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Fundamentals of Purity and Prayer

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1 Fundamentals of Purity and Prayer
Lecture 6 March 2, 2014

2 Tayammum

3 Verse of Tayammum “And if you are sick, or on a journey, or one of you comes from relieving himself, or you have touched (i.e. had relations with) women, and you do not find water, then go to pure ground and wipe your faces and your hands” (Quran 5:6)

4 When Tayammum is Permissible
Lack of water or access to water Within approximately 1 mile Fear of physical harm Extreme cold, sickness, injury or extreme thirst Fear of missing a Janazah or ‘Id prayer Because they have no replacement Tayammum can be used to lift both minor and major impurity

5 What Can Be Used for Tayammum
Tayammum can be performed with any pure earthy substance Dirt, sand, soil, rock, clay, brick, cement, marble, etc. Dust – any object with a layer of dust can be used Cannot be something which melts when heated (glass, gold, etc.), or turns to ash when burned (bones, leaves, grass, wood, etc.)

6 Fard of Tayammum Intention Wiping the entire face
Wiping both hands/arms Up to and including the elbows

7 Nullifiers of Tayammum
Tayammum is nullified by all those things with nullify wudu Also by the removal of one’s excuse for tayammum If one performs tayammum and prays, but later remembers he had water, or water becomes available before the end of prayer time, the prayer will not have to be repeated

8 Wiping Over Leather Socks

9 Permissibility of Wiping Over Socks
Numerous hadith mention the permissibility of wiping over leather socks These hadith are explicit in meaning and tawatur in transmission Sufficient to condition the Quranic verse commanding to wash the feet Almost all narrations use the Arabic word “khuff”, referring to leather socks Only 3 hadith mention wiping over “jawrab” (cloth socks) All 3 have either weak or questionable authenticity Insufficient to condition the Quranic verse

10 Conditions of Sock Only leather socks, or something equivalent, may be wiped Must not allow water to penetrate to the foot when wiping Must be strong enough that one can walk 3 miles in them without tearing Must be able to stay above the ankle on their own Must cover the foot up to and including the ankles Must not have holes equaling to the 3 smallest toes Seal Skinz and Dexshell waterproof socks fulfil these conditions

11 Conditions and Duration for Wiping
The socks must be worn after washing the feet After completing wudu One can wash feet, put socks on, then complete the wudu Wiping is permissible for both resident and traveler Resident may wipe for 1 day and night (24 hours) Traveler may wipe for 3 days and nights (72 hours) The duration begins from the breaking of one’s wudu Not from the time socks are worn or first wiping

12 How to Wipe Fard to wipe an area equivalent to 3 fingers
Can be done with a cloth or getting that area wet with water Wet the hand and, with fingers spread, start from toes and wipe upward toward the shin, once Not bottom

13 Nullifiers of Wiping Wiping is nullified by
Anything which breaks wudu One will have to make wudu and wipe socks again Expiration of the time of wiping Removal of either sock such that a majority of the foot comes out Penetration of water into the greater part of either sock If one is in state of wudu when removing socks, only needs to wash feet to remain in state of wudu

14 Wiping Over Wounds

15 Wiping Over Wounds and Bandages
If one has an injury or wound which cannot be washed Wipe over that area with a wet hand If the affected area is covered by a bandage or cast Wipe over a majority of the bandage or cast If one cannot even wipe the affected area Leave it If majority of body is wounded, or if advised to avoid water completely (by a righteous Muslim doctor) One may leave wudu/ghusl and perform tayammum If one wiped over a wound or bandage Will lose state of purity as soon as the wound heals

16 Purifying Impurities

17 Light and Heavy Impurities
Physical impurities fall into 2 categories: light and heavy Light impurity: Urine of halal animals Droppings of predatory birds (eagle, falcon, hawk, etc.) Droppings of non-predatory birds that fly (sparrow, pigeon, dove, etc.) are pure Droppings of non-predatory birds that do not fly (ducks, chickens, geese, turkeys and hens ) are considered heavy impurities Heavy impurity: Alcohol Pig (all its parts and derivatives) Saliva of dogs and predatory animals Urine of humans (and babies) and all haram animals Feces of all animals and humans Those substances which cause wudu to break (i.e. blood that has flowed, puss, vomit, sperm, etc.)

18 Effect of Impurities Liquid heavy impurity which is equal to the size of a dirham (about 5 cm) or more must be removed before praying Solid heavy impurity which is equal to the weight of a dirham (about 3.5 g) or more must be removed before praying Light impurity which soils ¼ or more of something must be removed before praying Prayer will not be considered valid with amounts equal to or greater than any of these impurities

19 Questions?

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