hunger and Feedback in the Body Feedback from the Stomach
Stomach is one part of body that signals hunger (the balloon experiment) Stomach also plays role in telling brains to stop eating Receptors in wall of stomach measure nutritive value of food eaten; both quality and quantity Rate at which food leaves stomach related to caloric content of food

16 Hunger Feedback from the Liver
Liver monitors glucose and glycogen levels Glucose – sugar needs for energy; glycogen starch that is stored Too much glucose, turns off hunger; if dip into energy reserves, turns on hunger

17 Hunger Feedback from Hormones
Insulin, made in pancreas, increases hunger Cholecystokinin (CCK) released from small intestines, shuts off eating

18 Hunger Feedback from Fat Cells
Fat cells store fuel reserves that are mobilized when bodies need fuel Also make and secrete chemical called leptin; informs brain about level of available fat reserves If brain senses high leptin levels, hunger is reduced

19 Hunger Regulation in the Brain
Processes signals from stomach, liver and leptin Glucoreceptors in hypothalamus measure glucose levels in bloodstream

20 Hunger Regulation in the Brain (continued)
Evidence supporting findings: Lateral hypothalamus (LH) functions as “on switch”; destruction of LH creates starvation Neuropeptide Y, appetite stimulant, affects part of brain outside of LH Hypothalamus shuts off hunger; destruction of ventromedical hypothalamus (VMH) creates obesity; new set point reached

21 External Cues that Influence Eating: Culture and Consumerism
Sight or smell of food sparks hunger Relate food to customs, holidays, celebration Connect joy and food

22 What Causes Obesity: Nature and Nurture, Again
Two-thirds of Americans are considered overweight; one-third of those obese Body mass index (BMI) one way of measuring obesity Obesity causes multitude of health issues

23 Factors Controlling Eating

24 Figure 8. 9 Calculating your BMI
Figure 8.9 Calculating your BMI. This chart shows how to calculate your own body mass index (BMI). To do so, you will need a calculator, your weight in pounds, and your height measured in inches.

25 Behavioral Factors in Obesity
Poor diet High fat diets Emotional eating More we diet, the harder it may be to lose weight; body fights against weight loss May lead to bingeing Emotional distress causes dieting slips Lack of exercise Exercise burn calories, more permanent weight loss

26 Biological Factors in Obesity
Low metabolic rate; gain more weight than normal people Low metabolic rate may have been adaptive once; store reserves of food Obese people may have more efficient digestive systems that use more of food eaten Obese people may convert more food into fat

27 It’s a Diverse World: Obesity in White and Black American Adolescent Females
Over 33% of Black girls in one study were obese versus 20% of White girls Why? Lifestyle and demographic factors; more TV, less active Social factors; attitudes about weight Genetic factors; metabolic differences

28 Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa and Anorexia Nervosa
Two types of disorder eating: bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa

29 Bulimia Nervosa Alternating bouts of bingeing and self-starvation often including purging Up to 20,000 calories at once and then starve or purge (laxatives, self-induced vomiting) Average victim is young female of average weight Socially isolating disorder Takes physical and psychological toll

30 Anorexia Nervosa Self-starvation, intense exercise and distorted image of body (see selves as fat) Most often females from upper class families in industrialized countries where thinness is valued Causes of anorexia Correlated with perfectionism and faulty thinking about food Biochemical abnormalities Personality disorders Genetics

31 Thirst Fluid is critical to survival How do we know when we’re thirsty? Intracellular fluid: fluid stored inside cells Extracellular fluid: fluid stored outside cells Hypothalamus monitors both fluid levels and signals thirst Specialized pressure receptors in heart, kidneys and blood vessels detect drop in blood pressure due to lose of fluid and signal thirst

32 The Puzzle of Destructive Motivation
Eating disorders, self-injury, suicide, and substance abuse

33 Why Do Some People Abuse Drugs?
Low self-esteem, boredom, depression Operant conditioning: positive reinforcers causing feelings of pleasure and euphoria; negatively reinforces pain removal Opponent-process theory: counteract effects of drugs by decreasing user’s arousal; user goes through withdrawal causing continued need

34 Why Do Some People Abuse Drugs? (continued)
Physical dependence developed Causes drug tolerance: more drug is needed Dependence and tolerance may be genetic

35 Figure 8. 12 An opponent-process view of drug taking
Figure 8.12 An opponent-process view of drug taking. Notice how the body tries to counteract the effects of the depressant by increasing its baseline level of arousal.

36 Other Destructive Behaviors
Self-injury: cut, burn, scratch, beat, mutilate, and harm May have borderline personality disorder Suicide Depression Multiple individual motives

37 Theories and Expression of Emotion
Definition – complex reaction to internal or external event that involves physiological and behavioral reactions, facial expression, cognition, and affective responses Emotion is similar to motivation except that it have an affective component Emotions are caused by things outside body

38 The James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Emotion is equal to pattern of physiological arousal person experiences during emotion Emotion is physiological response to stimulus Increased heart rate, increased respiration create emotion of fear

39 Walter Cannon’s Criticisms of the James-Lange Theory
Each emotion would have to have a different physiological bodily response Sometimes bodily response follows emotion Artificially created physiological responses don’t cause emotions Cannon-Bard theory of emotion Emotion originates in brain, not body

40 Some Validation of the James-Lange Theory
New research does show that some emotions involve different bodily reactions Explains some but not all of James-Lange theory

41 Figure 8. 14 Physiological changes for six different emotions
Figure 8.14 Physiological changes for six different emotions. Note the varying degrees of change among these emotions.

42 The Facial-Feedback Hypothesis
Experience of emotion affected by feedback brain gets from facial muscles Some research support Possible explanation: configuration of facial muscles affects blood flow to brain, affecting temperature of brain releasing neurotransmitters Smiles promote facial muscles that improves our mood

43 Facial Analysis

44 The Schacter-Singer Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Emotions are product of physiological arousal and cognitive interpretations Emotions cause diffuse, general physiological arousal Use situational context to interpret meaning of arousal Interpret cause of reaction based on context and label emotion Research support – Schacter and Singer

45 Lazarus’s Cognitive-Mediational Theory of Emotion
Cognitive appraisal of situation determines emotion All other components of emotions follow cognitive appraisal Explains why different people react with different emotions in same situation Not everyone agrees Zajonc research – mere exposure effect: preferring things with which we’ve had most exposure; cognitive appraisal not a factor

46 Communicating Emotions: Culture, Gender, and Facial Expression
How could you communicate without words? Through facial expressions! Emotions cross across cultural barriers Basic emotions are emotions all humans have, regardless of cultural background Genetically programmed Cross-cultural studies support this belief However, there still are cultural differences

47 Studying the Chapter: Are You Getting the Big Picture?
Motivation and emotion are intertwined and direct behavior Both influenced by physiological states that are an important in emotions Cognition and social factors play a role in motivation and emotion Motivation and emotion allow us to function in variety of situations Real life application: psychotherapists, doctors, teachers, managers

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