2 Agenda Laboratory Safety —Regulatory Introduction –Hazard Recognition Physical Chemical –Exposure Management Engineering Controls Administrative Controls –Material Segregation and Management Personal Protective Equipment –Fire Safety and Procedures –Spills and Emergency Response Hazardous Waste Management
3 Regulatory Introduction Columbia University laboratories must comply with rules set by the following regulatory bodies: New York City –Fire Department (FDNY) –Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) New York State –Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) Federal –Department of Labor: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) –United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
4 Peroxide-Forming Chemicals Must be dated immediately upon opening Discard any unused chemicals within a year of opening date Ethers, THF and dioxanes New York City Fire Department
5 New York City Fire Department Compressed gas cylinders Stored upright and restrained. Oxygen cylinders should be kept at a minimum of 25 feet away from flammable gas cylinders. i.e. hydrogen
6 New York City Fire Department Flammables in Refrigerators Flammable chemicals must be stored in a “Flammable Material Storage” or “Explosion Proof” refrigerator Domestic refrigerators located in labs are labeled “Store No Flammables Flashing below 100 F”.
7 New York City Fire Department Chemical containers must be Clearly and Visibly labeled to indicate their contents at all times.
8 Certificate of Fitness Program At least one C of F holder is required per lab while the laboratory is in operation (includes nights & weekends). –holder knows emergency procedures in the event of a fire in the lab. –Labs with large amounts of compressed gases or cryogenics may require additional Certificates. –Contact EH&S for information on obtaining a C of F. New York City Fire Department
9 The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulates workplace health and safety OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR ) : –Information on hazard identification and protection –Information on chemical exposure, detection, and management –Emergency procedures –Employers’ and employees’ rights and responsibilities
10 Hazard Recognition “The employer shall provide employees with information and training to ensure that they are apprised of the hazards of chemicals present in their work area.” 29CFR –Safety and hazard information is available from multiple sources.
11 Hazard Recognition Sources of hazard information: USDOT (Department of Transportation) Diamonds NFPA (National Fire Prevention Association) Diamonds Manufacturers’ labels Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Office of Environmental Health & Radiation Safety/ Environmental Health & Safety
12 Hazard Recognition Chemicals are often marked with the NFPA Diamond or similar hazardous communication markings to denote their hazards. Note the hazards as listed on chemical containers in your lab prior to using them.
13 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Shipped with all chemicals –All safety information exposure limits precautions for safe handling and use other hazard information Must be accessible (paper copy or via internet) in the lab for all chemicals present.
14 Hazard Recognition -Physical & Chemical Hazards Awareness of the potential risk Knowledge about the hazard Precautions and protective measures –Burns –Asphyxiation –Slips, Trips, Falls –Electrocution –Blunt Force Trauma, Lacerations –Compressed Gas and Cryogenic Hazards –Flammability –Corrosivity –Toxicity –Reactivity
15 Oxygen Alarms Oxygen alarms are used where large amounts of cryogenics or inert gases are stored, which can potentially cause asphyxiation by displacing oxygen. DO NOT ENTER any area where an oxygen alarm is going off. Asphyxiation can be rapid and sudden, with no warning signs. Rescues must be performed by someone with a supplied air respirator. If it is possible to open doors/windows to ventilate area without entering, do so.
16 DANGER If you hear Alarm, DO NOT ENTER; Call Public Safety During Work hours also call EH&S POTENTIAL OXYGEN DEFICIENCY HAZARD If Alarm is Activated Assume alarm activation to be valid Evacuate all workers in room and close the door Call Public Safety immediately; also PI and EH&S Be prepared to provide information to responders DO NOT Enter the room DO NOT Attempt to rescue anyone, as asphyxiation can be rapid with no warning signs DO NOT Open door within first hour after the alarm has stopped sounding Do NOT attempt to repair a faulty sensor. Report it to TechAir ( ) or EH&S. Review Columbia University policy (www.ehs.columbia.edu/OxygenDeficiency).
17 What type of refrigerator is required for storage of flammable chemicals? Peroxide forming chemicals must be upon opening. Questions
18 Hazard Recognition What does the blue part of the NFPA diamond signify?
19 Exposure Management - Chemical Routes of Entry Inhalation Absorption Injection Ingestion
20 A common route of chemical exposure is ingestion due to contaminated food or hands. Chemical Routes of Entry
21 Chemical Exposure – Health Effects Acute effects – sudden, traumatic effects –Headaches, dizziness, burns from corrosive chemicals Chronic effects – slow, gradual effects not rapidly perceived; poor or no warnings of exposure –Cancer, mutation, reproductive effects
22 Chemical Exposure - Exposure Limits Risk = Exposure x Hazard –Toxic effects can be minimized by keeping exposures to a minimum. Acceptable limits of exposure
23 Question Eating or drinking in a laboratory is strictly prohibited but acceptable in other areas where toxic/harmful chemicals are stored? FALSE
24 Exposure Management Hierarchy of control measures to minimize risk. Reduce time or amount of exposure, or alter nature of exposure. –Engineering controls –Administrative controls –Personal protective equipment (PPE)
25 Engineering Controls - Chemical Fume hoods Reduce exposure to airborne hazards. Ensure that your fume hood is: Free of clutter lfm ‘Kim-wipe test’ Not open more than 12”
26 Chemical Fume hoods
27 Engineering Controls – Chemical Fume Hoods
28 Alter work practices: Chemical substitution Proper storage and segregation of hazardous materials Proper housekeeping practice Prudent inventory and purchase order management Appropriate training and Right to Know information (such as MSDS) Exposure Management - Administrative Controls
29 Administrative Controls – Chemical Substitution Less hazardous alternatives Citrosolv v. xylene Enzymatic detergents v. chromic/sulfuric acid-based glass cleaners SYBR Safe v. ethidium bromide
30 Administrative Controls – Chemical Substitution Mercury is a TOXIC metal. Clean-up is time and resource-intensive.
31 Administrative Controls - Chemical Storage Proper chemical storage reduces exposure risk. Segregation –Hazard Class –Incompatibles –deep spill bins or separate cabinets Labeling –All containers, including reaction vessels.
32 Administrative Controls - Chemical Storage Consider the following: Compatibility container and cabinet with chemicals Proximity chemicals, incompatible materials, heat, or open flame
33 What is wrong with this?
34 What is wrong with this?
35 Administrative Controls – Chemical Storage (Flammables) Allowable limit of flammable materials. Determined by construction materials and presence of sprinklers. –4 Lab types: I, II, III, IV –Flammable limits of 30, 25, 20, 15 gallons, respectively –Flammable waste materials count toward these limits
36 Administrative Controls – Chemical Storage (Flammables) Explosion-proof or intrinsically-safe refrigerators
37 Administrative Controls - Housekeeping Do not: block exits, aisles, or doorways. block access to emergency equipment. store chemicals in excess of lab’s limts. store chemical containers on the floor. Poor housekeeping contributes to accidents and can hinder emergency response activities.
38 What is wrong with this?
39 What is wrong with this? Labeling Exposed Sharps Objects Open Bottle Open Sash Not Properly Managed
40 What is wrong with this? Poor housekeeping Excess chemical on the workbench
41 Administrative Controls - Inventory Management Purchase order management Smallest quantity sufficient for your work Utilize ‘just in time’ delivery Excess chemicals become Hazardous Waste Updated chemical inventory Dispose of all outdated or unused chemicals properly and promptly.
43 Personal Protective Equipment - Eye Protection Determined by risk factors Safety glasses provide basic protection must be worn when handling hazardous materials. Safety goggles splash hazards or highly corrosive materials Laser goggles wavelength-specific protection, with opaque non-lens components to protect the face.
44 Personal Protective Equipment - Hand Protection No one glove protects against all chemicals. Consult manufacturers’ guides Never re-use Change frequently contaminated or torn
45 Personal Protective Equipment - Hand Protection DO NOT TOUCH DOOR KNOBS OR ELEVATOR BUTTONS
46 Personal Protective Equipment - Lab coats Limited but critical protection from chemical splashes. Small (i.e., research sized) quantities of hazardous chemicals. Dispose or launder if heavily contaminated Keep coat buttoned to prevent entanglement in moving equipment.
47 What do you wear when you work in the lab?
48 Test weekly and keep a log. Don’t wait for an emergency! Safety Equipment
49 Safety Equipment
50 Questions How often should an eyewash be tested? Personal protective equipment should be worn in and outside the laboratory: True or False?
51 Fire Safety Staff John LaPerche Fire Safety Officer Edward Moran Fire Safety Assistant Environmental Health & Safety
52 Fire Safety In Case of Fire: RACE & PASS Rescue Alarm Confine Extinguish FIRE SAFETY In Case of Fire: Rescue Alarm Confine Extinguish To use Fire Extinguisher: Pull Pin Aim Hose Squeeze Handle Sweep From Side to Side
53 RESCUE Not just yourself! People with special needs People in immediate area
54 ALARM Alarm (Manual Station) –Located by exits Dial Notify occupants as you leave Give all information to security/Fire Dept.
55 CONFINE Close all doors/windows as you leave. Turn off source of ignition if possible Keep fire in room of origin
56 Laboratory Evacuation Procedures If possible: Turn off all equipment within reach that can be safely turned off. Close fume hood sash. Close open chemical containers.
57 Laboratory Evacuation Procedures Know location of fire exits. Use nearest stair. Move horizontally into an adjoining building
58 DO NOT USE ELEVATORS
59 EXTINGUISH Can you extinguish a fire ? Yes, a minor fire Waste paper basket, electrical outlet, small flammable spill, small oven, microwave
60 ABC Fire Extinguisher Class ‘A’ = Combustibles fires involving solids such as wood, paper, plastic Class ‘B’ = Flammable liquids such as alcohol, paint, oil. Class ‘C’ = Electrical equipment, Computers, Copiers.
61 Fire Extinguisher Use Use extinguisher if: -You are properly trained. -Fire is very small. Report the fire before attempting to extinguish. Maintain a clear path between you and the exit.
62 To Use Fire Extinguisher: Pull Pin Aim hose Squeeze Handle Sweep From Side to Side ammonium phosphate
63 To Use Fire Extinguisher:
64 If you catch on fire!
65 If you catch on fire! DO NOT RUN! Immediately call out for help Use - Emergency shower -Deluge hose -Fire Blanket -ABC Extinguisher Know location of these items
66 Certificate of Fitness At least one C of F holder is required, per laboratory unit while the laboratory is in operation. (includes nights, holidays & weekends)
67 Certificate of Fitness FDNY Requirements MS & PhD or MD degrees or BS – BA degree must have 2 years experience in a laboratory after receiving degree An English copy of your degree or transcripts must be presented. All paperwork, Photo and fees handled by EH&S staff
68 Oxygen Sensors
69 Cryogenic Liquids Certificate of Fitness (G-97) need for amounts over 60 Gallons. If currently have C-14 then go to –www.rascal.columbia.edu/www.rascal.columbia.edu/ –Testing Center/Safety Course –TC0084 –Storage and Use of Cryogenic
70 Questions ? Fire Safety Work or at Home Thank you Fire Life Safety
71 Spills and Emergency Response What would you do in the event of a spill?
72 Spills and Emergency Response Laboratory personnel must know what to do in case of an emergency. Personal Injury / Health Emergency Chemical Release –Unmanageable: Must only be handled by trained professionals. –Manageable: Can be handled by laboratory personnel using in-lab spill kit.
73 Spills and Emergency Response – Personal Contamination Remove contaminated clothing. Flush exposed area with tepid water for 15 minutes. If there are no visible burns, wash gently with soap and warm water. Obtain MSDS. Obtain medical attention, if necessary. Report the incident to your supervisor. File appropriate accident reports and notify EH&S.
74 Medical Surveillance Employees who work with hazardous chemicals shall be provided the opportunity to receive medical attention: –Post-exposure –Post-monitoring (if exposure indicated) –Post-event (if exposure deemed likely) Consult the Occupational Health guidelines for medical surveillance details.
75 Spills and Emergency Response – Injuries and Health Emergencies Medical attention can be obtained at the following locations for personal injuries and health emergencies: Occupational Health Services (MS) Workforce Health & Safety (CUMC) Student Health Service NYPH Emergency Room
76 Spills and Emergency Response – Unmanageable Spills STOP ALERT CONTAIN & EVACUATE NOTIFY EH&S Public Safety PI INFORMATION MEDICAL ATTENTION
77 Spills and Emergency Response – Manageable Spills Contents of a Spill Kit –Absorbent material Pads or powders Activated carbon for organic solvents Vermiculate or kitty litter –Neutralizing agents Acid – Sodium bicarbonate Base - Citric acid