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Laboratory Safety & Hazardous Waste Training

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Presentation on theme: "Laboratory Safety & Hazardous Waste Training"— Presentation transcript:

1 Laboratory Safety & Hazardous Waste Training
General lab safety training, lab specific training needed required by supervisor

2 Agenda Laboratory Safety Hazardous Waste Management
Regulatory Introduction Hazard Recognition Physical Chemical Exposure Management Engineering Controls Administrative Controls Material Segregation and Management Personal Protective Equipment Fire Safety and Procedures Spills and Emergency Response Hazardous Waste Management

3 Regulatory Introduction
Columbia University laboratories must comply with rules set by the following regulatory bodies: New York City Fire Department (FDNY) Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) Federal Department of Labor: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)

4 New York City Fire Department
Peroxide-Forming Chemicals Must be dated immediately upon opening Discard any unused chemicals within a year of opening date Ethers, THF and dioxanes

5 New York City Fire Department
Compressed gas cylinders Stored upright and restrained. Oxygen cylinders should be kept at a minimum of 25 feet away from flammable gas cylinders. i.e. hydrogen

6 New York City Fire Department
Flammables in Refrigerators Flammable chemicals must be stored in a “Flammable Material Storage” or “Explosion Proof” refrigerator Domestic refrigerators located in labs are labeled “Store No Flammables Flashing below 100 F”.

7 New York City Fire Department
Chemical containers must be Clearly and Visibly labeled to indicate their contents at all times.

8 New York City Fire Department
Certificate of Fitness Program At least one C of F holder is required per lab while the laboratory is in operation (includes nights & weekends). holder knows emergency procedures in the event of a fire in the lab. Labs with large amounts of compressed gases or cryogenics may require additional Certificates. Contact EH&S for information on obtaining a C of F.

9 The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Regulates workplace health and safety OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR ) : Information on hazard identification and protection Information on chemical exposure, detection, and management Emergency procedures Employers’ and employees’ rights and responsibilities is the specific regulation that applies to laboratory environments

10 Hazard Recognition “The employer shall provide employees with information and training to ensure that they are apprised of the hazards of chemicals present in their work area.” 29CFR Safety and hazard information is available from multiple sources.

11 Hazard Recognition Sources of hazard information:
USDOT (Department of Transportation) Diamonds NFPA (National Fire Prevention Association) Diamonds Manufacturers’ labels Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Office of Environmental Health & Radiation Safety/ Environmental Health & Safety

12 Hazard Recognition Chemicals are often marked with the NFPA Diamond or similar hazardous communication markings to denote their hazards. Note the hazards as listed on chemical containers in your lab prior to using them.

13 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
Shipped with all chemicals All safety information exposure limits precautions for safe handling and use other hazard information Must be accessible (paper copy or via internet) in the lab for all chemicals present.

14 Hazard Recognition -Physical & Chemical Hazards
Awareness of the potential risk Knowledge about the hazard Precautions  and protective measures Burns Asphyxiation Slips, Trips, Falls Electrocution Blunt Force Trauma, Lacerations Compressed Gas and Cryogenic Hazards Flammability Corrosivity Toxicity Reactivity Physical hazards may be present in laboratories and cover a wide range of concerns including the following: Cuts, Slips, Trips, and Falls. Broken glassware is a frequent cause of cuts in laboratories. Water on the floor, especially around sinks or ice dispensers may cause slips. Compressed Gases Although compressed gases may have chemical hazards associated with them, physical hazards include asphyxiation and rupture of the tank. Non-flammable Cryogens Liquid nitrogen is the most widely used non-flammable cryogen. Such materials may cause tissue damage or asphyxiation in poorly ventilated areas. Liquid oxygen condensation in vacuum traps may cause explosion. High Pressure Reactions Equipment failure can lead to explosion at pressures over one atmosphere. Vacuum Work Work in vacuum lines and at subambient pressure includes the danger of glass breakage, implosion, and flying glass particles. Ultraviolet, Visible, and near-Infrared Radiation Use of lamps and lasers in the laboratory can cause substanitial eye damage. Radiofrequency and Microwave Hazards These occur within the range of 10 kilohertz to 300,000 megahertz. Microwave ovens may cause super heating of liquids. Metals in ovens may cause arcing. Capping of vials in the oven can result in explosion from pressure build up. Electrical Hazards Electrical equipment usually found in laboratories have safety features incorporated into their design and construction, but these features should not be defeated. Electrical malfunctions can lead to electrical fires, and may also ignite flammable vapors. Magnetic Fields NMR spectrometers and other instruments generate large magnetic fields. While the field strength fall off rapidly with distance, there is evidence that at fields above 50 to 100 gauss ferromagnetic objects moved too close to the magnet may become projectiles aimed at the magnet.

15 Oxygen Alarms Oxygen alarms are used where large amounts of cryogenics or inert gases are stored, which can potentially cause asphyxiation by displacing oxygen. DO NOT ENTER any area where an oxygen alarm is going off. Asphyxiation can be rapid and sudden, with no warning signs. Rescues must be performed by someone with a supplied air respirator. If it is possible to open doors/windows to ventilate area without entering, do so.

DANGER If you hear Alarm, DO NOT ENTER; Call Public Safety During Work hours also call EH&S POTENTIAL OXYGEN DEFICIENCY HAZARD If Alarm is Activated Assume alarm activation to be valid Evacuate all workers in room and close the door Call Public Safety immediately; also PI and EH&S Be prepared to provide information to responders DO NOT Enter the room DO NOT Attempt to rescue anyone, as asphyxiation can be rapid with no warning signs DO NOT Open door within first hour after the alarm has stopped sounding Do NOT attempt to repair a faulty sensor. Report it to TechAir ( ) or EH&S. Review Columbia University policy (

17 Questions What type of refrigerator is required for
storage of flammable chemicals? Peroxide forming chemicals must be upon opening.

18 Hazard Recognition What does the blue part of the NFPA diamond signify?

19 Exposure Management - Chemical Routes of Entry
Inhalation Absorption Injection Ingestion

20 Chemical Routes of Entry
A common route of chemical exposure is ingestion due to contaminated food or hands.

21 Chemical Exposure – Health Effects
Acute effects – sudden, traumatic effects Headaches, dizziness, burns from corrosive chemicals Chronic effects – slow, gradual effects not rapidly perceived; poor or no warnings of exposure Cancer, mutation, reproductive effects

22 Chemical Exposure - Exposure Limits
Risk = Exposure x Hazard Toxic effects can be minimized by keeping exposures to a minimum. Acceptable limits of exposure

23 Question Eating or drinking in a laboratory is strictly prohibited but acceptable in other areas where toxic/harmful chemicals are stored? FALSE

24 Exposure Management Hierarchy of control measures to minimize risk.
Reduce time or amount of exposure, or alter nature of exposure. Engineering controls Administrative controls Personal protective equipment (PPE) Engineering controls are measures designed to prevent exposure to a harmful substance or hazard. The most common engineering controls are: Chemical Fume Hoods Biosafety Cabinets

25 Engineering Controls - Chemical Fume hoods
Reduce exposure to airborne hazards. Ensure that your fume hood is: Free of clutter lfm ‘Kim-wipe test’ Not open more than 12”

26 Chemical Fume hoods

27 Engineering Controls – Chemical Fume Hoods

28 Exposure Management - Administrative Controls
Alter work practices: Chemical substitution Proper storage and segregation of hazardous materials Proper housekeeping practice Prudent inventory and purchase order management Appropriate training and Right to Know information (such as MSDS)

29 Administrative Controls – Chemical Substitution
Less hazardous alternatives Citrosolv v. xylene Enzymatic detergents v. chromic/sulfuric acid-based glass cleaners SYBR Safe v. ethidium bromide An effective way to reduce exposure to a hazardous material is to remove it from your work practice entirely. Consider the use of safer chemical alternatives when designing your experiments.

30 Administrative Controls – Chemical Substitution
Mercury is a TOXIC metal. Clean-up is time and resource-intensive.

31 Administrative Controls - Chemical Storage
Proper chemical storage reduces exposure risk. Segregation Hazard Class Incompatibles deep spill bins or separate cabinets Labeling All containers, including reaction vessels.

32 Administrative Controls - Chemical Storage
Consider the following: Compatibility container and cabinet with chemicals Proximity chemicals, incompatible materials, heat, or open flame

33 What is wrong with this?

34 What is wrong with this?

35 Administrative Controls – Chemical Storage (Flammables)
Allowable limit of flammable materials. Determined by construction materials and presence of sprinklers. 4 Lab types: I, II, III, IV Flammable limits of 30, 25, 20, 15 gallons, respectively Flammable waste materials count toward these limits

36 Administrative Controls – Chemical Storage (Flammables)
Explosion-proof or intrinsically-safe refrigerators

37 Administrative Controls - Housekeeping
Poor housekeeping contributes to accidents and can hinder emergency response activities. Do not: block exits, aisles, or doorways. block access to emergency equipment. store chemicals in excess of lab’s limts. store chemical containers on the floor.

38 What is wrong with this?

39 What is wrong with this? Clutter Open Sash Open Bottle Labeling
Exposed Sharps Objects Not Properly Managed

40 What is wrong with this? Excess chemical on the workbench
Poor housekeeping

41 Administrative Controls - Inventory Management
Purchase order management Smallest quantity sufficient for your work Utilize ‘just in time’ delivery Excess chemicals become Hazardous Waste Updated chemical inventory Dispose of all outdated or unused chemicals properly and promptly. present in the laboratory should be prepared, updated, and maintained in the laboratory.

42 Exposure Management - Personal Protective Equipment
Safety glasses / goggles Protective gloves Aprons / lab coats

43 Personal Protective Equipment - Eye Protection
Determined by risk factors Safety glasses provide basic protection must be worn when handling hazardous materials. Safety goggles splash hazards or highly corrosive materials Laser goggles wavelength-specific protection, with opaque non-lens components to protect the face.

44 Personal Protective Equipment - Hand Protection
No one glove protects against all chemicals. Consult manufacturers’ guides Never re-use Change frequently contaminated or torn

45 Personal Protective Equipment - Hand Protection

46 Personal Protective Equipment - Lab coats
Limited but critical protection from chemical splashes. Small (i.e., research sized) quantities of hazardous chemicals. Dispose or launder if heavily contaminated Keep coat buttoned to prevent entanglement in moving equipment.

47 What do you wear when you work in the lab?

48 Safety Equipment Test weekly and keep a log.
Don’t wait for an emergency!

49 Safety Equipment

50 Questions How often should an eyewash be tested?
Personal protective equipment should be worn in and outside the laboratory: True or False?

51 Environmental Health & Safety
Fire Safety Staff John LaPerche Fire Safety Officer Edward Moran Fire Safety Assistant Environmental Health & Safety

52 Fire Safety In Case of Fire: RACE & PASS Rescue Alarm Confine
Extinguish To use Fire Extinguisher: Pull Pin Aim Hose Squeeze Handle Sweep From Side to Side In Case of Fire: RACE & PASS Rescue Alarm Confine Extinguish

53 RESCUE Not just yourself! People with special needs
People in immediate area

54 ALARM Alarm (Manual Station) Located by exits Dial 305-7979
Notify occupants as you leave Give all information to security/Fire Dept.

55 CONFINE Close all doors/windows as you leave.
Turn off source of ignition if possible Keep fire in room of origin

56 Laboratory Evacuation Procedures
If possible: Turn off all equipment within reach that can be safely turned off. Close fume hood sash. Close open chemical containers.

57 Laboratory Evacuation Procedures
Know location of fire exits. Use nearest stair. Move horizontally into an adjoining building


59 EXTINGUISH Can you extinguish a fire ? Yes, a minor fire
Waste paper basket, electrical outlet, small flammable spill, small oven, microwave

60 ABC Fire Extinguisher Class ‘A’ = Combustibles fires involving solids such as wood, paper, plastic Class ‘B’ = Flammable liquids such as alcohol, paint, oil. Class ‘C’ = Electrical equipment, Computers, Copiers.

61 Fire Extinguisher Use Use extinguisher if: - You are properly trained.
- Fire is very small. Report the fire before attempting to extinguish. Maintain a clear path between you and the exit.

62 To Use Fire Extinguisher:
Pull Pin Aim hose Squeeze Handle Sweep From Side to Side ammonium phosphate

63 To Use Fire Extinguisher:

64 If you catch on fire!

65 If you catch on fire! Immediately call out for help Use
DO NOT RUN! Immediately call out for help Use - Emergency shower - Deluge hose - Fire Blanket - ABC Extinguisher Know location of these items

66 Certificate of Fitness
At least one C of F holder is required, per laboratory unit while the laboratory is in operation. (includes nights, holidays & weekends)

67 Certificate of Fitness FDNY Requirements
MS & PhD or MD degrees or BS – BA degree must have 2 years experience in a laboratory after receiving degree An English copy of your degree or transcripts must be presented. All paperwork, Photo and fees handled by EH&S staff

68 Oxygen Sensors

69 Cryogenic Liquids Certificate of Fitness (G-97) need for amounts over 60 Gallons. If currently have C-14 then go to Testing Center/Safety Course TC0084 Storage and Use of Cryogenic

70 Fire Life Safety Questions ? Fire Safety Work or at Home 305-6780
Thank you

71 Spills and Emergency Response
What would you do in the event of a spill?

72 Spills and Emergency Response
Laboratory personnel must know what to do in case of an emergency. Personal Injury / Health Emergency Chemical Release Unmanageable: Must only be handled by trained professionals. Manageable: Can be handled by laboratory personnel using in-lab spill kit.

73 Spills and Emergency Response – Personal Contamination
Remove contaminated clothing. Flush exposed area with tepid water for 15 minutes. If there are no visible burns, wash gently with soap and warm water. Obtain MSDS. Obtain medical attention, if necessary. Report the incident to your supervisor. File appropriate accident reports and notify EH&S. Spills of hazardous materials that involve personal contamination increase the possibility of exposure, particularly if the chemical is capable of being absorbed through the skin.

74 Medical Surveillance Employees who work with hazardous chemicals shall be provided the opportunity to receive medical attention: Post-exposure Post-monitoring (if exposure indicated) Post-event (if exposure deemed likely) Consult the Occupational Health guidelines for medical surveillance details.

75 Spills and Emergency Response – Injuries and Health Emergencies
Medical attention can be obtained at the following locations for personal injuries and health emergencies: Occupational Health Services (MS) Workforce Health & Safety (CUMC) Student Health Service NYPH Emergency Room

76 Spills and Emergency Response – Unmanageable Spills

77 Spills and Emergency Response – Manageable Spills
Contents of a Spill Kit Absorbent material Pads or powders Activated carbon for organic solvents Vermiculate or kitty litter Neutralizing agents Acid – Sodium bicarbonate Base - Citric acid

78 Spills and Emergency Response – Manageable Spills
Hazard-specific spill kits Formaldehyde Mercury Radiation Hydrofluoric Acid

79 Wall Guide

80 Spills and Emergency Response – Manageable Spills

81 Remember…. Red bags are for regulated medical waste (gloves, petri dishes and tubes) not for chemical spill debris!

82 24 hrs to log into Rascal Notes can be found:

83 Please click the link and fill out evaluation sheet. Start Evaluation

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