Presentation on theme: "Presented by Dave Riddle. Directions Aft: Towards the back of the boat Port: The left side of the boat when facing forward Starboard: The right side of."— Presentation transcript:
Directions Aft: Towards the back of the boat Port: The left side of the boat when facing forward Starboard: The right side of the boat when facing forward Fore/Forward: Towards the front of the boat
Typical Sailboat Mast: Large vertical spar which supports the sails Mainsail: The large sail which is aft of the mast Jib: The smaller sail which is forward of the mast Bow: Front of the boat Cockpit: Open well of the boat where the crew sit or place their feet Stern: Back of the boat Rudder: Moveable fin to control direction Transom: Flat outside portion of the stern Deck: Top of the hull to keep water out Centerboard/Daggerboard: pivoting/moveable fin to prevent sliding sideways Gunwale: Edge of the desk that touches the Topside Bilge: Lowest part of the boat inside the hull Topsides: Sides of the hull to the chine
More Parts Block: A pulley – it can have wheels or sheaves Main Sheet: The line used to trim the mainsail Sheet: Line used to trim a sail Bow line: A line attached to the front of the boat Rigging: Wires used to support the mast and lines Used to hoist or trim sails Cleat: Device attached to the deck or cockpit of the boat which is used to secure a line Spar: Pole used to support the sails Gooseneck: Fitting that attaches the boom to the mast Traveler: Track or bridle to control sideways movement of the boom and mainsail
Still more parts! Trunk: A fitting in the center of the hull though which the daggerboard passes Thwart: Transverse structure to sit on and used to support the centerboard/daggerboard trunk Hull: Body of the boat
Controls Tiller: Wood or metal extension from the top of the rudder which is used to hold the rudders position
Sails Head: Top corner of the sail Leech: Trailing edge of the sail Battens: Sticks to keep the Leech from curling Clew: Aft lower corner of the sail Foot: Bottom edge of the sail Tack: Forward lower corner of a sail Luff: Forward edge of the sail or flapping sail when not trimmed
Sail Control Boom: Spar which stabilizes the bottom of the mainsail Outhaul: Stretch the mainsail along the boom Main Sheet: Line used to trim the mainsail Cunningham: Stretch mainsail down after Hoist Boom Vang/Vang: Line secured to the boom to prevent it From lifting when wind hits the sail Line: A Rope Halyards: Hoist sail up the mast Sheets: Trim sail against the pressure of the wind
Wind Leeward: Where the wind is going to Windward: Where the wind is coming from
Luffing The flapping of a sail when it is not trimmed properly or the boat is pointed into or too close to the wind
Docking 1. Choose the side lined up with The wind 2. Approach from the downwind end 3. Release the sheets so the sail can luff.
Boarding 1. Pull the boat alongside the dock 2. Crew to hold the boat steady 3. Do not board over the bow – board at the middle of the hull. Step into the cockpit – not on the deck with feet pointing toward the bow 4. Once aboard crouch to lower your center of gravity 5. If able to lower the centerboard 6. Load gear 7. Load other passengers
Underway Ready to get underway? Look around and have a crewmate or dockhand push the boat away from the dock and into the wind
Steer To turn starboard move tiller to port To turn to port turn tiller to starboard
Points of Sail Direction of sail in relation to the wind
Wind: The wind is what powers a sailboat. Both the direction and strength of wind is important in setting the sails and maintaining control of the boat. True-wind direction is different from apparent-wind direction. The true-wind is the direction of the wind which makes the waves. The true-wind is perpendicular to the waves. The apparent-wind sails the boat. When the speed of the boat and the velocity of the wind are close, the difference between the apparent and true-wind is the greatest. The apparent wind is forward of the true-wind, except when sailing directly into or away from the true-wind. As one sails faster, the apparent-wind is drawn further forward. When sailing with the wind the apparent-wind has less of a force that the true-wind. When sailing against the wind, i.e., in a close reach, the apparent-wind has a greater force than the true wind. In general, the closer you sail to the wind, the closer the sails are pulled or trimmed to the midline of the boat. As you sail away from the wind, the sails are progressively let out. The exact position of the sails are based upon the direction and speed of the apparent-wind. (The direction of the apparent-wind is determined by the sailboat's tack [or relationship to the true-wind] and the relationship of the speed of the true-wind to the speed of the boat.) For the beginner sailor, it is easy to remember the five basic directions of sail ( point-of-sail ) each of which has its distinct characteristics of speed, heel and sail position.
Point-of-SailWind Direction In IronsInto the Wind Close-Hauled (Beating) 30-40 Deg Close Reach70 Deg Beam Reach90 Deg Broad Reach135 Deg Running180 Deg Close Reach: Sailing with the front of the boat approximately 60 Deg off the wind Close Hauled: Sailing as close to the wind as possible Beam Reach: Broad Reach: Sailing far away from the wind but still able to fill the mainsail and jib on the same side of the boat Running: Sail directly downwind
Safety Position 1. Put boat on a close reach and luff the sails 2. Boat will coast to a stop and drift 3. Simply trim the sail to get underway again
Knots Cleat hitch Secure a line to a deck cleat Click on picture to play video
Knots Bowline Makes a secure loop in a line that will not slip Click on picture to play video
Knots Square knot Join two lines of equal thickness Click on picture to play video
Knots Clove hitch Quick and easy temporary knot. Will work it’s way free over time Click on picture to play video
Knots Figure-eight Stopper knot. Used to put a lump in the end of a line to stop it from slipping through a block Click on picture to play video
Knots Two Half Hitches Secure a line around a post or ring Click on picture to play video
Rules of the Road When two sailboats on opposite tacks meet, the one on the starboard tack is the “stand-on” vessel and has the right-of-way.
Rules of the Road When two sailboats on the same tack Meet the one on the leeward (downwind) side is the stand-on vessel and has the right-of-way
Rules of the Road When a faster moving sailboat overtakes another from behind, it is the give-way vessel and must Keep clear of the boat it is overtaking.
Rules of the Road Powerboats keep clear of sailboats Sailboats keep clear of muscle-powered boats Exceptions: 1. All keep clear of disabled boats other then to give aid 2. All boats give way to boats with limited maneuvering – barges, fishing, etc… 3. In a channel yield to bigger boats 4. Sailboat using an engine is a “powerboat” Be Defensive.
Capsize A sailboat capsizes when it heels over so far that the top of the mast touches the water. Reasons: 1.The sails are trimmed in too far 2.The wind is too strong 3.The boat is carrying too much sail 4.The crew members do not use their weight correctly to balance the hull
Capsize A small boat is said to capsize when it rolls over upside down or on its side with its mast and sails in the water. Turtling is a type of capsizing but only refers to the turning of the boat completely upside down with its sails and mast pointing vertically toward the sea bottom. Capsizes usually occur when a sudden gust of wind catches the skipper and crew off guard. For this reason, one should always have control of the main sheet to quickly let out and depower the mainsail. Remember the following safety rules: #1. Never swim toward shore. It looks closer than you think and you may not make it. #2. Always stay with the boat. #3. Do not swim under the sails or hull. #4. Upon entering the boat after it has come upright, be sure to duck to avoid the swinging boom.
Capsize 1.Count Heads – account for everyone 2.Stay with the boat 3.Release all the sheets from their cleats 4.Turn the hull into the wind 5.Swim to the centerboard 6.Pull down on the board to right the boat 7.Grab the hull before it drifts away 8.Climb on board from the stern
Capsize There are several methods of righting a capsized boat. The Scoop Recovery Method can be used for righting a boat when sailed by two or more people. The boat often capsizes toward the leeward side and both the skipper and the crew end up in the water. One sailor supports the mast to keep the boat from turtling. The other sailor maneuvers around the boat (not under the hull) and climbs on the centerboard. The sailor in the water grabs on to a stationary object in the boat's cockpit. The sailor on the centerboard leans back and starts to right the boat. If more righting leverage is needed, a jib sheet may be used to lean farther out on the centerboard. The sailor in the water is scooped into the cockpit and helps stabilize the boat as it is righted. As the sailors enter the cockpit they should duck to avoid getting hit by the boom. The sheet of the mainsail and jib should be loose and the sails allowed to luff so they will not recapsize the boat while it is righting.
Capsize – Walk-Over In the Walkover Method of recovery a sailor quickly swings over the side of the boat onto the centerboard before the boat starts to capsize. He can then lean backwards and as the boat rights itself he can quickly get back into the cockpit.
Running Aground If you hit rocks the bottom may be damaged. If you hit mud or sand you may be stuck and need to shove off. Don’t get out unless you have to. If you do get out maintain control of the boat holding it forward of the mast to keep it pointed into the wind and the sails luffing. 1.Release all sheets to luff the sails 2.Turn into the wind and then to deep water 3.Raise the rudder and centerboard 4.Push off (if necessary using an oar or pole) 5.As you enter deep water lower the fins to resume sailing
Maintenance Keep the boat clean. Rinse and wipe to clean dirt, debris or footprints Pump, bail, drain or sponge-dry the hull Secure all rigging by pulling it taut and cleating Coil longer lines Stow or remove loose gear Dry out and roll or furl the sails Rinse off saltwater well – especially metal or moving parts Secure boat and sail covers