2 What’s friendship? Then, you will have F.R.I.E.N.D.S.H.I.P. F: FriendlyR: RespectI: IntegrityE: EncouragingN: NiceD: DiversityS: SincerityH: HelpfulI: IndividualP: PolitenessAlways treating people the wayyou would want them to treat you.Always smile and say hellowhen greeting other people.Doing something good forsomeone when no one is looking.You should assist otherswhen they are in need.Always lift up your friends' spiritswith positive words and actions.Do not be a follower.Do not sacrifice character.Always being courteous,pleasant, and never misbehave.Always show considerationfor others.Always respect others differences:gender, abilities, culture, race,and ethnicityAlways speak and act genuinely.
4 Friendship between Women A woman didn’t come home one night. The next day she told her husband that she had slept over at a girlfriend’s house. Then man called his wife's 10 best friends. None of them knew anything about it.
5 Friendship between Men A man didn’t come home one night. The next day he told his wife that he slept over at a buddy's house. The woman called her husband's 10 best friends. Eight of them confirmed that he had slept over, and two claimed he was still there!
6 About the authorEllen Goodman, Born on April 11, 1941, in Newton MA, is a Boston Globe Online columnist and a stylish writer with a humanizing touch on any issue, public or personal. She is widely acclaimed as a voice of sanity, and readers depend on her to help them make sense of their changing lives and relationships.
7 Discourse Analysis The author advances the The author reveals standard of friendship onthe basis of the shift offocus of cinema lens.The author revealswhat kind of film thewoman had just seen.Para.(3-6)Para.(1-2)FriendshipPara.(7-18)Para.(19)The distinctionsof the two types offriendship are detailed.It summarizes thedifference between themale companionship andthe female friendship.
8 Part I (Para. 1-2)The author reveals what kind of film the woman had just seen.
9 Language Points: 1. tapestry n. 1) You can refer to something as a tapestry when it is made up of many varied types of people or things. (LITERARY) Meadows are thick with a tapestry of wild flowers.2) a large piece of heavy cloth on which colored threads are woven to produce a picture, pattern etc.壁毯; 挂毯
10 2. budgetn. the money that is available to an organization or person预算E.g. big-budget / low-budget movies; cut the budget> budget v.为 ... 做预算 vi.节省开支
11 3. chase1) v. ~ (after) sb/sth run after in order to capture or overtake sb/sth追捕; 追赶E.g. He's always chasing (after) women.2) n. act of chasing; pursuit追捕; 追赶
12 4. shoot-outn. [C] a fight using guns枪战E.g. Two people were killed tonight in a shoot-out with police.
13 5. cosmica. of the whole universe or cosmos宇宙的;巨大的E.g. Physics is governed by cosmic laws.* (fig) a disaster of cosmic proportions, i.e. very great.
14 GirlfriendsIt is a believable relationship story of a young Jewish woman who is trying to make it on her own, coping with work, romance and friendship at the same time and has to accept the marriage of her best friend and roommate. It seemed almost revolutionary in 1978 when it was first released. It is a small movie that made a big splash with its focus on women's’ interior lives.
15 6. affectinga. producing strong emotions of sadness, pity etc感人的,动人的E.g. a deeply affecting story> affect v.
16 7. panv. (of a camera, etc) move in this way （指摄影机等）移动拍摄E.g. The shot panned slowly across the room.
17 8. fragilityn. the condition of being infirm or physically weak> fragile a. 易受伤害的; 易碎的E.g. fragile china/glass;(fig) Human happiness is so fragile.
18 9. resiliency n. the quality or state of being flexible弹性> resilient a. 能迅速恢复或重新振作的; 弹性的E.g. The company proved remarkably resilient during the recession.> resilience n [U]
19 10. tissue1) n. a piece of soft thin paper纸巾2) n. network; web网状物;组织E.g. connective tissue
20 Questions:1) What kind of film did the woman see?2) What did she think of it?
21 Part II (Para. 3-6)The author advances the standard of friendship on the basis of the shift of focus of cinema lens.
22 JuliaA film produced in 1977, Julia centers on Lillian’s relationship with her lifelong friend Julia, a story that takes place in the 1930s. Their relationship goes beyond mere acquaintance, and is sustained by love.
23 The Turning PointThis film tells the story of friends and former competitors in the world of ballet, as well as the daughter of one of the women who is starting a career in ballet of her own.
24 11. drastic adj extreme and sudden突然的; 猛烈的E.g. Drastic measures will have to be taken to restore order.drastic action/measures>drastically adv
25 12. bingen. (inf.) a short period when you do too much of something, such as eating or drinking狂欢E.g. a drinking binge; a week-long binge of shopping
26 13. trendya. influenced by the most fashionable styles and ideas流行的;时髦的E.g. a trendy London night club >trendiness n [U]
27 14. celluloid 1) n. [U] a kind of plastic that cinema film used to be made of赛璐珞2) n. (dated) cinema films电影片E.g. Chaplin's comic genius is preserved on celluloid.
28 Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid The film tells the story of Wild West outlaws Robert LeRoy Parker, known to history as Butch Cassidy and his partner Harry Longabaugh, the “Sundance Kid” (Robert Redford) as they migrate to Bolivia while on the run from the law in search of a more successful criminal career.
29 15. atavistic adj (formal) atavistic feelings are very basic human feelings that people have felt since humans have existed原始的,隔代遗传的E.g. an atavistic fear of snakes
30 16. attachment n. [C] a feeling that you like or love someone or something and that you would be unhappy without them依恋; 眷恋E.g. a child‘s attachment to his mother > attach v. 连接；使依恋attached a. 附属的, 依恋的
31 17. cull v. ~ sth (from sth) select or obtain sth from various different sources从各个不同的方面挑选出或获得某事物 E.g. information culled from various reference books> cull n. 剔除; 挑选
32 18. bonding n [U]亲密关系male/female bonding (informal) the activity of doing things with other people of the same sex>bond v.(使)粘合n. 联系；粘合剂
33 19. primal 1) a. (fml) first or original; primeval最初的; 原始的 E.g. the loss of their primal innocence 2) a. chief or most important; fundamental; primary主要的;基础性的E.g. of primal importance
34 18. pick on1) choose sb for punishment, criticism or blame选中某人惩罚﹑ 批评或责怪E.g. She felt that her parents were picking on her.2) choose sb for a task, esp an unpleasant one选中某人做某事（尤指厌恶的事）E.g. I was picked on to announce the bad news.
35 21. dual adj having two of something or two parts二重的; 双的 dual role /purpose / function / citizenship / nationality e.g. She has dual nationality, of Canada and Britain (=she is a citizen of Canada and Britain) . > duality n [U]
37 Questions:3. Why does the author list the movies the woman had seen that year?4. What led the woman to think that the cinema has shifted its focus?
38 Part III (Para. 7-18)The distinctions of the two types of friendship are detailed.
39 Samuel Taylor Coleridge Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 1772 – 25 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic and philosopher who was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.
40 22. border v ~ on sthbe next to sth; be almost the same as sth 接近某物;几乎与某事物相同E.g. The new housing estate borders on the motorway.E.g. (fig)The boy's reply to his teacher was bordering on rudeness.
41 23. adversity n. [U] unfavorable conditions; trouble逆境; 不幸E.g. remain cheerful in adversity> adverse a.不利的，有害的adversary n. 对手，敌手
42 24. palpable adj (fml) clear to the mind; obvious明显的; 明白的E.g. a palpable lie, error> palpably advAntonym: impalpable
43 25. accessory 1) n. (usu pl) thing that is a useful or decorative extra but that is not essential附属品; 配件E.g. bicycle accessories 2) n. ~ (to sth) (law) person who helps another in a crime从犯; 帮凶E.g. He was charged with being an accessory to murder. > accessory adj additional; extra
44 26. athletic adj [attrib] of athletes or athletics运动员的; 运动的E.g. an athletic club * athletic sports >athletics n. 运动，体育athlete n. 运动员athleticism n. 运动竞赛, 运动能力
45 27. loathe v. [Tn] feel great hatred or disgust for (sb/sth)憎恨; 厌恶E.g. loathe the smell of fried fish> loathing n [U] disgust厌恶; 憎恨E.g. have a loathing of sthloathsome adj causing one to feel disgusted or shocked; repulsive讨厌的; 令人震惊的E.g. a loathsome disease
46 28. confidencen. secret which is told to sb知心话; 私房话E.g. The two girls sat in a corner exchanging confidences.in (strict) confidence当作秘密E.g. I'm telling you this in (strict) confidence so don't breathe a word of it.take sb into one‘s confidence向某人吐露内心的秘密等confidence trick骗局> confidential a. 机密的
47 29. hang together(of people) support or help one another团结一致, 互相帮助hang on to sthhold sth tightly 抓紧某物
48 30. confess v. ~ (to sth/doing sth); ~ (sth) (to sb) say or admit, often formally (that one has done wrong, committed a crime, etc)承认（错误﹑罪行等）; 供认E.g. She confessed (to the priest) that he had sinned.>confession n.
49 31. wretched adj very unhappy; miserable or pitiable极不愉快的; 悲惨的 E.g. the wretched survivors of the earthquake* His stomach-ache made him feel wretched (ie ill) all day.>wretchedness n [U]wretch n.不幸的人；卑鄙的人
50 32. moan v 1) utter moans or say (sth) with moans呻吟; 呻吟着说（某事） 2) ~ (about sth) (infml) grumble or complain抱怨; 发牢骚E.g. He's always moaning (on) about how poor he is.> moan n. [c] 呻吟声, 抱怨
51 33. restraint n (fml) [U] ~ (in sth) avoidance of exaggeration or excess; moderation克制; 节制 E.g. He showed/exercised considerable restraint in not suing for a divorce.E.g. The child's affections were kept under/suffered continual restraint.>restrain vt.
52 BabbittBabbitt, first published in 1922, is a novel by Sinclair Lewis. Largely a satire of American culture, society, and behavior, it critiques the vacuity of middle-class American life and its pressure on individuals toward conformity.
53 34. grievance n ~ (against sb) real or imagined cause for complaint or protest委屈, 不满E.g. inviting the members to air (ie express) their grievances* He'd been harboring / nursing a grievance against his boss.
54 35. claustrophobicadj. If you feel claustrophobic, you feel very uncomfortable or anxious when you are in a small, crowded, or enclosed place.幽闭恐怖症的;引起幽闭恐怖的E.g. The churning, pressing crowds made her feel claustrophobic.> claustrophobia n.
55 Questions:5. What's the fundamental difference between buddies and friends?6. What is the point put forward in Paragraph 14?7. What is the point of Paragraph 15?8. What point does the example in Paragraph 16 illustrate?9. What is the point of Paragraph 18?
56 Part IV (Para. 19)It summarizes the fundamental difference between the male companionship and the female friendship.
57 George SantayanaGeorge Santayana (December 16, 1863 – September 26, 1952) was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.