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Lending a Hand: Teaching Children with Autism to Give Assistance Summary of Reeve Reeve et al 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Lending a Hand: Teaching Children with Autism to Give Assistance Summary of Reeve Reeve et al 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lending a Hand: Teaching Children with Autism to Give Assistance Summary of Reeve Reeve et al 2007

2 Definition of Autism Autism is a neurological disorder that affects a person's ability to Autism is a neurological disorder that affects a person's ability to a) communicate (impairments in speech and language development) b) form relationships (qualitative impairment in social skills and interactions with others)*** c) respond appropriately to the environment (sensitivity to stimulation and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities) Onset typically before the age of three, which makes early and accurate diagnosis very important. Onset typically before the age of three, which makes early and accurate diagnosis very important. May affect as many as 1/150-200 individuals May affect as many as 1/150-200 individuals

3 Social Impairments of Autism Many children with autism exhibit severe and persistent deficits in social behavior (Baron-Cohen, Leslie, & Frith, 1985; Rutter, 1978; Volkmar, Carter, Sparrow, & Cicchetti, 1993; Wing, 1988). Examples include: inappropriate affect (emotional displays) inappropriate affect (emotional displays) absent or delayed social smile absent or delayed social smile absent or delayed eye contact absent or delayed eye contact social isolation social isolation failing to initiate to peers and/or adults failing to initiate to peers and/or adults **pro-social behavior (see next slide) **pro-social behavior (see next slide)

4 Definition of Prosocial Behavior Any act intending to benefit another, such as responses associated with: Any act intending to benefit another, such as responses associated with: helping helping cooperating cooperating sharing sharing turn-taking turn-taking exhibiting empathy, and/or sympathy exhibiting empathy, and/or sympathy Observed in children of typical development as early as 1 ½ to 3 years of age (but often absent in children with autism) Observed in children of typical development as early as 1 ½ to 3 years of age (but often absent in children with autism) (Eisenberg & Fabes, 1998; Rheingold & Hay, 1980)

5 Negative Outcomes of Prosocial Behavior Deficit Parents, peers, and teachers may be discouraged from attempting to interact with the child Parents, peers, and teachers may be discouraged from attempting to interact with the child In fact, peers often reject children who exhibit low levels of prosocial behavior (Vitaro, Gagnon, & Tremblay, 1990) In fact, peers often reject children who exhibit low levels of prosocial behavior (Vitaro, Gagnon, & Tremblay, 1990) Further reduces the opportunities for learning (Lovaas, Koegel, Simmons, & Long, 1973). Further reduces the opportunities for learning (Lovaas, Koegel, Simmons, & Long, 1973).

6 Positive Outcomes of Prosocial Behavior Proficiency Children who engage in appropriate prosocial behavior: Children who engage in appropriate prosocial behavior: (a) tend to be viewed by adults as more socially competent (Eisenberg, Fabes, Karbon, Murphy, Wosinski, Polazzi, Carlo, & Juhnke, 1996; Peterson, Ridley-Johnson, & Carter, 1984) (a) tend to be viewed by adults as more socially competent (Eisenberg, Fabes, Karbon, Murphy, Wosinski, Polazzi, Carlo, & Juhnke, 1996; Peterson, Ridley-Johnson, & Carter, 1984) (b) are more likely to frequently engage in positive and cooperative social interactions with peers (Dunn & Munn, 1986; Farver & Branstetter, 1994) (b) are more likely to frequently engage in positive and cooperative social interactions with peers (Dunn & Munn, 1986; Farver & Branstetter, 1994) (c) are more likely to have strong peer friendships (Coie, Dodge, & Kupersmidt, 1990; Farver & Branstetter, 1994) (c) are more likely to have strong peer friendships (Coie, Dodge, & Kupersmidt, 1990; Farver & Branstetter, 1994)

7 Prior Research to Teach Prosocial Behavior to Children with Autism A number of studies have taught prosocial behavior but the behavior failed to generalize beyond teaching conditions, or showed minimal generalization (Charlop & Walsh, 1986; Harris, Handleman, & Alessandri, 1990; Kamps, Leonard, Vernon, Dugan, Delquadri, Gershon, Wade, & Folk, 1992; Kohler, Strain, Hoyson, Davis, Donina, & Rapp, 1995; Strain, Kerr, & Ragland, 1979) A number of studies have taught prosocial behavior but the behavior failed to generalize beyond teaching conditions, or showed minimal generalization (Charlop & Walsh, 1986; Harris, Handleman, & Alessandri, 1990; Kamps, Leonard, Vernon, Dugan, Delquadri, Gershon, Wade, & Folk, 1992; Kohler, Strain, Hoyson, Davis, Donina, & Rapp, 1995; Strain, Kerr, & Ragland, 1979) Strategies included instruction, peer models, a small number of examples, and reinforcement Strategies included instruction, peer models, a small number of examples, and reinforcement Failure to generalize reduces functionality of the skill Failure to generalize reduces functionality of the skill

8 Purpose of the Present Study To determine the extent to which children with autism can learn to engage in prosocial responses, in this case, behavior commonly labeled as helping. To determine the extent to which children with autism can learn to engage in prosocial responses, in this case, behavior commonly labeled as helping. To determine the extent to which helping responses generalize from training to novel situations in which there is an opportunity to engage in helping behavior. To determine the extent to which helping responses generalize from training to novel situations in which there is an opportunity to engage in helping behavior.

9 Strategies to Increase Learning Increasing salience of stimuli Increasing salience of stimuli Use of prompting Use of prompting Use of reinforcement Use of reinforcement Use of correction procedure Use of correction procedure

10 Strategies to Increase Generalization Use of video modeling Use of video modeling (Charlop, Schreibman, & Tyron, 1983; Haring, Kennedy, Adams, & Pitts-Conway, 1987) Teaching multiple exemplars of the target behavior using common stimuli Teaching multiple exemplars of the target behavior using common stimuli (Stokes & Baer, 1977)

11 Participants & Settings Four children with autism (Irene, Tom, Eddie, and Nathan) who attended classes at the Institute for Educational Achievement (IEA). Four children with autism (Irene, Tom, Eddie, and Nathan) who attended classes at the Institute for Educational Achievement (IEA). Most experimental sessions took place in a small classroom at IEA. Approximately once every week, sessions were conducted in the staff room at IEA. Most experimental sessions took place in a small classroom at IEA. Approximately once every week, sessions were conducted in the staff room at IEA.

12 Categories of “ Helping ” Cleaning Cleaning Replacing Broken Materials Replacing Broken Materials Picking Up Objects Picking Up Objects Sorting Materials Sorting Materials Locating Objects Locating Objects Carrying Objects Carrying Objects Putting Items Away Putting Items Away Setting Up an Activity Setting Up an Activity

13 Category Structure Response Category General Description Nonverbal S D Verbal S D Verbal Response (dependent measure) MotorResponse Cleaning adult wipes messy surfaces 1. Wiping a black board 2. Wiping a wipe-off board 3. Wiping a desk 4. Wiping a chair 5. Wiping a table 1. “Oh, time to clean the black board.” 2. “Boy, how did this get messy?” 2. “Boy, how did this get messy?” 3. “Oops, I have to clean this desk.” 4. “Uh oh, what a dirty chair.” 4. “Uh oh, what a dirty chair.” 5. “Wow, this table is messy.” 5. “Wow, this table is messy.” “May I help?” 1. Wiping a black board 2. Wiping a wipe off board 3. Wiping a desk 4. Wiping a chair 5. Wiping a table

14 Categories for Each Child Irene Tom EddieNathan TrainedCategoriesLocatingCarrying Putting Away Setting Up CleaningReplacing Picking Up Sorting Putting Away Setting Up CleaningReplacing Picking Up SortingLocatingCarrying Non- trained Categories(Probes)CleaningReplacingLocatingCarrying Picking Up Sorting Putting Away Setting Up

15 Assignment of Trials (for Tom) Category Non-Verbal Stimuli for Training Trials Within Category Probe Trials CleaningWiping: 1. backboard 2. wipe-off 3. Desk 4. Chair 1. backboard 2. wipe-off 3. Desk 4. ChairWiping: 1. Table 1. Table Replacing Broken Materials Replacing broken or torn 5. Paintbrushes 6. Forks 7. Pencils 8. Crayons 5. Paintbrushes 6. Forks 7. Pencils 8. CrayonsReplacing: 2. Paper 2. Paper Picking up Objects Picking up: 9. Paper clips 10. Money 11. LM 12. Pict cards 9. Paper clips 10. Money 11. LM 12. Pict cards Picking up 3 Comp Disks 3 Comp Disks Sorting Materials Sorting: 13. Scissors/glue 14. markers 15. sticks 16. Utensils 13. Scissors/glue 14. markers 15. sticks 16. UtensilsSorting 4. paper/brush 4. paper/brush Across-Category Probe Trials Locate Objects Locating 5. Puzzle piece 5. Puzzle piece Carry Objects Carrying 6. See & says 6. See & says

16 Baseline & Treatment Trials Baseline Baseline Both training and probe trials presented Both training and probe trials presented Neither trial type associated with treatment or reinforcement Neither trial type associated with treatment or reinforcement Token reinforcement and verbal praise provided only for on-task behavior Token reinforcement and verbal praise provided only for on-task behavior Treatment Treatment Both training and probe trials presented Both training and probe trials presented Training trials associated with treatment Training trials associated with treatment Probe trials not associated with treatment Probe trials not associated with treatment

17 Error-Correction Procedure Presentation of Live Discriminative Stimuli (non-verbal & verbal)  Incorrect Verbal and/or Motor Response by child  Presentation of Video Model  Re-presentation of Live Discriminative Stimuli  Incorrect Verbal and/or Motor Response by child  Presentation of Motor and/or Verbal Prompts  Re-presentation of Live Discriminative Stimuli  Correct Verbal and Motor Responses by child Reinforcement (token + praise) (token + praise)

18 Additional Strategies Used to Promote Generalization Treatment sessions were conducted once every eight sessions in the staff room (not the typical experimental session room) Treatment sessions were conducted once every eight sessions in the staff room (not the typical experimental session room) Treatment sessions were conducted once every 10 sessions by a secondary experimenter (not the primary experimenter) Treatment sessions were conducted once every 10 sessions by a secondary experimenter (not the primary experimenter)

19 Pre- and Post-Intervention Measures For each child, three pre-intervention sessions were conducted before treatment was introduced. For each child, three pre-intervention sessions were conducted before treatment was introduced. Three post-intervention sessions were conducted after all participants had achieved mastery criterion. Three post-intervention sessions were conducted after all participants had achieved mastery criterion. Combination of novel trials, probe trials, and training trial types Combination of novel trials, probe trials, and training trial types Conducted in the child’s regular school classroom (not the experimental setting) with their regular school instructor (not the experimenter). Conducted in the child’s regular school classroom (not the experimental setting) with their regular school instructor (not the experimenter).

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21 Mean Percentage of Correct Helping Responses Across Pre- and Post-Intervention Measures (Combination of Trial Types in Child’s Regular Classroom with their Regular Instructor) Pre- Intervention Post- Intervention Irene0100.0 Tom0 95.6 95.6 Eddie0 97.4 97.4 Nathan0 96.5 96.5

22 Conclusions Systematic application of multiple exemplar training using video modeling, prompting, and reinforcement taught children to use helping responses in training and novel situations Systematic application of multiple exemplar training using video modeling, prompting, and reinforcement taught children to use helping responses in training and novel situations Children demonstrated a generalized repertoire of helping behavior. They responded with appropriate helping behavior in the presence of discriminative stimuli from novel trials, from novel categories of helping, in novel settings, and in the presence of novel persons. Children demonstrated a generalized repertoire of helping behavior. They responded with appropriate helping behavior in the presence of discriminative stimuli from novel trials, from novel categories of helping, in novel settings, and in the presence of novel persons. Programs for children with autism should include training in prosocial behavior. Such training should lead to increased opportunities for learning. Programs for children with autism should include training in prosocial behavior. Such training should lead to increased opportunities for learning.

23 Percentage of Trials in Which Video Presentation Occasioned a Correct Helping Response on Subsequent Presentation of the Discriminative Stimuli Treatment Session 12345678910 Irene4650-100100100--100100 Tom678033750-7550-100 Eddie401000100-100---100 Nathan67758310050----100 Note: dashes indicate a child emitted no errors during that session


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