Presentation on theme: "Motivation and Emotions: What Guides Our Behavior?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Motivation and Emotions: What Guides Our Behavior? The Big Picture: Why We Do What We Do
2 The Big Picture: Why We Do What We Do Motive – tendency to desire, seek out positive incentives/rewards and to avoid negative outcomesMotives serve to protect us – eat, drinks, engage in some detrimental behaviorWhen motives go astrayThe story of Marya, a child with bulimia and anorexia
3 Theories About Motivation Various ways motive has been explainedInstincts: inborn forces that direct behaviorDrives: uncomfortable biological states seek to changeArousal: desire to maintain optimal levelIncentives: seek rewards from worldNo one view complete in itself
4 Motivation as an Instinct Influenced by Charles Darwin/theory of natural selectionWilliam James, American psychologist, proposed that instincts motivate behaviorForm habits that fulfill daily needs
5 Motivation as a DriveDrive-reduction theories: motivation comes from desire to reduce internal, uncomfortable, state (drive) when needs not fulfilledPrimary drives maintain homeostasis/equilibrium such as food, waterNegative feedback loop: information systems monitor bodily process, adjust accordinglySecondary drives motivate behaviors not related to biological needs
6 Figure 8. 2 Negative feedback loops Figure 8.2 Negative feedback loops. Negative feedback loops maintain homeostasis in our bodies by monitoring certain physiological conditions in our body (e.g., glucose levels and fluid levels). When levels drop too low, feedback from the body tell that brain to increase motivation levels (i.e., hunger or thirst). When levels are too high, feedback from the body tells the brain to decrease those motivation levels.
7 Does Drive Reduction Theory Really Explain Our Behavior? Does it sufficiently explain things like achievement or desire for loveDoes it explain things such as overeating? Eating disorders?At times motivated to increase (not decrease) arousal in bodies (riding a roller coaster); not explained by drive reduction
8 Arousal Theories of Motivation Operate best at optimal level of arousal (often moderately aroused); too much or too little arousal weakens performanceSensation seekersSeek out levels of arousal higher than mostZuckerman found low levels of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in sensation seekersMAO affects dopamine release; may cause sensation seekers to seek intense arousal
9 Figure 8. 4 Performance as a function of arousal Figure 8.4 Performance as a function of arousal. Our best performance often occurs at moderate levels of arousal. You would likely do your best on an exam if you were neither too sleepy nor too anxious.
10 Incentive Theories of Motivation Incentives are things that motivate to actionExtrinsic motivation is behavior that is motivated from outside (praise, material items)Intrinsic motivation are incentives that come from within (feeling good about self, pride in accomplishment)
11 Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation – Which One Is Best? Advantages of intrinsic motivationNo extrinsic incentives neededExtrinsic motivators/tangible reinforcers lower motivation to engage in taskjustification effectIntangible reinforcers motivate without extrinsic incentivesAdvantages of extrinsic motivationCan help motivate when not intrinsically motivated
12 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Basic human needs: physiological, safety and securityPsychological needs: belongingness and love, esteemSelf-fulfillment needs: self-actualization and transcendenceLower needs need to be met first before can meet higher needHierarchy not supported by research but still used in business, marketing, etc.
13 Hunger and Thirst: What Makes Us Eat and Drink Eating is most fundamental motivation, ensures survivalMotivation to eat remains strong even when we fight it (e.g. eating disorders)
14 Hunger and Feedback in the Body Hunger motivates us to eat when neededBrain turns hunger off and on in order to maintain homeostasis (negative feedback loop)
15 Hunger and Feedback in the Body Feedback from the Stomach Stomach is one part of body that signals hunger (the balloon experiment)Stomach also plays role in telling brains to stop eatingReceptors in wall of stomach measure nutritive value of food eaten; both quality and quantityRate at which food leaves stomach related to caloric content of food
16 Hunger Feedback from the Liver Liver monitors glucose and glycogen levelsGlucose – sugar needs for energy; glycogen starch that is storedToo much glucose, turns off hunger; if dip into energy reserves, turns on hunger
17 Hunger Feedback from Hormones Insulin, made in pancreas, increases hungerCholecystokinin (CCK) released from small intestines, shuts off eating
18 Hunger Feedback from Fat Cells Fat cells store fuel reserves that are mobilized when bodies need fuelAlso make and secrete chemical called leptin; informs brain about level of available fat reservesIf brain senses high leptin levels, hunger is reduced
19 Hunger Regulation in the Brain Processes signals from stomach, liver and leptinGlucoreceptors in hypothalamus measure glucose levels in bloodstream
20 Hunger Regulation in the Brain (continued) Evidence supporting findings:Lateral hypothalamus (LH) functions as “on switch”; destruction of LH creates starvationNeuropeptide Y, appetite stimulant, affects part of brain outside of LHHypothalamus shuts off hunger; destruction of ventromedical hypothalamus (VMH) creates obesity; new set point reached
21 External Cues that Influence Eating: Culture and Consumerism Sight or smell of food sparks hungerRelate food to customs, holidays, celebrationConnect joy and food
22 What Causes Obesity: Nature and Nurture, Again Two-thirds of Americans are considered overweight; one-third of those obeseBody mass index (BMI) one way of measuring obesityObesity causes multitude of health issues
24 Figure 8. 9 Calculating your BMI Figure 8.9 Calculating your BMI. This chart shows how to calculate your own body mass index (BMI). To do so, you will need a calculator, your weight in pounds, and your height measured in inches.
25 Behavioral Factors in Obesity Poor dietHigh fat dietsEmotional eatingMore we diet, the harder it may be to lose weight; body fights against weight lossMay lead to bingeingEmotional distress causes dieting slipsLack of exerciseExercise burn calories, more permanent weight loss
26 Biological Factors in Obesity Low metabolic rate; gain more weight than normal peopleLow metabolic rate may have been adaptive once; store reserves of foodObese people may have more efficient digestive systems that use more of food eatenObese people may convert more food into fat
27 It’s a Diverse World: Obesity in White and Black American Adolescent Females Over 33% of Black girls in one study were obese versus 20% of White girlsWhy?Lifestyle and demographic factors; more TV, less activeSocial factors; attitudes about weightGenetic factors; metabolic differences
28 Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa and Anorexia Nervosa Two types of disorder eating: bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa
29 Bulimia NervosaAlternating bouts of bingeing and self-starvation often including purgingUp to 20,000 calories at once and then starve or purge (laxatives, self-induced vomiting)Average victim is young female of average weightSocially isolating disorderTakes physical and psychological toll
30 Anorexia NervosaSelf-starvation, intense exercise and distorted image of body (see selves as fat)Most often females from upper class families in industrialized countries where thinness is valuedCauses of anorexiaCorrelated with perfectionism and faulty thinking about foodBiochemical abnormalitiesPersonality disordersGenetics
31 ThirstFluid is critical to survivalHow do we know when we’re thirsty?Intracellular fluid: fluid stored inside cellsExtracellular fluid: fluid stored outside cellsHypothalamus monitors both fluid levels and signals thirstSpecialized pressure receptors in heart, kidneys and blood vessels detect drop in blood pressure due to lose of fluid and signal thirst
32 The Puzzle of Destructive Motivation Eating disorders, self-injury, suicide, and substance abuse
33 Why Do Some People Abuse Drugs? Low self-esteem, boredom, depressionOperant conditioning: positive reinforcers causing feelings of pleasure and euphoria; negatively reinforces pain removalOpponent-process theory: counteract effects of drugs by decreasing user’s arousal; user goes through withdrawal causing continued need
34 Why Do Some People Abuse Drugs? (continued) Physical dependence developedCauses drug tolerance: more drug is neededDependence and tolerance may be genetic
35 Figure 8. 12 An opponent-process view of drug taking Figure 8.12 An opponent-process view of drug taking. Notice how the body tries to counteract the effects of the depressant by increasing its baseline level of arousal.
36 Other Destructive Behaviors Self-injury: cut, burn, scratch, beat, mutilate, and harmMay have borderline personality disorderSuicideDepressionMultiple individual motives
37 Theories and Expression of Emotion Definition – complex reaction to internal or external event that involves physiological and behavioral reactions, facial expression, cognition, and affective responsesEmotion is similar to motivation except that it have an affective componentEmotions are caused by things outside body
38 The James-Lange Theory of Emotion Emotion is equal to pattern of physiological arousal person experiences during emotionEmotion is physiological response to stimulusIncreased heart rate, increased respiration create emotion of fear
39 Walter Cannon’s Criticisms of the James-Lange Theory Each emotion would have to have a different physiological bodily responseSometimes bodily response follows emotionArtificially created physiological responses don’t cause emotionsCannon-Bard theory of emotionEmotion originates in brain, not body
40 Some Validation of the James-Lange Theory New research does show that some emotions involve different bodily reactionsExplains some but not all of James-Lange theory
41 Figure 8. 14 Physiological changes for six different emotions Figure 8.14 Physiological changes for six different emotions. Note the varying degrees of change among these emotions.
42 The Facial-Feedback Hypothesis Experience of emotion affected by feedback brain gets from facial musclesSome research supportPossible explanation: configuration of facial muscles affects blood flow to brain, affecting temperature of brain releasing neurotransmittersSmiles promote facial muscles that improves our mood
44 The Schacter-Singer Two-Factor Theory of Emotion Emotions are product of physiological arousal and cognitive interpretationsEmotions cause diffuse, general physiological arousalUse situational context to interpret meaning of arousalInterpret cause of reaction based on context and label emotionResearch support – Schacter and Singer
45 Lazarus’s Cognitive-Mediational Theory of Emotion Cognitive appraisal of situation determines emotionAll other components of emotions follow cognitive appraisalExplains why different people react with different emotions in same situationNot everyone agreesZajonc research – mere exposure effect: preferring things with which we’ve had most exposure; cognitive appraisal not a factor
46 Communicating Emotions: Culture, Gender, and Facial Expression How could you communicate without words? Through facial expressions!Emotions cross across cultural barriersBasic emotions are emotions all humans have, regardless of cultural backgroundGenetically programmedCross-cultural studies support this beliefHowever, there still are cultural differences
47 Studying the Chapter: Are You Getting the Big Picture? Motivation and emotion are intertwined and direct behaviorBoth influenced by physiological states that are an important in emotionsCognition and social factors play a role in motivation and emotionMotivation and emotion allow us to function in variety of situationsReal life application: psychotherapists, doctors, teachers, managers