Presentation on theme: "Hygienic and Safe Food Processing Workshop"— Presentation transcript:
1 Hygienic and Safe Food Processing Workshop CTC Center LundaziMay 2007Dr. Carmen I. Moraru and Elisabeth A. BihnCornell UniversityThe GAPs Program is a National education and extension program designed to reduce microbial risks to fresh fruits and vegetables.
2 Can foods harm people? Yes, sometimes foods can make people very sick! When? If they are not properly:ProcessedStoredHandledPrepared/consumed
3 Where does this happen?Everywhere in the world, including Africa and the United States of America!Example: in the US alone, millions of people suffer every year from food poisoningSymptoms: headaches, stomach aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, etc.Sometimes people can even die!Can you think of a situation when you felt sick because of the food you ate?
4 What is the cause? Extremely small living organisms, called BACTERIA How small are bacteria?About one million times smaller than a humanCannot see them with the naked eye, only with a microscopeHow do they look like under the microscope?Some are round - Others are like a rod
5 Additional harmful organisms of concern in foods VirusesHepatitis A virusNorwalk-like virusVirusesParasitesCyclosporaCryptosporidiumGiardiaParasites
6 Are all food related bacteria dangerous? Some bacteria are usefulE.g. used to make certain foods such as yogurt, cheeseOthers can be harmful:Spoil the food: spoilage bacteriaMake people sick: pathogenic bacteriaFood contaminatedwith bacteriaBacteria survive and even grow in foods, especially under warm conditionsConsumers may gets sick after eating the contaminated food
7 Examples of harmful bacteria that can be transmitted through foods Salmonella speciesSources: eggs, poultry, peanuts (it gets transmitted into peanut butter, too!)E. coli O157:H7Fruits and vegetables, untreated waterShigella speciesFruits and vegetables, products of animal originBacillus cereusFruits and vegetables (transmitted through soil)Listeria monocytogenesFruits and vegetables, milk, meat (beef)Vibrio choleraFruits and vegetables, seafood. Transmitted through water.Staphylococcus aureusMostly from humans (skin infections, nose, etc.).
8 Important information about bacteria Under optimum conditions (moisture, food, warm temperatures) bacteria double in number every 30 minutes…Ex: 1 becomes 2, 2 become 4, 4 become 8, and so on...How long will it take one bacterium to multiply to 100 cells?*** 3.5 hours ***
9 How many bacteria are needed to make us sick? (Hemolytic UremicSyndrome)
10 How do bacteria get into foods? Agricultural raw materialsWaterAir / dustSoilFood handlers/ peoplePackaging materialsAnimals and birdsGarbage and sewageRodentsInsects
12 2. Domestic animals and birds From skin, feathers, manure, bedding materials, sheds, etc.Contamination transmitted mostly by people who touch animals or birds and do not wash their hands before touching foods
13 … and even from wild animals! Less likelyMostly through manure
14 3. PeopleHow can people contribute to microbial contamination of foods?During processing and handlingDuring packingIn distribution and food service facilitiesAt home!Main vehicle?
15 What can we do to fight bacterial contamination? Proper agricultural practicesCritical particularly for the safety of fresh fruits and vegetablesProper fertilization, drainage, etc.Proper harvesting and handlingProper personal worker hygieneProper processingHygienic processing facilitiesProper processing methodsClean, sanitary equipment and utensils… and again, proper personal worker hygiene!Food Safety: Farm to Fork!
16 At the farmThis is where food quality and safety start … or get compromised!
17 Proper personal worker hygiene Very high standards of personal hygiene for food handlers are requiredSources of contamination from workers:Injuries – cover them up!Illness, such as food poisoning, food-borne diseases, or other existing infections – don’t come to work when sick!Personal habits: chewing, spitting, scratching the nose, smoking. None of these should be done in the room where food is handled!Personal clothing
18 Food processing worker apparel CleanUsed only in the food processing facilityConsists of:Lab coatHair cover (hat or hairnet)Beard / mustache net to cover facial hair (when applicable)Clean shoes or shoe covers. For sensitive products (e.g. peanut butter), workers should not walk outside with the same shoes!Gloves when necessary
19 Remember the main vehicle of food contamination by people? What can workers do to prevent this?Wash their hands!
20 When should you wash your hands? ALWAYS AFTER:Using the toiletHandling foodTouching animalsEating, drinking or smoking
21 Proper hand washingWater and soap physically remove particles of soil and microbes from skinRubbing and scrubbing are important
22 Also very important! Always use clean water Never wash your hands in used wash water
23 What else needs special attention? Cracks, calluses, fingernails, and rings can shelter dirt and pathogenic microbes (“germs”)Use a nail brush to remove all dirt from underneath the fingernails
24 What is effective hand washing? 1234567891011121314151617181920Proper HandwashingReduces infection 35 to 50%Reduces gastro intestinal illness by up to 80%
26 Hand washing demonstration Four groupsRinse onlyFive-second washTen second washTwenty-second washUse Germ Glow test kit to check for cleanliness
27 Proper handwashing reduces risks PREVENTION is the key to reducing microbial contamination of foods!
28 Prevention of bacterial contamination and growth in foods during processing Important facts about processing:Cook and maintain foods at the correct temperatureHigh temperatures kill bacteriaLow temperatures (refrigeration) stop their growthBesides cooking, other methods can also help preserve foods:SaltingSmokingDryingAdding sugarCorrect handling, preparation, cooling and processing of food are extremely importantRotate stocks of raw materials and finished foods can prevent food poisoning and spoilage. Rule: FIRST IN – FIRST OUT!
29 Premises and equipment Maintain premises clean: no dust or dirt on floors, walls, processing surfaces, processing equipmentDo not accumulate waste or used water in the processing facility. Dispose them hygienically.Authorized personnel permitted onlyClean shoes or use shoe covers when entering premisesAlways wash hands when entering the food processing facility
30 Pest control Food pests: rodentsbirdsinsects;Keep all pests out of processing and storage spaces, because they are an important source of contaminationAcceptable methods of controlling pests in food premises:Prevent entry (nets, keep doors closed, etc.) – BEST method!Do not leave food waste or uncovered food laying aroundCould use traps for rodentsDo not use poison!
31 Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) during food processing Separate different products, particularly raw materials from final products.Chill. As much as possible, keep foods in cool and dry spaces, as cold storage is one of the most effective ways to reduce the risk of foodborne illness.Clean counter tops, containers and utensils with soapy water, as follows:Scrub dirt and rinse with waterWash with soapy waterRinseSanitize with dilute bleach solution
33 Surface cleaning demonstration Four groupsWipe onlyRinse onlyDetergent washDetergent + scrubbingUse Vericleen test kit to check for cleanliness
34 Why is worker training a priority? Workers are sometimes the last/only people to handle the food before the consumerWorkers need to be aware of food safety issues and their impactEffective training results in better employees and safer foods
35 Training workshop evaluation Give a grade from 1 (worst) to 10 (best)Was this training useful to you?Was the training engaging enough?Will you use the things you learned today in your daily work?