1 Laboratory Safety & Hazardous Waste Training General lab safety training, lab specific training needed required by supervisor
2 Agenda Laboratory Safety Hazardous Waste Management Regulatory IntroductionHazard RecognitionPhysicalChemicalExposure ManagementEngineering ControlsAdministrative ControlsMaterial Segregation and ManagementPersonal Protective EquipmentFire Safety and ProceduresSpills and Emergency ResponseHazardous Waste Management
3 Regulatory Introduction Columbia University laboratories must comply with rules set by the following regulatory bodies:New York CityFire Department (FDNY)Department of Environmental Protection (DEP)New York StateDepartment of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC)FederalDepartment of Labor: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
4 New York City Fire Department Peroxide-Forming ChemicalsMust be dated immediatelyupon openingDiscard any unused chemicalswithin a year of opening dateEthers, THF and dioxanes
5 New York City Fire Department Compressed gas cylindersStored upright and restrained.Oxygen cylinders should be kept at a minimum of 25 feet away from flammable gas cylinders.i.e. hydrogen
6 New York City Fire Department Flammables in RefrigeratorsFlammable chemicals must be stored in a “Flammable Material Storage” or “Explosion Proof” refrigeratorDomestic refrigerators located in labs are labeled“Store No Flammables Flashing below 100 F”.
7 New York City Fire Department Chemical containers must be Clearly and Visibly labeled to indicate their contents at all times.
8 New York City Fire Department Certificate of Fitness ProgramAt least one C of F holder is required per lab while the laboratory is in operation (includes nights & weekends).holder knows emergency procedures in the event of a fire in the lab.Labs with large amounts of compressed gases or cryogenics may require additional Certificates.Contact EH&S for information on obtaining a C of F.
9 The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulates workplace health and safetyOSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR ) :Information on hazard identification and protectionInformation on chemical exposure, detection, and managementEmergency proceduresEmployers’ and employees’ rights and responsibilitiesis the specific regulation that applies to laboratory environments
10 Hazard Recognition“The employer shall provide employees with information and training to ensure that they are apprised of the hazards of chemicals present in their work area.” 29CFRSafety and hazard information is available from multiple sources.
11 Hazard Recognition Sources of hazard information: USDOT (Department of Transportation) DiamondsNFPA (National Fire Prevention Association) DiamondsManufacturers’ labelsMaterial Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)Office of Environmental Health & Radiation Safety/ Environmental Health & Safety
12 Hazard RecognitionChemicals are often marked with the NFPA Diamond or similar hazardous communication markings to denote their hazards.Note the hazards as listed on chemical containers in your lab prior to using them.
13 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Shipped with all chemicalsAll safety informationexposure limitsprecautions for safe handling and useother hazard informationMust be accessible (paper copy or via internet) in the lab for all chemicals present.
14 Hazard Recognition -Physical & Chemical Hazards Awareness of the potential riskKnowledge about the hazardPrecautions and protective measuresBurnsAsphyxiationSlips, Trips, FallsElectrocutionBlunt Force Trauma, LacerationsCompressed Gas and Cryogenic HazardsFlammabilityCorrosivityToxicityReactivityPhysical hazards may be present in laboratories and cover a wide range of concerns including the following:Cuts, Slips, Trips, and Falls. Broken glassware is a frequent cause of cuts in laboratories. Water on the floor, especially around sinks or ice dispensers may cause slips.Compressed GasesAlthough compressed gases may have chemical hazards associated with them, physical hazards include asphyxiation and rupture of the tank.Non-flammable CryogensLiquid nitrogen is the most widely used non-flammable cryogen. Such materials may cause tissue damage or asphyxiation in poorly ventilated areas. Liquid oxygen condensation in vacuum traps may cause explosion.High Pressure ReactionsEquipment failure can lead to explosion at pressures over one atmosphere.Vacuum WorkWork in vacuum lines and at subambient pressure includes the danger of glass breakage, implosion, and flying glass particles.Ultraviolet, Visible, and near-Infrared RadiationUse of lamps and lasers in the laboratory can cause substanitial eye damage.Radiofrequency and Microwave HazardsThese occur within the range of 10 kilohertz to 300,000 megahertz. Microwave ovens may cause super heating of liquids. Metals in ovens may cause arcing. Capping of vials in the oven can result in explosion from pressure build up.Electrical HazardsElectrical equipment usually found in laboratories have safety features incorporated into their design and construction, but these features should not be defeated. Electrical malfunctions can lead to electrical fires, and may also ignite flammable vapors.Magnetic FieldsNMR spectrometers and other instruments generate large magnetic fields. While the field strength fall off rapidly with distance, there is evidence that at fields above 50 to 100 gauss ferromagnetic objects moved too close to the magnet may become projectiles aimed at the magnet.
15 Oxygen AlarmsOxygen alarms are used where large amounts of cryogenics or inert gases are stored, which can potentially cause asphyxiation by displacing oxygen.DO NOT ENTER any area where an oxygen alarm is going off.Asphyxiation can be rapid and sudden, with no warning signs.Rescues must be performed by someone with a supplied air respirator.If it is possible to open doors/windows to ventilate area without entering, do so.
16 POTENTIAL OXYGEN DEFICIENCY HAZARD DANGER If you hear Alarm, DO NOT ENTER; Call Public Safety During Work hours also call EH&SPOTENTIAL OXYGEN DEFICIENCY HAZARDIf Alarm is ActivatedAssume alarm activation to be validEvacuate all workers in room and close the doorCall Public Safety immediately; also PI and EH&SBe prepared to provide information to respondersDO NOT Enter the roomDO NOT Attempt to rescue anyone, as asphyxiation can be rapid with no warning signsDO NOT Open door within first hour after the alarm has stopped soundingDo NOT attempt to repair a faulty sensor. Report it to TechAir ( ) or EH&S.Review Columbia University policy (www.ehs.columbia.edu/OxygenDeficiency).
17 Questions What type of refrigerator is required for storage of flammable chemicals?Peroxide forming chemicals must beupon opening.
18 Hazard RecognitionWhat does the blue part of the NFPA diamond signify?
19 Exposure Management - Chemical Routes of Entry InhalationAbsorptionInjectionIngestion
20 Chemical Routes of Entry A common route of chemical exposure is ingestion due to contaminated food or hands.
21 Chemical Exposure – Health Effects Acute effects – sudden, traumatic effectsHeadaches, dizziness, burns from corrosive chemicalsChronic effects – slow, gradual effects not rapidly perceived; poor or no warnings of exposureCancer, mutation, reproductive effects
22 Chemical Exposure - Exposure Limits Risk = Exposure x HazardToxic effects can be minimized by keeping exposures to a minimum.Acceptable limits of exposure
23 QuestionEating or drinking in a laboratory is strictly prohibited but acceptable in other areas where toxic/harmful chemicals are stored?FALSE
24 Exposure Management Hierarchy of control measures to minimize risk. Reduce time or amount of exposure, or alter nature of exposure.Engineering controlsAdministrative controlsPersonal protective equipment (PPE)Engineering controls are measures designed to prevent exposure to a harmful substance or hazard. The most common engineering controls are:Chemical Fume HoodsBiosafety Cabinets
25 Engineering Controls - Chemical Fume hoods Reduce exposure to airborne hazards.Ensure that your fume hood is:Free of clutterlfm‘Kim-wipe test’Not open more than 12”
28 Exposure Management - Administrative Controls Alter work practices:Chemical substitutionProper storage and segregation of hazardous materialsProper housekeeping practicePrudent inventory and purchase order managementAppropriate training and Right to Know information (such as MSDS)
29 Administrative Controls – Chemical Substitution Less hazardous alternativesCitrosolv v. xyleneEnzymatic detergents v. chromic/sulfuric acid-based glass cleanersSYBR Safe v. ethidium bromideAn effective way to reduce exposure to a hazardous material is to remove it from your work practice entirely. Consider the use of safer chemical alternatives when designing your experiments.
30 Administrative Controls – Chemical Substitution Mercury is a TOXIC metal. Clean-up is time and resource-intensive.
31 Administrative Controls - Chemical Storage Proper chemical storage reduces exposure risk.SegregationHazard ClassIncompatiblesdeep spill bins or separate cabinetsLabelingAll containers, including reaction vessels.
32 Administrative Controls - Chemical Storage Consider the following:Compatibilitycontainer and cabinet with chemicalsProximitychemicals, incompatible materials, heat, or open flame
35 Administrative Controls – Chemical Storage (Flammables) Allowable limit of flammable materials.Determined by construction materials and presence of sprinklers.4 Lab types: I, II, III, IVFlammable limits of 30, 25, 20, 15 gallons, respectivelyFlammable waste materials count toward these limits
36 Administrative Controls – Chemical Storage (Flammables) Explosion-proof or intrinsically-safe refrigerators
37 Administrative Controls - Housekeeping Poor housekeeping contributes to accidents and can hinder emergency response activities.Do not:block exits, aisles, or doorways.block access to emergency equipment.store chemicals in excess of lab’s limts.store chemical containers on the floor.
39 What is wrong with this? Clutter Open Sash Open Bottle Labeling Exposed Sharps ObjectsNot Properly Managed
40 What is wrong with this? Excess chemical on the workbench Poor housekeeping
41 Administrative Controls - Inventory Management Purchase order managementSmallest quantity sufficient for your workUtilize ‘just in time’ deliveryExcess chemicals become Hazardous WasteUpdated chemical inventoryDispose of all outdated or unused chemicals properly and promptly.present in the laboratory should be prepared, updated, and maintained in the laboratory.
43 Personal Protective Equipment - Eye Protection Determined by risk factorsSafety glasses provide basic protectionmust be worn when handling hazardous materials.Safety gogglessplash hazards or highly corrosive materialsLaser goggleswavelength-specific protection, with opaque non-lens components to protect the face.
44 Personal Protective Equipment - Hand Protection No one glove protects against all chemicals.Consult manufacturers’ guidesNever re-useChange frequentlycontaminated or torn
45 Personal Protective Equipment - Hand Protection DO NOT TOUCH DOOR KNOBS OR ELEVATOR BUTTONS
46 Personal Protective Equipment - Lab coats Limited but critical protection from chemical splashes.Small (i.e., research sized) quantities of hazardous chemicals.Dispose or launder if heavily contaminatedKeep coat buttoned to prevent entanglement in moving equipment.
50 Questions How often should an eyewash be tested? Personal protective equipment should be worn in and outside the laboratory: True or False?
51 Environmental Health & Safety www.ehrs.columbia.edu Fire Safety StaffJohn LaPercheFire Safety OfficerEdward MoranFire Safety AssistantEnvironmental Health & Safety
52 Fire Safety In Case of Fire: RACE & PASS Rescue Alarm Confine ExtinguishTo use Fire Extinguisher:Pull PinAim HoseSqueeze HandleSweep From Side to SideIn Case of Fire:RACE & PASSRescueAlarmConfineExtinguish
53 RESCUE Not just yourself! People with special needs People in immediate area
54 ALARM Alarm (Manual Station) Located by exits Dial 305-7979 Notify occupants as you leaveGive all information to security/Fire Dept.
55 CONFINE Close all doors/windows as you leave. Turn off source of ignition if possibleKeep fire in room of origin
56 Laboratory Evacuation Procedures If possible:Turn off all equipment within reach that can be safely turned off.Close fume hood sash.Close open chemical containers.
57 Laboratory Evacuation Procedures Know location of fire exits.Use nearest stair.Move horizontally into an adjoining building
65 If you catch on fire! Immediately call out for help Use DO NOT RUN!Immediately call out for helpUse- Emergency shower- Deluge hose- Fire Blanket- ABC ExtinguisherKnow location of these items
66 Certificate of Fitness At least one C of F holder is required, per laboratory unit while the laboratory is in operation. (includes nights, holidays & weekends)
67 Certificate of Fitness FDNY Requirements MS & PhD or MD degrees orBS – BA degree must have 2 years experience in a laboratory after receiving degreeAn English copy of your degree or transcripts must be presented.All paperwork, Photo and fees handled by EH&S staff
69 Cryogenic LiquidsCertificate of Fitness (G-97) need for amounts over 60 Gallons.If currently have C-14 then go toTesting Center/Safety CourseTC0084Storage and Use of Cryogenic
70 Fire Life Safety Questions ? Fire Safety Work or at Home 305-6780 Thank you
71 Spills and Emergency Response What would you doin the event of a spill?
72 Spills and Emergency Response Laboratory personnel must know what to do in case of an emergency.Personal Injury / Health EmergencyChemical ReleaseUnmanageable: Must only be handled by trained professionals.Manageable: Can be handled by laboratory personnel using in-lab spill kit.
73 Spills and Emergency Response – Personal Contamination Remove contaminated clothing.Flush exposed area with tepid water for 15 minutes.If there are no visible burns, wash gently with soap and warm water.Obtain MSDS.Obtain medical attention, if necessary.Report the incident to your supervisor. File appropriate accident reports and notify EH&S.Spills of hazardous materials that involve personal contamination increase the possibility of exposure, particularly if the chemical is capable of being absorbed through the skin.
74 Medical SurveillanceEmployees who work with hazardous chemicals shall be provided the opportunity to receive medical attention:Post-exposurePost-monitoring (if exposure indicated)Post-event (if exposure deemed likely)Consult the Occupational Health guidelines for medical surveillance details.
75 Spills and Emergency Response – Injuries and Health Emergencies Medical attention can be obtained at the following locations for personal injuries and health emergencies:Occupational Health Services (MS)Workforce Health & Safety (CUMC)Student Health ServiceNYPH Emergency Room
77 Spills and Emergency Response – Manageable Spills Contents of a Spill KitAbsorbent materialPads or powdersActivated carbon for organic solventsVermiculate or kitty litterNeutralizing agentsAcid – Sodium bicarbonateBase - Citric acid