What’s friendship? Always treating people the way you would want them to treat you. Always smile and say hello when greeting other people. Doing something good for someone when no one is looking. Always lift up your friends' spirits with positive words and actions. Always being courteous, pleasant, and never misbehave. Always respect others differences: gender, abilities, culture, race, and ethnicity Always speak and act genuinely. You should assist others when they are in need. Do not be a follower. Do not sacrifice character. Always show consideration for others. Then, you will have F.R.I.E.N.D.S.H.I.P. F: Friendly R: Respect I: Integrity E: Encouraging N: Nice D: Diversity S: Sincerity H: Helpful I: Individual P: Politeness
The kinds of friendships Same Gender Male-female
Friendship between Women A woman didn’t come home one night. The next day she told her husband that she had slept over at a girlfriend’s house. Then man called his wife's 10 best friends. None of them knew anything about it.
Friendship between Men A man didn’t come home one night. The next day he told his wife that he slept over at a buddy's house. The woman called her husband's 10 best friends. Eight of them confirmed that he had slept over, and two claimed he was still there!
Ellen Goodman, Born on April 11, 1941, in Newton MA, is a Boston Globe Online columnist and a stylish writer with a humanizing touch on any issue, public or personal. She is widely acclaimed as a voice of sanity, and readers depend on her to help them make sense of their changing lives and relationships. About the author
The author reveals what kind of film the woman had just seen. The author advances the standard of friendship on the basis of the shift of focus of cinema lens. Discourse Analysis Para.(1-2)Para.(1-2) The distinctions of the two types of friendship are detailed. Para.(7-18)Para.(7-18) Para.(3-6)Para.(3-6) It summarizes the difference between the male companionship and the female friendship. Para.(19)Para.(19) Friendship
Part I (Para. 1-2) The author reveals what kind of film the woman had just seen.
Language Points: 1. tapestry n. 1) You can refer to something as a tapestry when it is made up of many varied types of people or things. (LITERARY) Meadows are thick with a tapestry of wild flowers. 2) a large piece of heavy cloth on which colored threads are woven to produce a picture, pattern etc. 壁毯 ; 挂毯
2. budget n. the money that is available to an organization or person 预算 E.g. big-budget / low-budget movies; cut the budget > budget v. 为... 做预算 vi. 节省开支
3. chase 1) v. ~ (after) sb/sth run after in order to capture or overtake sb/sth 追捕 ; 追赶 E.g. He's always chasing (after) women. 2) n. act of chasing; pursuit 追捕 ; 追赶
4. shoot-out n. [C] a fight using guns 枪战 E.g. Two people were killed tonight in a shoot-out with police.
5. cosmic a. of the whole universe or cosmos 宇宙的 ; 巨 大的 E.g. Physics is governed by cosmic laws. * (fig) a disaster of cosmic proportions, i.e. very great.
Girlfriends It is a believable relationship story of a young Jewish woman who is trying to make it on her own, coping with work, romance and friendship at the same time and has to accept the marriage of her best friend and roommate. It seemed almost revolutionary in 1978 when it was first released. It is a small movie that made a big splash with its focus on women's’ interior lives.
6. affecting a. producing strong emotions of sadness, pity etc 感人的, 动人的 E.g. a deeply affecting story > affect v.
7. pan v. (of a camera, etc) move in this way （指 摄影机等）移动拍摄 E.g. The shot panned slowly across the room.
8. fragility n. the condition of being infirm or physically weak > fragile a. 易受伤害的 ; 易碎的 E.g. fragile china/glass; (fig) Human happiness is so fragile.
9. resiliency n. the quality or state of being flexible 弹性 > resilient a. 能迅速恢复或重新振作的 ; 弹性 的 E.g. The company proved remarkably resilient during the recession. > resilience n [U]
10. tissue 1) n. a piece of soft thin paper 纸巾 2) n. network; web 网状物 ; 组织 E.g. connective tissue
Questions: 1) What kind of film did the woman see? 2) What did she think of it?
Part II (Para. 3-6) The author advances the standard of friendship on the basis of the shift of focus of cinema lens.
A film produced in 1977, Julia centers on Lillian’s relationship with her lifelong friend Julia, a story that takes place in the 1930s. Their relationship goes beyond mere acquaintance, and is sustained by love. Julia
The Turning Point This film tells the story of friends and former competitors in the world of ballet, as well as the daughter of one of the women who is starting a career in ballet of her own.
11. drastic adj extreme and sudden 突然的 ; 猛烈的 E.g. Drastic measures will have to be taken to restore order. drastic action/measures >drastically adv
12. binge n. (inf.) a short period when you do too much of something, such as eating or drinking 狂欢 E.g. a drinking binge; a week-long binge of shopping
13. trendy a. influenced by the most fashionable styles and ideas 流行的 ; 时髦的 E.g. a trendy London night club >trendiness n [U]
14. celluloid 1) n. [U] a kind of plastic that cinema film used to be made of 赛璐珞 2) n. (dated) cinema films 电影片 E.g. Chaplin's comic genius is preserved on celluloid.
Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid The film tells the story of Wild West outlaws Robert LeRoy Parker, known to history as Butch Cassidy and his partner Harry Longabaugh, the “Sundance Kid” (Robert Redford) as they migrate to Bolivia while on the run from the law in search of a more successful criminal career.
15. atavistic adj (formal) atavistic feelings are very basic human feelings that people have felt since humans have existed 原始的, 隔代遗传的 E.g. an atavistic fear of snakes
16. attachment n. [C] a feeling that you like or love someone or something and that you would be unhappy without them 依恋 ; 眷恋 E.g. a child‘s attachment to his mother > attach v. 连接；使依恋 attached a. 附属的, 依恋的
17. cull v. ~ sth (from sth) select or obtain sth from various different sources 从各个不同的方面 挑选出或获得某事物 E.g. information culled from various reference books > cull n. 剔除 ; 挑选
18. bonding n [U] 亲密关系 male/female bonding (informal) the activity of doing things with other people of the same sex >bond v.( 使 ) 粘合 n. 联系；粘合剂
19. primal 1) a. (fml) first or original; primeval 最初的 ; 原 始的 E.g. the loss of their primal innocence 2) a. chief or most important; fundamental; primary 主要的 ; 基础性的 E.g. of primal importance
18. pick on 1) choose sb for punishment, criticism or blame 选中某人惩罚﹑ 批评或责怪 E.g. She felt that her parents were picking on her. 2) choose sb for a task, esp an unpleasant one 选中某人做某事（尤指厌恶的事） E.g. I was picked on to announce the bad news.
21. dual adj having two of something or two parts 二 重的 ; 双的 dual role /purpose / function / citizenship / nationality e.g. She has dual nationality, of Canada and Britain (=she is a citizen of Canada and Britain). > duality n [U]
Questions: 3. Why does the author list the movies the woman had seen that year? 4. What led the woman to think that the cinema has shifted its focus?
Part III (Para. 7-18) The distinctions of the two types of friendship are detailed.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 1772 – 25 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic and philosopher who was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.
22. border v ~ on sth be next to sth; be almost the same as sth 接 近某物 ; 几乎与某事物相同 E.g. The new housing estate borders on the motorway. E.g. (fig)The boy's reply to his teacher was bordering on rudeness.
23. adversity n. [U] unfavorable conditions; trouble 逆境 ; 不幸 E.g. remain cheerful in adversity > adverse a. 不利的，有害的 adversary n. 对手，敌手
24. palpable adj (fml) clear to the mind; obvious 明显的 ; 明白的 E.g. a palpable lie, error > palpably adv Antonym: impalpable
25. accessory 1) n. (usu pl) thing that is a useful or decorative extra but that is not essential 附属 品 ; 配件 E.g. bicycle accessories 2) n. ~ (to sth) (law) person who helps another in a crime 从犯 ; 帮凶 E.g. He was charged with being an accessory to murder. > accessory adj additional; extra
26. athletic adj [attrib] of athletes or athletics 运动员的 ; 运动的 E.g. an athletic club * athletic sports >athletics n. 运动，体育 athlete n. 运动员 athleticism n. 运动竞赛, 运动能力
27. loathe v. [Tn] feel great hatred or disgust for (sb/sth) 憎恨 ; 厌恶 E.g. loathe the smell of fried fish > loathing n [U] disgust 厌恶 ; 憎恨 E.g. have a loathing of sth loathsome adj causing one to feel disgusted or shocked; repulsive 讨厌的 ; 令人震惊的 E.g. a loathsome disease
28. confidence n. secret which is told to sb 知心话 ; 私房话 E.g. The two girls sat in a corner exchanging confidences. in (strict) confidence 当作秘密 E.g. I'm telling you this in (strict) confidence so don't breathe a word of it. take sb into one‘s confidence 向某人吐露 内心的秘密等 confidence trick 骗局 > confidential a. 机密的
29. hang together (of people) support or help one another 团结 一致, 互相帮助 hang on to sth hold sth tightly 抓紧某物
30. confess v. ~ (to sth/doing sth); ~ (sth) (to sb) say or admit, often formally (that one has done wrong, committed a crime, etc) 承认（错误﹑ 罪行等） ; 供认 E.g. She confessed (to the priest) that he had sinned. >confession n.
31. wretched adj very unhappy; miserable or pitiable 极不愉快 的 ; 悲惨的 E.g. the wretched survivors of the earthquake * His stomach-ache made him feel wretched (ie ill) all day. >wretchedness n [U] wretch n. 不幸的人；卑鄙的人
32. moan v 1) utter moans or say (sth) with moans 呻吟 ; 呻吟着说（某事） 2) ~ (about sth) (infml) grumble or complain 抱怨 ; 发牢骚 E.g. He's always moaning (on) about how poor he is. > moan n. [c] 呻吟声, 抱怨
33. restraint n (fml) [U] ~ (in sth) avoidance of exaggeration or excess; moderation 克制 ; 节制 E.g. He showed/exercised considerable restraint in not suing for a divorce. E.g. The child's affections were kept under/suffered continual restraint. >restrain vt.
Babbitt Babbitt, first published in 1922, is a novel by Sinclair Lewis. Largely a satire of American culture, society, and behavior, it critiques the vacuity of middle-class American life and its pressure on individuals toward conformity.
34. grievance n ~ (against sb) real or imagined cause for complaint or protest 委屈, 不满 E.g. inviting the members to air (ie express) their grievances * He'd been harboring / nursing a grievance against his boss.
35. claustrophobic adj. If you feel claustrophobic, you feel very uncomfortable or anxious when you are in a small, crowded, or enclosed place. 幽闭 恐怖症的 ; 引起幽闭恐怖的 E.g. The churning, pressing crowds made her feel claustrophobic. > claustrophobia n.
Questions: 5. What's the fundamental difference between buddies and friends? 6. What is the point put forward in Paragraph 14? 7. What is the point of Paragraph 15? 8. What point does the example in Paragraph 16 illustrate? 9. What is the point of Paragraph 18?
Part IV (Para. 19) It summarizes the fundamental difference between the male companionship and the female friendship.
George Santayana George Santayana (December 16, 1863 – September 26, 1952) was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.